Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 429

Search results for: cervical carcinoma

429 Evaluation of P16, Human Papillomavirus Capsid Protein L1 and Ki67 in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions: Potential Utility in Diagnosis and Prognosis

Authors: Hanan Alsaeid Alshenawy

Abstract:

Background: Cervical dysplasia, which is potentially precancerous, has increased in young women. Detection of cervical is important for reducing morbidity and mortality in cervical cancer. This study analyzes the immunohistochemical expression of p16, HPV L1 capsid protein and Ki67 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and correlates them with lesion grade to develop a set of markers for diagnosis and detect the prognosis of cervical cancer precursors. Methods: 75 specimens were analyzed including 15 cases CIN 1, 28 CIN 2, 20 CIN 3, and 12 cervical squamous carcinoma, besides 10 normal cervical tissues. They were stained for p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for each marker. Results: p16 expression increased during the progression from CIN 1 to carcinoma. HPV L1 positivity was detected in CIN 2 and decreased gradually as the CIN grade increased but disappear in carcinoma. Strong Ki-67 expression was observed with high grades CIN and carcinoma. p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 were sensitive but with variable specificity in detecting CIN lesions. Conclusions: p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 are useful set of markers in establishing the risk of high-grade CIN. They complete each other to reach accurate diagnosis and prognosis.

Keywords: p16, HPV L1, Ki67, CIN, cervical carcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
428 Synchronous Carcinoma Cervix with Vulvar Carcinoma in situ: A Case Report

Authors: Bhushan Bhalgat, Suresh Singh, Phanindra Swain, Kamal Kishore Lakhera

Abstract:

Carcinoma of cervix and carcinoma of vulva have been associated with common predisposing factors like human papillomavirus and smoking. Skip metastases and metachronous appearance of both these tumours have been reported. There is no case report showing synchronous appearance of these tumours in English literature. We herewith report a case report of a middle aged female patient who presented with per vaginal bleeding, and on examination, a cervical mass was palpable. Also, a proliferative growth was seen over her left vulva. Biopsy of both lesions came out to be squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ, respectively. A radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodal dissection was performed along with left simple vulvectomy. This thereby underscores that any lesion over vulva appearing during or after treatment of cervical carcinoma should be biopsied to rule out vulvar carcinoma.

Keywords: carcinoma of cervix, carcinoma of vulva, synchronous tumours, gynecological oncology

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
427 Calculation of Organs Radiation Dose in Cervical Carcinoma External Irradiation Beam Using Day’s Methods

Authors: Yousif M. Yousif Abdallah, Mohamed E. Gar-Elnabi, Abdoelrahman H. A. Bakary, Alaa M. H. Eltoum, Abdelazeem K. M. Ali

Abstract:

The study was established to measure the amount of radiation outside the treatment field in external beam radiation therapy using day method of dose calculation, the data was collected from 89 patients of cervical carcinoma in order to determine if the dose outside side the irradiation treatment field for spleen, liver, both kidneys, small bowel, large colon, skin within the acceptable limit or not. The cervical field included mainly 4 organs which are bladder, rectum part of small bowel and hip joint these organ received mean dose of (4781.987±281.321), (4736.91±331.8), (4647.64±387.1) and (4745.91±321.11) respectively. The mean dose received by outfield organs was (77.69±15.24cGy) to large colon, (93.079±12.31cGy) to right kidney (80.688±12.644cGy) to skin, (155.86±17.69cGy) to small bowel. This was more significant value noted.

Keywords: radiation dose, cervical carcinoma, day’s methods, radiation medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
426 Predictive Value of Primary Tumor Depth for Cervical Lymphadenopathy in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Buccal Mucosa

Authors: Zohra Salim

Abstract:

Objective: To access the relationship of primary tumor thickness with cervical lymphadenopathy in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa. Methodology: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 80 Patients with biopsy-proven oral squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa at Dow University of Health Sciences. All the study participants were treated with wide local excision of the primary tumor with elective neck dissection. Patients with prior head and neck malignancy or those with prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy were excluded from the study. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS 21. Chi-squared test with 95% C.I and 80% power of the test was used to evaluate the relationship of tumor depth with cervical lymph nodes. Results: 50 participants were male, and 30 patients were female. 30 patients were in the age range of 20-40 years, 36 patients in the range of 40-60 years, while 14 patients were beyond age 60 years. Tumor size ranged from 0.3cm to 5cm with a mean of 2.03cm. Tumor depth ranged from 0.2cm to 5cm. 20% of the participants reported with tumor depth greater than 2.5cm, while 80% of patients reported with tumor depth less than 2.5cm. Out of 80 patients, 27 reported with negative lymph nodes, while 53 patients reported with positive lymph nodes. Conclusion: Our study concludes that relationship exists between the depth of primary tumor and cervical lymphadenopathy in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa.

Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma, tumor depth, cervical lymphadenopathy, buccal mucosa

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
425 In silico Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion and Squamous Cell Carcinomas Stages of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the women related cancers which starts from the pre-cancerous cells and a fraction of women with pre-cancers of the cervix will develop cervical cancer. Cervical pre-cancers if treated in pre-invasive stage can prevent almost all true cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The present study investigates the genes and pathways that are involved in the progression of cervical cancer and are responsible in transition from pre-invasive stage to other advanced invasive stages. The study used GDS3292 microarray data to identify the stage specific genes in cervical cancer and further to generate the network of the significant genes. The microarray data GDS3292 consists of the expression profiling of 10 normal cervices, 7 HSILs and 21 SCCs samples. The study identifies 70 upregulated and 37 downregulated genes in HSIL stage while 95 upregulated and 60 downregulated genes in SCC stages. Biological process including cell communication, signal transduction are highly enriched in both HSIL and SCC stages of cervical cancer. Further, the ppi interaction of genes involved in HSIL and SCC stages helps in identifying the interacting partners. This work may lead to the identification of potential diagnostic biomarker which can be utilized for early stage detection.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HSIL, microarray, SCC

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
424 ROCK Signaling and Radio Resistance: The Association and the Effect

Authors: P. Annapurna, Cecil Ross, Sudhir Krishna, Sweta Srivastava

Abstract:

Irradiation plays a pivotal role in cervical cancer treatment, however some tumors exhibit resistance to therapy while some exhibit relapse, due to better repair and enhanced resistance mechanisms operational in their cells. The present study aims to understand the signaling mechanism operational in resistance phenotype and in the present study we report the role of Rho GTPase associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling in cervical carcinoma radio-resistance. ROCK signaling has been implicated in several tumor progressions and is important for DNA repair. Irradiation of spheroid cultures of SiHa cervical carcinoma derived cell line at 6Gy resulted in generation of resistant cells in vitro which had better clonogenic abilities and formed larger and more colonies, in soft agar colony formation assay, as compared to the non-irradiated cells. These cells also exhibited an enhanced motility phenotype. Cell cycle profiling showed the cells to be blocked in G2M phase with enhanced pCDC2 levels indicating onset of possible DNA repair mechanism. Notably, 3 days post-irradiation, irradiated cells showed increased ROCK2 translocation to the nucleus with enhanced protein expression as compared to the non-irradiated cells. Radio-sensitization of the resistant cells was enhanced using Y27632, an inhibitor to ROCK signaling. The treatment of resistant cells with Y27632 resulted in increased cell death upon further irradiation. This observation has been confirmed using inhibitory antibodies to ROCK1/2. Result show that both ROCK1/2 have a functional contribution in radiation resistance of cervical cancer cells derived from cell lines. Interestingly enrichment of stem like cells (Hoechst negative cells) was also observed upon irradiation and these cells were markedly sensitive to Y27632 treatment. Our results thus suggest the role of ROCK signaling in radio-resistance in cervical carcinoma. Further studies with human biopsies, mice models and mechanistic of ROCK signaling in the context of radio-resistance will clarify the role of this molecule further and allow for therapeutics development.

Keywords: cervical carcinoma, radio-resistance, ROCK signaling, cancer treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
423 Diagnostic Accuracy in the Detection of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: A Comparison of Sonography, CT, PET/CT and MRI

Authors: Di Luo, Maria Buchberger, Anja Pickhard

Abstract:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of four common morphological approaches, including sonography, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of cervical lymph node metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Material and Methods: Included in this retrospective study were 26 patients diagnosed with HNSCC between 2010 and 2011 who all underwent sonography, CT, PET/CT, and MRI imaging before neck dissection. Morphological data were compared to the corresponding histopathological results. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS statistic software (version 26.0), calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for detection of cervical lymph node metastases. Results: The 5-year survival rate of the patient collective was 55.5%.Risk factors for survival included initial primary tumor stage, initial lymph node stage, initial metastasis status, and therapeutic approaches. Cox regression showed initial metastasis status(HR 8.671, 95%CI 1.316-57.123, p=0.025) and therapeutic approaches(HR 6.699, 95%CI 1.746-25.700, p=0.006)to be independent predictive risk factors for survival. Sensitivity was highest for MRI (96% compared to 85% for sonography and 89% for CT and PET/CT). Specificity was comparable with 95 % for CT and 98 % for sonography and PET/CT, but only 68% for MRI. While the MRI showed the least PPV (34%) compared to all other methods (85% for sonography,75% for CT, and 86% for PET/CT), the NPV was comparable in all methods(98-99%). The overall accuracy of cervical lymph node metastases detection was comparable for sonography, CT, and PET/CT with 96%,97%,94%, respectively, while MRI had only 72% accuracy. Conclusion: Since the initial status of metastasis is an independent predictive risk factor for patients’ survival, efficient detection is crucial to plan adequate therapeutic approaches. Sonography, CT, and PET/CT have better diagnostic accuracy than MRI for the evaluation of cervical lymph node metastases in HNSCC patients.

