Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1709

Search results for: cumulative organ dose

1709 The Analysis of Personalized Low-Dose Computed Tomography Protocol Based on Cumulative Effective Radiation Dose and Cumulative Organ Dose for Patients with Breast Cancer with Regular Chest Computed Tomography Follow up

Authors: Okhee Woo


Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2-year cumulative effective radiation dose and cumulative organ dose on regular follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with breast cancer and to establish personalized low-dose CT protocol. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on the patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed and managed consistently on the basis of routine breast cancer follow-up protocol between 2012-01 and 2016-06. Based on ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) 103, the cumulative effective radiation doses of each patient for 2-year follow-up were analyzed using the commercial radiation management software (Radimetrics, Bayer healthcare). The personalized effective doses on each organ were analyzed in detail by the software-providing Monte Carlo simulation. Results: A total of 3822 CT scans on 490 patients was evaluated (age: 52.32±10.69). The mean scan number for each patient was 7.8±4.54. Each patient was exposed 95.54±63.24 mSv of radiation for 2 years. The cumulative CT radiation dose was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.00). The HER-2 positive patients were more exposed to radiation compared to estrogen or progesterone receptor positive patient (p = 0.00). There was no difference in the cumulative effective radiation dose with different age groups. Conclusion: To acknowledge how much radiation exposed to a patient is a starting point of management of radiation exposure for patients with long-term CT follow-up. The precise and personalized protocol, as well as iterative reconstruction, may reduce hazard from unnecessary radiation exposure.

Keywords: computed tomography, breast cancer, effective radiation dose, cumulative organ dose

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1708 Organ Dose Calculator for Fetus Undergoing Computed Tomography

Authors: Choonsik Lee, Les Folio


Pregnant patients may undergo CT in emergencies unrelated with pregnancy, and potential risk to the developing fetus is of concern. It is critical to accurately estimate fetal organ doses in CT scans. We developed a fetal organ dose calculation tool using pregnancy-specific computational phantoms combined with Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques. We adopted a series of pregnancy computational phantoms developed at the University of Florida at the gestational ages of 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 38 weeks (Maynard et al. 2011). More than 30 organs and tissues and 20 skeletal sites are defined in each fetus model. We calculated fetal organ dose-normalized by CTDIvol to derive organ dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) for the eight fetuses for consequential slice locations ranging from the top to the bottom of the pregnancy phantoms with 1 cm slice thickness. Organ dose from helical scans was approximated by the summation of doses from multiple axial slices included in the given scan range of interest. We then compared dose conversion coefficients for major fetal organs in the abdominal-pelvis CT scan of pregnancy phantoms with the uterine dose of a non-pregnant adult female computational phantom. A comprehensive library of organ conversion coefficients was established for the eight developing fetuses undergoing CT. They were implemented into an in-house graphical user interface-based computer program for convenient estimation of fetal organ doses by inputting CT technical parameters as well as the age of the fetus. We found that the esophagus received the least dose, whereas the kidneys received the greatest dose in all fetuses in AP scans of the pregnancy phantoms. We also found that when the uterine dose of a non-pregnant adult female phantom is used as a surrogate for fetal organ doses, root-mean-square-error ranged from 0.08 mGy (8 weeks) to 0.38 mGy (38 weeks). The uterine dose was up to 1.7-fold greater than the esophagus dose of the 38-week fetus model. The calculation tool should be useful in cases requiring fetal organ dose in emergency CT scans as well as patient dose monitoring.

Keywords: computed tomography, fetal dose, pregnant women, radiation dose

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1707 Occupational Cumulative Effective Doses of Radiation Workers in Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar

Authors: Omar Bobes, Abeer Al-Attar, Mohammad Hassan Kharita, Huda Al-Naemi


The number of radiological examinations has increased steadily in recent years. As a result, the risk of possible radiation-induced consequential damage also increases through continuous, lifelong, and increasing exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, radiation dose monitoring in medicine became an essential element of medical practice. In this study, the occupational cumulative doses for radiation workers in Hamad medical corporation in Qatar have been assessed for a period of five years. The number of monitored workers selected for this study was 555 (out of a total of 1250 monitored workers) who have been working continuously -with no interruption- with ionizing radiation over the past five years from 2015 to 2019. The aim of this work is to examine the occupational groups and the activities where the higher radiation exposure occurred and in what order of magnitude. The most exposed group was the nuclear medicine technologist staff, with an average cumulative dose of 8.4 mSv. The highest individual cumulative dose was 9.8 mSv recorded for the PET-CT technologist category.