Keywords: cervical lymph node metastases, diagnostic accuracy, head and neck squamous carcinoma, risk factors, survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
422 Uterine Cervical Cancer; Early Treatment Assessment with T2- And Diffusion-Weighted MRI

Authors: Susanne Fridsten, Kristina Hellman, Anders Sundin, Lennart Blomqvist

Abstract:

Background: Patients diagnosed with locally advanced cervical carcinoma are treated with definitive concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. Treatment failure occurs in 30-50% of patients with very poor prognoses. The treatment is standardized with risk for both over-and undertreatment. Consequently, there is a great need for biomarkers able to predict therapy outcomes to allow for individualized treatment. Aim: To explore the role of T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early prediction of therapy outcome and the optimal time point for assessment. Methods: A pilot study including 15 patients with cervical carcinoma stage IIB-IIIB (FIGO 2009) undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy. All patients underwent MRI four times, at baseline, 3 weeks, 5 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment started. Tumour size, size change (∆size), visibility on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and change of ADC (∆ADC) at the different time points were recorded. Results: 7/15 patients relapsed during the study period, referred to as "poor prognosis", PP, and the remaining eight patients are referred to "good prognosis", GP. The tumor size was larger at all time points for PP than for GP. The ∆size between any of the four-time points was the same for PP and GP patients. The sensitivity and specificity to predict prognostic group depending on a remaining tumor on DWI were highest at 5 weeks and 83% (5/6) and 63% (5/8), respectively. The combination of tumor size at baseline and remaining tumor on DWI at 5 weeks in ROC analysis reached an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83. After 12 weeks, no remaining tumor was seen on DWI among patients with GP, as opposed to 2/7 PP patients. Adding ADC to the tumor size measurements did not improve the predictive value at any time point. Conclusion: A large tumor at baseline MRI combined with a remaining tumor on DWI at 5 weeks predicted a poor prognosis.

Keywords: chemoradiotherapy, diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, uterine cervical carcinoma

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421 Study of Relation between P53 and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, p53, miR-146a, rs2910164, polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
420 Investigation p53 and miR-146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33, and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, p53 polymorphism, intraepithelial, neoplasia, HPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
419 Role of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV18, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
418 Investigation Two Polymorphism of hTERT Gene (Rs 2736098 and Rs 2736100) and miR- 146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Alaheh Gholami Roud-Majany, Zahra Razavi, Massoud Hoshmand

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is multi step disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of hTERT and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of hTERT genotypes and miR-146a genotypes in cervical cancer. Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of hTERT and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, hTERT ( rs 2736098) GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical cancer in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of hTERT rs 2736098 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: polymorphism of hTERT gene, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, cervical cancer, virus

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
417 Regional Review of Outcome of Cervical Smears Reported with Cytological Features of Non Cervical Glandular Neoplasia

Authors: Uma Krishnamoorthy, Vivienne Beavers, Janet Marshall

Abstract:

Introduction: Cervical cytology showing features raising the suspicion of non cervical glandular neoplasia are reported as code 0 under the United Kingdom National Health Service Cervical screening programme ( NHSCSP). As the suspicion is regarding non cervical neoplasia, smear is reported as normal and patient informed that cervical screening result is normal. GP receives copy of results where it states further referral is indicated in small font within text of report. Background: There were several incidents of delayed diagnosis of endometrial cancer in Lancashire which prompted this Northwest Regional review to enable an understanding of underlying pathology outcome of code zero smears to raise awareness and also to review whether further action on wording of smear results was indicated to prevent such delay. Methodology: All Smears reported at the Manchester cytology centre who process cytology for Lancashire population from March 2013 to March 2014 were reviewed and histological diagnosis outcome of women in whom smear was reported as code zero was reviewed retrospectively . Results: Total smears reported by the cytology centre during this period was approximately 109400. Reports issued with result code 0 among this during this time period was 49.Results revealed that among three fourth (37) of women with code zero smear (N=49), evidence of underlying pathology of non cervical origin was confirmed. Of this, 73 % (36) were due to endometrial pathology with 49 % (24) endometrial carcinoma, 12 % (6)polyp, 4 % atypical endometrial hyperplasia (2), 6 % endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (3), and 2 % adenomyosis (1 case) and 2 % ( 1 case) due to ovarian adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: This review demonstrated that more than half (51 %) of women with a code 0 smear report were diagnosed with underlying carcinoma and 75 % had a confirmed underlying pathology contributory to code 0 smear findings. Recommendations and Action Plan: A local rapid access referral and management pathway for this group of women was implemented as a result of this in our unit. The findings and Pathway were shared with other regional units served by the cytology centre through the Pan Lancashire cervical screening board and through the Cytology centre. Locally, the smear report wording was updated to include a rubber stamp/ print in "Red Bold letters" stating that " URGENT REFERRAL TO GYNAECOLOGY IS INDICATED". Findings were also shared through the Pan Lancashire board with National cervical screening programme board, and revisions to wording of code zero smear reports to highlight the need for Urgent referral has now been agreed at National level to be implemented.

Keywords: code zero smears, endometrial cancer, non cervical glandular neoplasia, ovarian cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
416 Sequence Analysis of the Effect of HPV-16 E1 Variation on Cervical Carcinogenesis

Authors: Fern Baedyananda, Arkom Chaiwongkot, Somchai Niruthisard, Nakarin Kitkumthorn, Parvapan Bhattarakosol

Abstract:

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause transformation of the host cells by down-regulating and inhibiting host regulatory proteins such as p53 and pRb by overexpressing the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. However, the E1 protein which is the only enzyme encoded by HPV has also been shown to cause DNA instability leading to the integration of the virus into the host genome and triggering carcinogenic events. A 63bp duplication in the E1 helicase region has been detected in European patients. However, the clinical prognosis of these patients is still controversial. This study was performed to determine the presence of the HPV-16 E1 63bp duplication in patient cervical samples in Thai women and determine the sequence of the variant in the Thai population. Detection of the HPV-16 E1 duplication in the helicase region was performed in 90 patient cell samples across normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I-III, and squamous cervical carcinoma stages by PCR. The PCR products were purified and sequenced to determine the presence of duplication variants.The variant form was found in 10% of all CIN 1 patients. In this study, the presence of the 63 bp duplication variant in the Thai population was found to be present and was further characterized. Interestingly, all samples that exhibited the variant form of HPV-16 E1 were classified as CIN I. Presence of the variant, constricted to mild dysplasia signifies the importance of HPV-16 E1 in carcinogenesis.

Keywords: carcinogenesis, cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, HPV-16 E1

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415 Dosimetric Comparison of Conventional Optimization Methods with Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing Technique

Authors: Shraddha Srivastava, N. K. Painuly, S. P. Mishra, Navin Singh, Muhsin Punchankandy, Kirti Srivastava, M. L. B. Bhatt

Abstract:

Various optimization methods used in interstitial brachytherapy are based on dwell positions and dwell weights alteration to produce dose distribution based on the implant geometry. Since these optimization schemes are not anatomy based, they could lead to deviations from the desired plan. This study was henceforth carried out to compare anatomy-based Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing (IPSA) optimization technique with graphical and geometrical optimization methods in interstitial high dose rate brachytherapy planning of cervical carcinoma. Six patients with 12 CT data sets of MUPIT implants in HDR brachytherapy of cervical cancer were prospectively studied. HR-CTV and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured in Oncentra treatment planning system (TPS) using GYN GEC-ESTRO guidelines on cervical carcinoma. Three sets of plans were generated for each fraction using IPSA, graphical optimization (GrOPT) and geometrical optimization (GOPT) methods. All patients were treated to a dose of 20 Gy in 2 fractions. The main objective was to cover at least 95% of HR-CTV with 100% of the prescribed dose (V100 ≥ 95% of HR-CTV). IPSA, GrOPT, and GOPT based plans were compared in terms of target coverage, OAR doses, homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (COIN) using dose-volume histogram (DVH). Target volume coverage (mean V100) was found to be 93.980.87%, 91.341.02% and 85.052.84% for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans respectively. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of HR-CTV) values for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans were 10.19 ± 1.07 Gy, 10.17 ± 0.12 Gy and 7.99 ± 1.0 Gy respectively, while D100 (minimum dose received by 100% volume of HR-CTV) for IPSA, GrOPT and GOPT plans was 6.55 ± 0.85 Gy, 6.55 ± 0.65 Gy, 4.73 ± 0.14 Gy respectively. IPSA plans resulted in lower doses to the bladder (D₂

Keywords: cervical cancer, HDR brachytherapy, IPSA, MUPIT

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
414 Radiological Analysis of Skeletal Metastases from Cervical Cancer

Authors: Jacklynn Walters, Amanda A. Alblas, Linda M. Greyling

Abstract:

Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer found in women. Diagnosis of skeletal metastases is uncommon in cervical cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of skeletal metastases in in a Western Cape skeletal population. Skeletal samples (n=14) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection at Stellenbosch University, diagnosed pre-mortem with cervical cancer, were examined. Macroscopic analysis was done using low magnification to examine each skeletal element for signs of disease. Skeletons were also x-rayed using the Lodox® Statscan® Imaging system and the scans evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Three (21%) of the skeletons showed metastases, with the os coxae and lower vertebral column affected in all three cases. Furthermore, metastases occurred in the scapulae and ribs in two of the cases and in one case the skull, mandible, and long bones were affected. Additionally, three skeletons without evidence of skeletal metastases presented with a periosteal reaction on the os coxae in response to the diseased adjacent soft tissue. Previous studies observed that skeletal metastases are more common than what is diagnosed pre-mortem with the vertebral spine most commonly affected. The findings of this study agree with previous reports and illustrate the effectiveness of the Lodox® scanner in diagnoses of metastases in skeletal material.