Keywords: cumulative dose, effective dose, monitoring, occupational exposure, dosimetry

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1706 Preliminary Dosimetric Evaluation of Two New 153Sm Bone Pain Palliative Agents

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, N. Amraee, Z. Naseri, Ar. Jalilian


The purpose of this study was to calculate the absorbed dose to each human organ for two new Sm-153 bone-seeking agents in order to evaluate their effectiveness in bone pain palliation therapy. In this work, the absorbed dose of 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP to each human organ was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats by radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. The highest absorbed dose for 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP is observed in trabecular bone with 1.844 and 3.167 mGy/MBq, respectively. Bone/red marrow dose ratio, as the target/critical organ dose ratio, for 153Sm-PDTMP is greater than 153Sm-TTHMP and is compatible with 153Sm-EDTMP. The results showed that these bone-seeking agents, specially 153Sm-PDTMP, have considerable characteristics compared to the most clinically used bone pain palliative radiopharmaceutical, and therefore, can be good candidates for bone pain palliation in patients with bone metastasis; however, further biological studies in other mammals are still needed.

Keywords: internal dosimetry, PDTMP, 153Sm, TTHMP

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1705 Determination of Critical Organ Doses for Liver Scintigraphy Using Cr-51

Authors: O. Maranci, A. B. Tugrul


Scintigraphy is an imaging method of nuclear events provoked by collisions or charged current interactions with radiation. It is used for diagnostic test used in nuclear medicine via radiopharmaceuticals emitting radiation which is captured by gamma cameras to form two-dimensional images. Liver scintigraphy is widely used in nuclear medicine.Tc-99m and Cr-51 gamma radioisotopes can be used for this purpose. Cr-51 usage is more important for patients’ organ dose that has higher energy and longer half-life as compared to Tc-99m. In this study, it is aimed to determine the required dose for critical organs of patient through liver scintigraphy via Cr-51 gamma radioisotope. Experimental studies were conducted on patients even though conducting experimental studies on patients is extremely difficult for determination of critical organ doses. Torso phantom was utilized to simulate the liver scintigraphy by using 20 mini packages of Cr-51 that were placed on the organ. The radioisotope was produced by irradiation in central thimble of TRIGA MARK II Reactor at 250 KW power. As the results of the study, critical organ doses were determined and evaluated with different critic organs.

Keywords: critical organ doses, liver, scintigraphy, TRIGA Mark-II

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1704 In vivo Anticandida Activity of Three Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in East Africa

Authors: Daniel P. Kisangau, Ken M. Hosea, Herbert V. M. Lyaruu, Cosam C. Josep, Zakaria H. Mbwambo, Pax J. Masimba


Crude extracts of Dracaena steudneri bark (DSB), Sapium ellipticum bark (SEB) and Capparis erythrocarpos root (CER) were investigated for their antifungal activity in immunocompromised mice infected with Candida albicans in an in vivo mice infection model. The results revealed a substantial dose dependency in all treatments given, with mice survival to the end of the experiment correlating well to the dose levels. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, C. erythrocarpos was the most effective with mice survival of 60% and organ burden clearance ranging from 64.0%-99.9% (P<0.0001) in all treatments. At the same dose, the least effective plant was S. ellipticum which had a mice survival of 20% and organ burden clearance ranging from 78.0%-96.6 (P>0.05). Mice survival for D. steudneri was 30% with organ burden clearance ranging from 89.0%-99.9% (P<0.05). All mice receiving no active treatment died before ten days post infection. In all treatment groups, there was a steady decline in mean weights of mice immediately after immunosuppression followed by gradual recovery in some cases which appeared to be dose dependent a few days post infection. Thus, extracts of D. steudneri and C. erythrocarpos portrayed the most significant potential as sources of antifungal drugs.

Keywords: antifungal activity, medicinal plants, candida albicans, East Africa

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1703 Calculation of Organ Dose for Adult and Pediatric Patients Undergoing Computed Tomography Examinations: A Software Comparison

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Naima Oubenali, Safoin Aktaou, Thibault Julien, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul


Introduction: The increased number of performed 'Computed Tomography (CT)' examinations raise public concerns regarding associated stochastic risk to patients. In its Publication 102, the ‘International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)’ emphasized the importance of managing patient dose, particularly from repeated or multiple examinations. We developed a Dose Archiving and Communication System that gives multiple dose indexes (organ dose, effective dose, and skin-dose mapping) for patients undergoing radiological imaging exams. The aim of this study is to compare the organ dose values given by our software for patients undergoing CT exams with those of another software named "VirtualDose". Materials and methods: Our software uses Monte Carlo simulations to calculate organ doses for patients undergoing computed tomography examinations. The general calculation principle consists to simulate: (1) the scanner machine with all its technical specifications and associated irradiation cases (kVp, field collimation, mAs, pitch ...) (2) detailed geometric and compositional information of dozens of well identified organs of computational hybrid phantoms that contain the necessary anatomical data. The mass as well as the elemental composition of the tissues and organs that constitute our phantoms correspond to the recommendations of the international organizations (namely the ICRP and the ICRU). Their body dimensions correspond to reference data developed in the United States. Simulated data was verified by clinical measurement. To perform the comparison, 270 adult patients and 150 pediatric patients were used, whose data corresponds to exams carried out in France hospital centers. The comparison dataset of adult patients includes adult males and females for three different scanner machines and three different acquisition protocols (Head, Chest, and Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis). The comparison sample of pediatric patients includes the exams of thirty patients for each of the following age groups: new born, 1-2 years, 3-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13-16 years. The comparison for pediatric patients were performed on the “Head” protocol. The percentage of the dose difference were calculated for organs receiving a significant dose according to the acquisition protocol (80% of the maximal dose). Results: Adult patients: for organs that are completely covered by the scan range, the maximum percentage of dose difference between the two software is 27 %. However, there are three organs situated at the edges of the scan range that show a slightly higher dose difference. Pediatric patients: the percentage of dose difference between the two software does not exceed 30%. These dose differences may be due to the use of two different generations of hybrid phantoms by the two software. Conclusion: This study shows that our software provides a reliable dosimetric information for patients undergoing Computed Tomography exams.