Keywords: cancer, cervix, radiology, skeletal metastases

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413 Knowledge of Pap Smear Test and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Cervical Cancer Patients in Manado

Authors: Eric Ng, Freddy W. Wagey, Frank M. M. Wagey

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries. The main causes are the lack of prevention programs and effective therapy, as well as the lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness for early detection. The Pap smear test and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allow the cervical lesion to be detected so that progression to cervical cancer can be avoided. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Pap smear test and VIA in cervical cancer patients. Methodology: A total of 67 cervical cancer patients in Manado who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the month of November 2019-January 2020 with a questionnaire about the respondents' knowledge relating to Pap smear test and VIA. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Knowledge of pap smear among cervical cancer patients were good in 9 respondents (13.4%), moderate in 20 respondents (29.9%), and bad in 38 respondents (56.7%), whereas the knowledge of VIA was good in 13 respondents (19.4%), moderate in 15 respondents (22.4%), and bad in 39 respondents (58.2%). Conclusion: Majority of cervical cancer patients in Manado still had bad knowledge about Pap smear tests and VIA.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, pap smear test, visual inspection with acetic acid

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412 Phylogenetic Study of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 16 From Cervical Cancer Patients in Bandung

Authors: Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah, Edhyana Sahiratmadja, Ani Melani Maskoen, Ratu Safitri, Supartini Syarif, Herman Susanto

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. In Indonesia, the incidence of cervical cancer cases is estimated at 25-40 per 100,000 women per year. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most common genotype that infects the cervical tissue. The major late protein L1 may be associated with infectivity and pathogenicity and its variation can be used to classify HPV isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic tree of HPV 16 L1 gene from cervical cancer patient isolates in Bandung. After confirming HPV-16 by Linear Array Genotyping Test, L1 gene was amplified using specific primers and subject for sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HPV 16 from Bandung was in the subgroup of Asia and East Asia, showing the close host-agent relationship among the Asian type.

Keywords: L1 HPV 16, cervical cancer, bandung, phylogenetic

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411 Levels of Anxiety during the 1st Stage of Labour, Respectively Cervical Effacement

Authors: Shpresa Agani, Nysret Agani

Abstract:

Studies have found that women, during the 1st stage of labour, respectively cervical effacement, experience anxiety. This study aims to measure the degree of anxiety during cervical effacement, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) for measuring anxiety symptoms (HSCL-25). A randomized prospective study with 300 women during the 1st stage of labour was conducted where cervical effacement percentage in parallel with the symptoms of anxiety was examined. Anxiety degree levels were examined by HSCL-25. Results showed that 81% were primiparous, while 19% were multiparous. All participants experienced anxiety symptoms, and the degree of anxiety depended on the stage of the birth process. Groups-based modeling according to HSCL- 2 identified three distinct groups of anxiety symptoms: group 1 (low degree, 32 cases or 11%), group 2 (mild degree, 186 cases or 62%), and group 3 (high degree, 82 cases or 27%). Depending on the percentage of cervical effacement, the anxiety degree increased. In a cervical effacement of 0-60-%, 125 cases or 41.6% had symptoms of anxiety, while in a cervical effacement of 60-100%, 174 cases or 58.4% had symptoms of anxiety (Chi-Square X2 (4,N=300)=10.755, p=0.02). This study showed a correlation between cervical effacement and the degree of anxiety. Further, it was found that the majority of participants experienced symptoms of anxiety during the cervical effacement process. The degree of anxiety increased in direct proportion to the degree of the cervical effacement process. The higher the percentage of cervical effacement, the higher the degree of anxiety. A continuing assessment of the psychological well-being of women throughout the birth process.

Keywords: anxiety, cervical effacement, pregnancy, HSCL-25

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410 Cancer of the Cervix Caused by HPV (Human papillomavirus) in Algerian Population

Authors: Sara Mouffouk, Fatma Belaid, Asma Hechani, Chaima Mouffouk

Abstract:

Cancer of the cervix caused by HPV (human papillomavirus ) is for many years a real public health problem, it is ranked 2nd deadly female cancer kills more than 270 000 women each year worldwide. In Algeria, the mortality of cervical cancer decreases with the impact, but the prognosis of these cancers remains bleak: The 5-year relative survival is 60 %. The mode of transmission is usually sexuel. Our study was undertaken to show the link between HPV and cervical cancer and the importance of Pap smear screening in this type of pathology. On the total sample, 76.11 % showed abnormal cervical smears of which 13% have mild cases and hormonal reaction Change, and 44% represent inflammatory smears and normal cases 35%, while long seven years from 2005 to 2012. Thus, 43% of abnormal smear results between ASCUS, AGUS, low and high grade carcinoma and adenocarcinoma and 57 % of other cases of unknown origin. The average age of women at risk of developing adenocarcinoma is 45-50 with a 67% to 33% of the same risk in women of age group 41-45 years although the percentage of cases of HPV infected patients was 2% in the past seven years. We found that with increasing age, the risk is argued. Due to several factors such as multiparty can reduced the resistance of the uterine epithelium and even as the multi that promotes contamination HPV causes repeated infections with HPV.