Keywords: adult and pediatric patients, computed tomography, organ dose calculation, software comparison

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1702 Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, Y. Chiang


In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).

Keywords: RADionuclide, transport, removal, and dose estimation (RADTRAD), symbolic nuclear analysis package (SNAP), dose, PWR

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1701 The Dose to Organs in Lumbar-Abdominal Computed Tomography Imaging Using TLD

Authors: M. Zehtabian, Z. Molaiemanesh, Z. Shafahi, M. Papie, M. Zahraie Moghaddam, M. Mehralizadeh, M. R. Vahidi, S. Sina


The introduction of CT scans has been a great improvement in diagnosis of different diseases. However, this imaging modality can expose the patients to cumulative radiation doses which may increase the risks of some health problems like cancer. In this study, the dose delivered to different organs in lumbar-abdominal imaging was measured by putting the TLD-100, and TLD-100H chips inside the Alderson Rando phantom. The lumbar-abdominal image of the phantom was obtained, while TLD chips were inside the holes of the phantom. According to the results obtained in this study using TLD-100 chips, the average dose received by liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.9 mSv, 8.9 mSv, 10.1 mSv, 11.0 mSv, 11.2 mSv, and 10.5 mSv respectively, while the measurements performed by TLD-100H show that the average dose to liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.4 mSv, 9.2 mSv, 9.5 mSv, 10.5 mSv, 10.7 mSv, and 9.9 mSv respectively. The results of this study indicates that the dose measured by the TLD-100H chips are in close agreement with those obtained by TLD-100.

Keywords: CT scan, dose, TLD-100, diagnosis

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1700 Calculation of Organs Radiation Dose in Cervical Carcinoma External Irradiation Beam Using Day’s Methods

Authors: Yousif M. Yousif Abdallah, Mohamed E. Gar-Elnabi, Abdoelrahman H. A. Bakary, Alaa M. H. Eltoum, Abdelazeem K. M. Ali


The study was established to measure the amount of radiation outside the treatment field in external beam radiation therapy using day method of dose calculation, the data was collected from 89 patients of cervical carcinoma in order to determine if the dose outside side the irradiation treatment field for spleen, liver, both kidneys, small bowel, large colon, skin within the acceptable limit or not. The cervical field included mainly 4 organs which are bladder, rectum part of small bowel and hip joint these organ received mean dose of (4781.987±281.321), (4736.91±331.8), (4647.64±387.1) and (4745.91±321.11) respectively. The mean dose received by outfield organs was (77.69±15.24cGy) to large colon, (93.079±12.31cGy) to right kidney (80.688±12.644cGy) to skin, (155.86±17.69cGy) to small bowel. This was more significant value noted.

Keywords: radiation dose, cervical carcinoma, day’s methods, radiation medicine

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1699 A Comparison of TLD Measurements to MIRD Estimates of the Dose to the Ovaries and Uterus from Tc-99m in Liver

Authors: Karim Adinehvand, Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Amin Sahebnasagh


Relation to high absorption fraction of Tc SESTAMIBI by internal organs in heart scan, and these organs are near to generation organs (Ovaries and uterus). In this study, Liver is specified as source organ. Method: we have set amount of absorbed fraction radiopharmaceutical in position of Liver in RANDO-phantom in form of elliptical surfaces, then absorbed dose to ovaries and uterus measured by TLD-100 that had set at position of these organs in RANDO-phantom. Calculation had done by MIRD method. Results from direct measurement and MIRD method are too similar. The absorbed dose to uterus and ovaries for Rest are 26.05µGyMBq-1, 17.23µGyMBq-1 and for Stress are 2.04µGyMBq-1, 1.35µGyMBq-1 respectively.

Keywords: absorbed dose, TLD, MIRD, RANDO-phantom, Tc-99m

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1698 Willingness and Attitude towards Organ Donation of Nurses in Taiwan

Authors: ShuYing Chung, Minchuan Huang, Iping Chen


Taking the medical staff in an emergency ward of a medical center in Central Taiwan as the research object, the questionnaire data were collected by anonymous and voluntary reporting methods with structured questionnaire to explore the actual situation, willingness and attitude of organ donation. Only 80 valid questionnaires were collected. Among the 8 questions, the average correct rate was 5.9 + 1.2, and the correct rate was 73.13%. The willingness of organ donation that 7.5% of the people are not willing; 92.5% of the people are willing, of which 62.5% have considered but have not yet decided; 21.3% are willing but have not signed the consent of organ donation; They have signed the consent of organ donation 8.7%. The average total score (standard deviation) of attitude towards organ donation was 36.2. There is no significant difference between the demographic variables and the awareness and willingness of organ donation, but there is a significant correlation between the marital status and the attitude of organ donation.

Keywords: clinical psychology, organ donation, doctors affecting psychological disorders, commitment

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1697 Assessment of the Radiation Absorbed Dose Produced by Lu-177, Ra-223, AC-225 for Metastatic Prostate Cancer in a Bone Model

Authors: Maryam Tajadod


The treatment of cancer is one of the main challenges of nuclear medicine; while cancer begins in an organ, such as the breast or prostate, it spreads to the bone, resulting in metastatic bone. In the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy, the determination of the involved tissues’ dose is one of the important steps in the treatment protocol. Comparing absorbed doses for Lu-177 and Ra-223 and Ac-225 in the bone marrow and soft tissue of bone phantom with evaluating energetic emitted particles of these radionuclides is the important aim of this research. By the use of MCNPX computer code, a model for bone phantom was designed and the values of absorbed dose for Ra-223 and Ac-225, which are Alpha emitters & Lu-177, which is a beta emitter, were calculated. As a result of research, in comparing gamma radiation for three radionuclides, Lu-177 released the highest dose in the bone marrow and Ra-223 achieved the lowest level. On the other hand, the result showed that although the figures of absorbed dose for Ra and Ac in the bone marrow are near to each other, Ra spread more energy in cortical bone. Moreover, The alpha component of the Ra-223 and Ac-225 have very little effect on bone marrow and soft tissue than a beta component of the lu-177 and it leaves the highest absorbed dose in the bone where the source is located.

Keywords: bone metastases, lutetium-177, radium-223, actinium-225, absorbed dose

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1696 Estimation of Effective Radiation Dose Following Computed Tomography Urography at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria

Authors: Idris Garba, Aisha Rabiu Abdullahi, Mansur Yahuza, Akintade Dare


Background: CT urography (CTU) is efficient radiological examination for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However, patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose which is in a way associated with increased cancer risks. Objectives: To determine Computed Tomography Dose Index following CTU, and to evaluate organs equivalent doses. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried at a tertiary institution located in Kano northwestern. Ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the research ethics board of the institution. Demographic, scan parameters and CT radiation dose data were obtained from patients that had CTU procedure. Effective dose, organ equivalent doses, and cancer risks were estimated using SPSS statistical software version 16 and CT dose calculator software. Result: A total of 56 patients were included in the study, consisting of 29 males and 27 females. The common indication for CTU examination was found to be renal cyst seen commonly among young adults (15-44yrs). CT radiation dose values in DLP, CTDI and effective dose for CTU were 2320 mGy cm, CTDIw 9.67 mGy and 35.04 mSv respectively. The probability of cancer risks was estimated to be 600 per a million CTU examinations. Conclusion: In this study, the radiation dose for CTU is considered significantly high, with increase in cancer risks probability. Wide radiation dose variations between patient doses suggest that optimization is not fulfilled yet. Patient radiation dose estimate should be taken into consideration when imaging protocols are established for CT urography.

Keywords: CT urography, cancer risks, effective dose, radiation exposure

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1695 A Study of The Factors Predicting Radiation Exposure to Contacts of Saudi Patients Treated With Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine (I-131)

Authors: Khalid A. Salman, Shereen Wagih, Tariq Munshi, Musaed Almalki, Safwan Zatari, Zahid Khan