Keywords: cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) screening, prevention, vaccines

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409 The Effect of Normal Cervical Sagittal Configuration in the Management of Cervicogenic Dizziness: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Moustafa Ibrahim Moustafa

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The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long term effects of a multimodal program, with the addition of cervical sagittal curve restoration and forward head correction, on severity of dizziness, disability, frequency of dizziness, and severity of cervical pain. 72 patients with cervicogenic dizziness, definite hypolordotic cervical spine, and forward head posture were randomized to experimental or a control group. Both groups received the multimodal program, additionally, the study group received the Denneroll cervical traction. All outcome measures were measured at three intervals. The general linear model indicated a significant group × time effects in favor of experimental group on measures of anterior head translation (F=329.4 P < .0005), cervical lordosis (F=293.7 P < .0005), severity of dizziness (F=262.1 P < .0005), disability (F=248.9 P < .0005), frequency of dizziness (F=53.9 P < .0005), and severity of cervical pain (F=350.1 P < .0005). The addition of Dennroll cervical traction to a multimodal program can positively affect dizziness management outcomes.

Keywords: randomized controlled trial, traction, dizziness, cervical

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
408 Pre-Processing of Ultrasonography Image Quality Improvement in Cases of Cervical Cancer Using Image Enhancement

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Teguh Budiono, Yogi Ramadhani, Haris B. Widodo, Arwita Mulyawati

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of mortality in cancer-related diseases. In this diagnosis doctors usually perform several tests to determine the presence of cervical cancer in a patient. However, these checks require support equipment to get the results in more detail. One is by using ultrasonography. However, for the developing countries most of the existing ultrasonography has a low resolution. The goal of this research is to obtain abnormalities on low-resolution ultrasound images especially for cervical cancer case. In this paper, we emphasize our work to use Image Enhancement for pre-processing image quality improvement. The result shows that pre-processing stage is promising to support further analysis.

Keywords: cervical cancer, mortality, low-resolution, image enhancement.

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407 Success Rate of Endotracheal Intubation Using Inline Stabilization with and without Cervical Hard Collar; A Comparative Study

Authors: Welawat Tienpratarn, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Kasamon Aramvanitch, Karn Suttapanit, Yahya Mankong, Nussareen Yaemluksanalert, Sansanee Meesawad

Abstract:

Introduction : Application of a rigid cervical collar may interfere with the laryngeal view, and potentially lead to failed endotracheal intubation (ETI). This study aimed to compare intubation success rates while performing inline stabilization with and without cervical hard collar. Methods : This randomized prospective comparative study included paramedics working in the Department of Emergency Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand to compare the success rates of endotracheal intubation on manikin using inline stabilization with and without cervical hard collar. Results : 125 participants were evaluated; 63 in the rigid cervical collar and 62 in the non-cervical hard collar group. The rate of successful intubation was significantly higher using manual stabilization without cervical hard collar (61 (96.8%) vs. 55 (88.7%); p=0.048). The time required to successfully perform intubation was also shorter, with manual stabilization only (14.1 ±20.9 vs. 18.9±29.0; p = 0.081). Conclusion : It seems that, removal of the rigid cervical collar during ETI in patients with suspected traumatic spine injury could increase the intubation success rate.

Keywords: ntubation, Intratracheal, Spinal Injuries, Multiple trauma

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406 Lymphatic Microvessel Density as a Prognostic Factor in Endometrial Carcinoma

Authors: Noha E. Hassan

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Little is known regarding the influence of lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) on prognosis in endometrial cancer. Prospective study was done in tertiary education and research hospital (Shatby Alexandria university hospital) on sixty patients presented with endometrial carcinoma underwent complete surgical staging. Our aim was to assess the intratumoral and peritumoral Lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) of endometrial carcinomas identified by immunohistochemical staining using an antibody against podoplanin and to investigate their association with classical clinicopathological factors and prognosis. The result shows that high LMVD was associated with endometroid type of tumors, lesser myometrial, adnexal, cervical and peritoneal infiltration, lower tumor grade and stage and lesser recurrent cases. There is lower lymph node involvement among cases with high intratumoral LMVD and cases of high peritumoral LMVD; that reach statistical significance only among cases of high intratumoral LMVD. No association was seen between LMVD and lymphovascular space invasion. On the other hand, low LMVD was associated with poor outcome. Finally, we can conclude that increased LMVD is associated with favorable prognosis in endometrial cancer patients.

Keywords: endometrial carcinoma, lymphatic microvessel, microvessel density, prognosis

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405 Development of a Robust Protein Classifier to Predict EMT Status of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Endocervical Adenocarcinoma (CESC) Tumors

Authors: ZhenlinJu, Christopher P. Vellano, RehanAkbani, Yiling Lu, Gordon B. Mills

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The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics, such as profound disruption of cell-cell junctions, loss of apical-basolateral polarity, and extensive reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton to induce cell motility and invasion. A hallmark of EMT is its capacity to promote metastasis, which is due in part to activation of several transcription factors and subsequent downregulation of E-cadherin. Unfortunately, current approaches have yet to uncover robust protein marker sets that can classify tumors as possessing strong EMT signatures. In this study, we utilize reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and consensus clustering methods to successfully classify a subset of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC) tumors into an EMT protein signaling group (EMT group). The overall survival (OS) of patients in the EMT group is significantly worse than those in the other Hormone and PI3K/AKT signaling groups. In addition to a shrinkage and selection method for linear regression (LASSO), we applied training/test set and Monte Carlo resampling approaches to identify a set of protein markers that predicts the EMT status of CESC tumors. We fit a logistic model to these protein markers and developed a classifier, which was fixed in the training set and validated in the testing set. The classifier robustly predicted the EMT status of the testing set with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.975 by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. This method not only identifies a core set of proteins underlying an EMT signature in cervical cancer patients, but also provides a tool to examine protein predictors that drive molecular subtypes in other diseases.

Keywords: consensus clustering, TCGA CESC, Silhouette, Monte Carlo LASSO

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
404 Cervical Cell Classification Using Random Forests

Authors: Dalwinder Singh, Amandeep Verma, Manpreet Kaur, Birmohan Singh

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The detection of pre-cancerous changes using a Pap smear test of cervical cell is the important step for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The Pap smear test consists of a sample of human cells taken from the cervix which are analysed to detect cancerous and pre-cancerous stage of the given subject. The manual analysis of these cells is labor intensive and time consuming process which relies on expert cytotechnologist. In this paper, a computer assisted system for the automated analysis of the cervical cells has been proposed. We propose a morphology based approach to the nucleus detection and segmentation of the cytoplasmic region of the given single or multiple overlapped cell. Further, various texture and region based features are calculated from these cells to classify these into normal and abnormal cell. Experimental results on public available dataset show that our system has achieved satisfactory success rate.

Keywords: cervical cancer, cervical tissue, mathematical morphology, texture features

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403 Metastatic Invasive Lobular Cancer Presenting as a Cervical Polyp

Authors: Sally Shepherd, Craig Murphy

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Introduction: The uterus or cervix are unusual locations as metastatic sites for cancers. It is further unusual for it to be a site of metastasis, whilst the primary malignancy remains occult. Case Report: A 63-year-old female with three months of altered bowel habits underwent a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis, revealing a bulky uterus and left ovary, nonspecific colonic thickening, and diffuse peritoneal changes. She underwent colposcopy, which revealed a large endocervical polyp that was excised, revealing strongly hormone-positive metastatic invasive lobular breast cancer. She subsequently underwent a PET scan, which showed moderately diffuse activity in the cervix and left adnexa. Breast examination was unremarkable, and screening mammography, ultrasound, and MRI of the breast did not identify any lesions. Her blood tests revealed a Ca 15-3 of 934, CA-125 of 220, and CEA of 27. She was commenced on letrozole and ribociclib with an improvement in her symptoms. Conclusion: It is rare for occult breast cancer to be established and diagnosed by pelvic imaging and biopsy. Suspicion of uterine or cervical metastasis should be heightened in patients with an active or past history of breast cancer.

Keywords: occult breast cancer, cervical metastasis, invasive lobular carcinoma, metastasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
402 Clinical Feature Analysis and Prediction on Recurrence in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Ravinder Bahl, Jamini Sharma

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The paper demonstrates analysis of the cervical cancer based on a probabilistic model. It involves technique for classification and prediction by recognizing typical and diagnostically most important test features relating to cervical cancer. The main contributions of the research include predicting the probability of recurrences in no recurrence (first time detection) cases. The combination of the conventional statistical and machine learning tools is applied for the analysis. Experimental study with real data demonstrates the feasibility and potential of the proposed approach for the said cause.