Aim: To measure exposure levels to family members and caregivers of Saudi patients treated with low dose I131 therapy, and household radiation exposure rate to predict different factors that can affect radiation exposure. Patients and methods: All adult self dependent patients with hyperthyroidism or cancer thyroid referred for low dose radioactive I131 therapy on outpatient basis are included. Radiation protection procedures are given to the participant and family members in details. TLD’s were dispensed to each participant in sufficient quantity for his/her family members living in the household. TLD’s are collected at fifth days post-dispense from patients who agreed to have a home visit during which the household is inspected and level of radiation contamination of surfaces was measured. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the current study, with a mean age of 43.1± 17.1 years Out of them 25 patients (78%) are females. I131 therapy was given in twenty patients (63%) for cancer thyroid of and for toxic goiter in the remaining twelve patients (37%), with an overall mean I131 dose of 24.1 ± 7.5mCi that is relatively higher in the former. The overall number of household family members and helpers of patients are 139, out of them77 are females (55.4%) & 62 are males (44.6%) with a mean age of 29.8± 17.6. The mean period of contact with the patient is 7.6 ±5.6hours. The cumulative radiation exposure shows that radiation exposure to all family members is below the exposure constraint (1mSv), with a range of 109 to 503uSv, and a mean value of 220.9±91 uSv. Numerical data shows a little higher exposure rate for family members of those who receive higher dose of I131 (patients with thyroid cancer) and household members who spent longer time with the patient, yet, the difference is statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Besides, no significant correlation was found between the degree of cumulative exposure of the family members to their gender, age, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors. In the 21 home visits all data from bedrooms, reception areas and kitchens are below hazardous limits (0.5uSv/h) apart from bathrooms that give a slightly higher reading of 0.57±0.39 uSv/h in those with cancer thyroid who receive a higher radiation dose. A statistically significant difference was found between radiation exposure rate in bathrooms used by the patient versus those used by family members only, with a mean value of exposure rate of 0.701±0.21 uSv/h and 0.17±0.82 uSv/h respectively, with a p-value of 0.018 (<0.05). Conclusion: Family members of patients treated with low dose I131 on outpatient basis have a good compliance to radiation protection instruction if given properly with a cumulative radiation exposure rate evidently beyond the radiation exposure constraints of 1 mSv. Given I131 dose, hours spent with the patient, age, gender, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors have no significant correlation with the cumulative radiation exposure. The patient bathroom exhibits more radiation exposure rate, needing more strict instructions for patient bathroom use and health hygiene.

Keywords: family members, radiation exposure, radioactive iodine therapy, radiation safety

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1694 Absorbed Dose Estimation of 68Ga-EDTMP in Human Organs

Authors: S. Zolghadri, H. Yousefnia, A. R. Jalilian


Bone metastases are observed in a wide range of cancers leading to intolerable pain. While early detection can help the physicians in the decision of the type of treatment, various radiopharmaceuticals using phosphonates like 68Ga-EDTMP have been developed. In this work, due to the importance of absorbed dose, human absorbed dose of this new agent was calculated for the first time based on biodistribution data in Wild-type rats. 68Ga was obtained from 68Ge/68Ga generator with radionuclidic purity and radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) method using Whatman No. 2 paper and saline. The results indicated the radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabelled complex was injected into the Wild-type rats and its biodistribution was studied up to 120 min. As expected, major accumulation was observed in the bone. Absorbed dose of each human organ was calculated based on biodistribution in the rats using RADAR method. Bone surface and bone marrow with 0.112 and 0.053 mSv/MBq, respectively, received the highest absorbed dose. According to these results, the radiolabeled complex is a suitable and safe option for PET bone imaging.

Keywords: absorbed dose, EDTMP, ⁶⁸Ga, rats

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1693 Human Absorbed Dose Estimation of a New In-111 Imaging Agent Based on Rat Data

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri


The measurement of organ radiation exposure dose is one of the most important steps to be taken initially, for developing a new radiopharmaceutical. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis, 111In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10 tetraethylene phosphonic acid (111In-DOTMP) complex, have been carried out to estimate the dose in human organs based on the data derived from rats. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity in the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex was investigated in the male Syrian rats at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was made based on data derived from the rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-DOTMP complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity of >99% (ITLC). Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-DOTMP was 0.061 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose with respect to the critical organs is satisfactory within the acceptable range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-DOTMP has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, DOTMP, Internal Dosimetry, RADAR

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1692 The Use of the Matlab Software as the Best Way to Recognize Penumbra Region in Radiotherapy

Authors: Alireza Shayegan, Morteza Amirabadi


The y tool was developed to quantitatively compare dose distributions, either measured or calculated. Before computing ɣ, the dose and distance scales of the two distributions, referred to as evaluated and reference, are re-normalized by dose and distance criteria, respectively. The re-normalization allows the dose distribution comparison to be conducted simultaneously along dose and distance axes. Several two-dimensional images were acquired using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber EPID and Extended Dose Range (EDR2) films for regular and irregular radiation fields. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional dose maps. Transitional and rotational manipulations were performed for images using Matlab software. As evaluated dose distribution maps, they were then compared with the corresponding original dose maps as the reference dose maps.

Keywords: energetic electron, gamma function, penumbra, Matlab software

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1691 Measurement and Analysis of Radiation Doses to Radiosensitive Organs from CT Examination of the Cervical Spine Using Radiochromic Films and Monte Carlo Simulation Based Software

Authors: Khaled Soliman, Abdullah Alrushoud, Abdulrahman Alkhalifah, Raed Albathi, Salman Altymiat


Radiation dose received by patients undergoing Computed Tomography (CT) examination of the cervical spine was evaluated using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films and CT-EXPO software (ver. 2.3), in order to document our clinical dose values and to compare our results with other benchmarks reported in the current literature. Radiochromic films were recently used as practical dosimetry tool that provides dose profile information not available using the standard ionisation chamber routinely used in CT dosimetry. We have developed an in-house program to use the films in order to calculate the Entrance Dose Length Product (EDLP) in ( and to relate the EDLP to various organ doses calculated using the CT-EXPO software. We also calculated conversion factor in (mSv/ relating the EDLP to the effective dose (ED) from the examination using CT-EXPO software. Variability among different types of CT scanners and dose modulation methods are reported from at least three major CT brands available at our medical institution. Our work describes the dosimetry method and results are reported. The method can be used as in-vivo dosimetry method. But this work only reports results obtained from adult female anthropomorphic Phantom studies.

Keywords: CT dosimetry, gafchromic films, XR-QA2, CT-Expo software

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1690 Biodistribution Study of 68GA-PDTMP as a New Bone Pet Imaging Agent

Authors: N. Tadayon, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian


In this study, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared as a new agent for bone imaging. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A certain volume of the PDTMP solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution of this new agent was assessed in rats after intravenously injection of the complex. For this purpose, the rats were killed at specified times after injection and the weight and activity of each organ was measured. Injected dose per gram was calculated by dividing the activity of each organ to the total injected activity and the mass of each organ. As expected the most of the activity was accumulated in the bone tissue. The radiolabelled compound was extracted from blood very fast. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: biodistribution, Ga-68, imaging, PDTMP

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1689 Estimated Human Absorbed Dose of 111 In-BPAMD as a New Bone-Seeking Spect-Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri


An early diagnosis of bone metastases is very important for providing a profound decision on a subsequent therapy. A prerequisite for the clinical application of new diagnostic radiopharmaceutical is the measurement of organ radiation exposure dose from biodistribution data in animals. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of bone methastases, 111In-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (111In-BPAMD) complex, have been estimated in human organs based on mice data. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity at the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex were investigated in male Syrian mice at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was performed based on mice data by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-BPAMD complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity >95% (ITLC) and specific activities of 2.85 TBq/mmol. Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-BPAMD was 0.205 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose to critical organs the complex is well within the acceptable considered range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-BPAMD has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastases in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, BPAMD, absorbed dose, RADAR

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1688 Clinical Pathway for Postoperative Organ Transplants

Authors: Tahsien Okasha


Transplantation medicine is one of the most challenging and complex areas of modern medicine. Some of the key areas for medical management are the problems of transplant rejection, during which the body has an immune response to the transplanted organ, possibly leading to transplant failure and the need to immediately remove the organ from the recipient. When possible, transplant rejection can be reduced through serotyping to determine the most appropriate donor-recipient match and through the use of immunosuppressant drugs. Postoperative care actually begins before the surgery in terms of education, discharge planning, nutrition, pulmonary rehabilitation, and patient/family education. This also allows for expectations to be managed. A multidisciplinary approach is the key, and collaborative team meetings are essential to ensuring that all team members are "on the same page.". The following clinical pathway map and guidelines with the aim to decrease alteration in clinical practice and are intended for those healthcare professionals who look after organ transplant patients. They are also intended to be useful to both medical and surgical trainees as well as nurse specialists and other associated healthcare professionals involved in the care of organ transplant patients. This pathway is general pathway include the general guidelines that can be applicable for all types of organ transplant with special considerations to each organ.

Keywords: organ transplant, clinical pathway, postoperative care, same page

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1687 Clinical Pathway for Postoperative Organ Transplantation

Authors: Tahsien Okasha


Transplantation medicine is one of the most challenging and complex areas of modern medicine. Some of the key areas for medical management are the problems of transplant rejection, during which the body has an immune response to the transplanted organ, possibly leading to transplant failure and the need to immediately remove the organ from the recipient. When possible, transplant rejection can be reduced through serotyping to determine the most appropriate donor-recipient match and through the use of immunosuppressant drugs. Postoperative care actually begins before the surgery in terms of education, discharge planning, nutrition, pulmonary rehabilitation, and patient/family education. This also allows for expectations to be managed. A multidisciplinary approach is the key, and collaborative team meetings are essential to ensuring that all team members are "on the same page." .The following clinical pathway map and guidelines with the aim to decrease alteration in clinical practice and are intended for those healthcare professionals who look after organ transplant patients. They are also intended to be useful to both medical and surgical trainees as well as nurse specialists and other associated healthcare professionals involved in the care of organ transplant patients. This pathway is general pathway include the general guidelines that can be applicable for all types of organ transplant with special considerations to each organ.