Keywords: cervical cancer, recurrence, no recurrence, probabilistic, classification, prediction, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
401 A Mother’s Silent Adversary: A Case of Pregnant Woman with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Paola Millare, Nelinda Catherine Pangilinan

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Background and Aim: Cervical cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological malignancy during pregnancy. Owing to the rarity of the disease, and the complexity of all factors that have to be taken into consideration, standardization of treatment is very difficult. Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women. The treatment of cancer during pregnancy is most challenging in the case of cervical cancer, since the pregnant uterus itself is affected. This report aims to present a case of cervical cancer in a pregnant woman and how to manage this case and several issues accompanied with it. Methods: This is a case of a 28 year-old, Gravida 4 Para 2 (1111), who presented with watery to mucoid, whitish, non-foul smelling and increasing in amount. Internal examination revealed normal external genitalia, parous outlet, cervix was transformed into a fungating mass measuring 5x4 cm, with left parametrial involvement, body of uterus was enlarged to 24 weeks size, no adnexal mass or tenderness. She had cervical punch biopsy, which revealed, adenocarcinoma, well-differentiated cervical tissue. Standard management for cases with stage 2B cervical carcinoma was to start radiation or radical hysterectomy. In the case of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer and currently pregnant, these kind of management will result to fetal loss. The patient still declined the said management and opted to delay the treatment and wait for her baby to reach at least term and proceed to cesarean section as route of delivery. Results: The patient underwent an elective cesarean section at 37th weeks age of gestation, with an outcome of a term, live baby boy APGAR score 7,9 birthweight 2600 grams. One month postpartum, the patient followed up and completed radiotherapy, chemotherapy and brachytherapy. She was advised to go back after 6 months for monitoring. On her last check up, an internal examination was done which revealed normal external genitalia, vagina admits 2 fingers with ease, there is a palpable fungating mass at the cervix measuring 2x2 cm. A repeat gynecologic oncologic ultrasound was done revealing cervical mass, endophytic, grade 1 color score with stromal invasion 35% post radiation reactive lymph nodes with intact paracolpium, pericervical, and parametrial involvement. The patient was then advised to undergo pelvic boost and for close monitoring of the cervical mass. Conclusion: Cervical cancer in pregnancy is rare but is a dilemma for women and their physicians. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and individualized following careful counseling. In this case, the treatment was clearly on the side of preventing the progression of cervical cancer while she is pregnant, however due to ethical reasons, the management deviates on the right of the patient to decide for her own health and her unborn child. The collaborative collection of data relating to treatment and outcome is strongly encouraged.

Keywords: cancer, cervical, ethical, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
400 Abnormal Pap Smear Detection by Application of Revised Bethesda System in Commercial Sex Workers and a Control Group: A Comparative Study

Authors: Priyanka Manghani, Manthan Patel, Rahul Peddawad

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Cervical Cancer is a major public health hurdle in the area of women’s health. The most common cause of Cervical Cancer is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Human papilloma virus has various genotypes, with HPV 16 and HPV 18 being the major etiological factor causing carcinoma of the Cervix. Early screening and detection by Papanicolaou Smears (PAP) is an effective method for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. In case of existing pre- malignant lesions /cervical dysplasia’s found with HPV 16 or 18, appropriate follow up can be done to prevent it from developing into a neoplasm. Aims and Objectives: Primary Aim; To study various abnormal cervical cytology reports as detected by Pap Smear Tests, using the Bethesda System in women at a Tertiary Care Hospital. Secondary Aim; To discuss the importance of Pap smear in Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Materials and Methods: Our study is a prospective study, based on 101 women who attended the Out-patient department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a tertiary care hospital in age group 20-40 years with chief complaints of white/foul vaginal discharge, post-coital Bleeding, low back pain, irregular menstruation, etc. 60 women, who were tested, of the total no of women, were commercial sex workers, thus being a high-risk group for HPV infection. All women underwent conventional cytology. For all the abnormal smears, further cervical biopsies were done, and the final diagnosis was done on the basis of histopathology (gold standard). Results: In all these patients, 16 patients presented with normal smears out of which 2 belonged to the category of commercial sex workers (3.33%) and 14 being from the normal/control group (34.15%). 44 women presented with inflammatory smears out of which 30 were commercial sex workers (50%) and 14 from the control Group (34.15%). A total of 11 women presented with infectious etiology with 6 being commercial sex workers (10%) and 5 (12.2%) being in the control group. A total of 8 patients presented with low-grade squamous intra epithelial lesion (LSIL) with 7 (11.7%) being commercial sex workers and 1(2.44%) patient belonging to the control group. A Total of 7 patients presented with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) with 6 (10%) being commercial sex workers and 1 (2.44%) belonging to the control group. 9 patients in total presented with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) with 6(10%) being commercial sex workers and 3 (7.32%) belonging to the control group. Squamous cell carcinoma(SCC) presence was found only in 1(1.7%) commercial sex worker. Conclusion – We conclude that HSIL, LSIL, SCC and sexually related infections are comparatively more common in vulnerable groups such as sex workers due to a variety of factors such as multiple sexual partners and poor genital hygiene. Early screening and follow up interventions are highly needed for them along with Health education for risk factors and to emphasize on the importance of Pap smear screening.

Keywords: cervical cancer, papanicolaou (pap) smear, bethesda system, neoplasm

Procedia PDF Downloads 166