Keywords: postoperative care, organ transplant, clinical pathway, patient

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1686 Evaluation of Dynamic Log Files for Different Dose Rates in IMRT Plans

Authors: Saad Bin Saeed, Fayzan Ahmed, Shahbaz Ahmed, Amjad Hussain


The aim of this study is to evaluate dynamic log files (Dynalogs) at different dose rates by dose-volume histograms (DVH) and used as a (QA) procedure of IMRT. Seven patients of phase one head and neck cancer with similar OAR`s are selected randomly. Reference plans of dose rate 300 and 600 MU/Min with prescribed dose of 50Gy in 25 fractions for each patient is made. Dynalogs produced by delivery of reference plans processed by in-house MATLAB program which produces new field files contain actual positions of multi-leaf collimators (MLC`s) instead of planned positions in reference plans. Copies of reference plans are used to import new field files generated by MATLAB program and renamed as Dyn.plan. After dose calculations of Dyn.plans for different dose rates, DVH, and multiple linear regression tools are used to evaluate reference and Dyn.plans. The results indicate good agreement of correlation between different dose rate plans. The maximum dose difference among PTV and OAR`s are found to be less than 5% and 9% respectively. The study indicates the potential of dynalogs to be used as patient-specific QA of IMRT at different dose rate.

Keywords: IMRT, dynalogs, dose rate, DVH

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1685 Q-Methodology to Identify Perceptions of Deceased Organ Donation in the UK

Authors: Reem Muaid, Thomas Chesney


Background: Attitude towards organ donation is predominantly positive in the UK; however, the donation rate remains low. To develop more effective interventions, this research aims to examine the behavioural barriers in organ donations using Q methodology to elicit patterns of overlap among different barriers and motivators. Method: A Q methodology study was conducted with 40 participants aged 19-64 who were asked to rank 47 statements on issues that are associated with organ donation. By-person factor analysis using Centroid method and Varimax rotation was conducted to bring out patterns in the way statements were ranked to obtain groupings of participants who had arranged the statements in similar fashion. Results: Four viewpoints were extracted: The Realist, the Optimist Hesitant, the Pessimist Determinant, and the Empathetic. Salient barriers to organ donation presented in each viewpoint suggest that perceived lack of knowledge, anxiety, mistrust in the healthcare system, and lack of cue to action are the main barriers to organ donation. Consensus statements suggest that religion and family agreement are inconsequential if the attitude to organ donation is well-formed. Conclusion: There are different attitudes around deceased organ donation that were uncovered using Q methodology. These results suggest that people respond to behavioural change campaigns differently depending on their own perceptions of organ donation. We argue that a paradigm shift in behavioural interventions is underpinned by understanding the overlapping yet distinctive nature of perceived perspectives.

Keywords: organ donation, Q methodology, behavioural interventions, post Q Survey

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1684 Analysis of Radiation-Induced Liver Disease (RILD) and Evaluation of Relationship between Therapeutic Activity and Liver Clearance Rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin in Yttrium-90 Microspheres Treatment

Authors: H. Tanyildizi, M. Abuqebitah, I. Cavdar, M. Demir, L. Kabasakal


Aim: Whole liver radiation has the modest benefit in the treatment of unresectable hepatic metastases but the radiation doses must keep in control. Otherwise, RILD complications may arise. In this study, we aimed to calculate amount of maximum permissible activity (MPA) and critical organ absorbed doses with MIRD methodology, to evaluate tumour doses for treatment response and whole liver doses for RILD and to find optimal liver function test additionally. Materials and Methods: This study includes 29 patients who attended our nuclear medicine department suffering from Y-90 microspheres treatment. 10 mCi Tc-99m MAA was applied to the patients for dosimetry via IV. After the injection, whole body SPECT/CT images were taken in one hour. The minimum therapeutic tumour dose is on the point of being 120 Gy1, the amount of activities were calculated with MIRD methodology considering volumetric tumour/liver rate. A sub-working group was created with 11 patients randomly and liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin was calculated according to Ekman formalism. Results: The volumetric tumour/liver rates were found between 33-66% (Maksimum Tolarable Dose (MTD) 48-52Gy3) for 4 patients, were found less than 33% (MTD 72Gy3) for 25 patients. According to these results the average amount of activity, mean liver dose and mean tumour dose were found 1793.9±1.46 MBq, 32.86±0.19 Gy, and 138.26±0.40 Gy. RILD was not observed in any patient. In sub-working group, the relationship between Bilirubin, Albumin, INR (which show presence of liver disease and its degree), liver clearance with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin and calculated activity amounts were found r=0.49, r=0.27, r=0.43, r=0.57, respectively. Discussions: The minimum tumour dose was found 120 Gy for positive dose-response relation. If volumetric tumour/liver rate was > 66%, dose 30 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate 33-66%, dose escalation 48 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate < 33%, dose 72 Gy. These dose limitations did not create RILD. Clearance measurement with Mebrofenin was concluded that the best method to determine the liver function. Therefore, liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin should be considered in calculation of yttrium-90 microspheres dosimetry.

Keywords: clearance, dosimetry, liver, RILD

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1683 Parameter Interactions in the Cumulative Prospect Theory: Fitting the Binary Choice Experiment Data

Authors: Elzbieta Babula, Juhyun Park


Tversky and Kahneman’s cumulative prospect theory assumes symmetric probability cumulation with regard to the reference point within decision weights. Theoretically, this model should be invariant under the change of the direction of probability cumulation. In the present study, this phenomenon is being investigated by creating a reference model that allows verifying the parameter interactions in the cumulative prospect theory specifications. The simultaneous parametric fitting of utility and weighting functions is applied to binary choice data from the experiment. The results show that the flexibility of the probability weighting function is a crucial characteristic allowing to prevent parameter interactions while estimating cumulative prospect theory.

Keywords: binary choice experiment, cumulative prospect theory, decision weights, parameter interactions

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1682 A Prospective Study of a Clinically Significant Anatomical Change in Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Transit Electronic Portal Imaging Device Images

Authors: Wilai Masanga, Chirapha Tannanonta, Sangutid Thongsawad, Sasikarn Chamchod, Todsaporn Fuangrod


The major factors of radiotherapy for head and neck (HN) cancers include patient’s anatomical changes and tumour shrinkage. These changes can significantly affect the planned dose distribution that causes the treatment plan deterioration. A measured transit EPID images compared to a predicted EPID images using gamma analysis has been clinically implemented to verify the dose accuracy as part of adaptive radiotherapy protocol. However, a global gamma analysis dose not sensitive to some critical organ changes as the entire treatment field is compared. The objective of this feasibility study is to evaluate the dosimetric response to patient anatomical changes during the treatment course in HN IMRT (Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy) using a novel comparison method; organ-of-interest gamma analysis. This method provides more sensitive to specific organ change detection. Random replanned 5 HN IMRT patients with causes of tumour shrinkage and patient weight loss that critically affect to the parotid size changes were selected and evaluated its transit dosimetry. A comprehensive physics-based model was used to generate a series of predicted transit EPID images for each gantry angle from original computed tomography (CT) and replan CT datasets. The patient structures; including left and right parotid, spinal cord, and planning target volume (PTV56) were projected to EPID level. The agreement between the transit images generated from original CT and replanned CT was quantified using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm criteria. Moreover, only gamma pass-rate is calculated within each projected structure. The gamma pass-rate in right parotid and PTV56 between predicted transit of original CT and replan CT were 42.8%( ± 17.2%) and 54.7%( ± 21.5%). The gamma pass-rate for other projected organs were greater than 80%. Additionally, the results of organ-of-interest gamma analysis were compared with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (3D-CBCT) and the rational of replan by radiation oncologists. It showed that using only registration of 3D-CBCT to original CT does not provide the dosimetric impact of anatomical changes. Using transit EPID images with organ-of-interest gamma analysis can provide additional information for treatment plan suitability assessment.

Keywords: re-plan, anatomical change, transit electronic portal imaging device, EPID, head, and neck

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1681 A Fuzzy Inference Tool for Assessing Cancer Risk from Radiation Exposure

Authors: Bouharati Lokman, Bouharati Imen, Bouharati Khaoula, Bouharati Oussama, Bouharati Saddek


Ionizing radiation exposure is an established cancer risk factor. Compared to other common environmental carcinogens, it is relatively easy to determine organ-specific radiation dose and, as a result, radiation dose-response relationships tend to be highly quantified. Nevertheless, there can be considerable uncertainty about questions of radiation-related cancer risk as they apply to risk protection and public policy, and the interpretations of interested parties can differ from one person to another. Examples of tools used in the analysis of the risk of developing cancer due to radiation are characterized by uncertainty. These uncertainties are related to the history of exposure and different assumptions involved in the calculation. We believe that the results of statistical calculations are characterized by uncertainty and imprecision. Having regard to the physiological variation from one person to another. In this study, we develop a tool based on fuzzy logic inference. As fuzzy logic deals with imprecise and uncertain, its application in this area is adequate. We propose a fuzzy system with three input variables (age, sex and body attainable cancer). The output variable expresses the risk of infringement rate of each organ. A base rule is established from recorded actual data. After successful simulation, this will instantly predict the risk of infringement rate of each body following chronic exposure to 0.1 Gy.

Keywords: radiation exposure, cancer, modeling, fuzzy logic

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1680 Comparative Study between the Absorbed Dose of 67ga-Ecc and 68ga-Ecc

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, S. Shanesazzadeh, A.Lahooti, A. R. Jalilian


In this study, 68Ga-ECC and 67Ga-ECC were both prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 97% in less than 30 min. The biodistribution data for 68Ga-ECC showed the extraction of the most of the activity from the urinary tract. The absorbed dose was estimated based on biodistribution data in mice by the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method. Comparison between human absorbed dose estimation for these two agents indicated the values of approximately ten-fold higher after injection of 67Ga-ECC than 68Ga-ECC in the most organs. The results showed that 68Ga-ECC can be considered as a more potential agent for renal imaging compared to 67Ga-ECC.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, ethylenecysteamine cysteine, Ga-67, Ga-68

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