Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1357

Search results for: absorbed dose

1357 Human Absorbed Dose Assessment of 68Ga-Dotatoc Based on Biodistribution Data in Syrian Rats

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Naderi, H. Yousefnia, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian


The aim of this work was to evaluate the values of absorbed dose of 68Ga-DOTATOC in numerous human organs. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by specific activity of 39.6 MBq/nmol. The complex demonstrated great stability at room temperature and in human serum at 37° C at least 2 h after preparation. Significant uptake was observed in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and adrenal. The absorbed dose received by human organs was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in Syrian rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. Maximum absorbed dose was obtained in the pancreas, kidneys, and adrenal with 0.105, 0.074, and 0.010 mGy/MBq, respectively. The effective absorbed dose was 0.026 mSv/MBq for 68Ga-DOTATOC. The results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a safe and effective agent for clinically PET imaging applications.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, Ga-68, octreotide, MIRD

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1356 Comparative Study between the Absorbed Dose of 67ga-Ecc and 68ga-Ecc

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, S. Shanesazzadeh, A.Lahooti, A. R. Jalilian


In this study, 68Ga-ECC and 67Ga-ECC were both prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 97% in less than 30 min. The biodistribution data for 68Ga-ECC showed the extraction of the most of the activity from the urinary tract. The absorbed dose was estimated based on biodistribution data in mice by the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method. Comparison between human absorbed dose estimation for these two agents indicated the values of approximately ten-fold higher after injection of 67Ga-ECC than 68Ga-ECC in the most organs. The results showed that 68Ga-ECC can be considered as a more potential agent for renal imaging compared to 67Ga-ECC.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, ethylenecysteamine cysteine, Ga-67, Ga-68

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1355 Assessment of the Radiation Absorbed Dose Produced by Lu-177, Ra-223, AC-225 for Metastatic Prostate Cancer in a Bone Model

Authors: Maryam Tajadod


The treatment of cancer is one of the main challenges of nuclear medicine; while cancer begins in an organ, such as the breast or prostate, it spreads to the bone, resulting in metastatic bone. In the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy, the determination of the involved tissues’ dose is one of the important steps in the treatment protocol. Comparing absorbed doses for Lu-177 and Ra-223 and Ac-225 in the bone marrow and soft tissue of bone phantom with evaluating energetic emitted particles of these radionuclides is the important aim of this research. By the use of MCNPX computer code, a model for bone phantom was designed and the values of absorbed dose for Ra-223 and Ac-225, which are Alpha emitters & Lu-177, which is a beta emitter, were calculated. As a result of research, in comparing gamma radiation for three radionuclides, Lu-177 released the highest dose in the bone marrow and Ra-223 achieved the lowest level. On the other hand, the result showed that although the figures of absorbed dose for Ra and Ac in the bone marrow are near to each other, Ra spread more energy in cortical bone. Moreover, The alpha component of the Ra-223 and Ac-225 have very little effect on bone marrow and soft tissue than a beta component of the lu-177 and it leaves the highest absorbed dose in the bone where the source is located.

Keywords: bone metastases, lutetium-177, radium-223, actinium-225, absorbed dose

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1354 A Comparison of TLD Measurements to MIRD Estimates of the Dose to the Ovaries and Uterus from Tc-99m in Liver

Authors: Karim Adinehvand, Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Amin Sahebnasagh


Relation to high absorption fraction of Tc SESTAMIBI by internal organs in heart scan, and these organs are near to generation organs (Ovaries and uterus). In this study, Liver is specified as source organ. Method: we have set amount of absorbed fraction radiopharmaceutical in position of Liver in RANDO-phantom in form of elliptical surfaces, then absorbed dose to ovaries and uterus measured by TLD-100 that had set at position of these organs in RANDO-phantom. Calculation had done by MIRD method. Results from direct measurement and MIRD method are too similar. The absorbed dose to uterus and ovaries for Rest are 26.05µGyMBq-1, 17.23µGyMBq-1 and for Stress are 2.04µGyMBq-1, 1.35µGyMBq-1 respectively.

Keywords: absorbed dose, TLD, MIRD, RANDO-phantom, Tc-99m

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1353 Absorbed Dose Estimation of 68Ga-EDTMP in Human Organs

Authors: S. Zolghadri, H. Yousefnia, A. R. Jalilian


Bone metastases are observed in a wide range of cancers leading to intolerable pain. While early detection can help the physicians in the decision of the type of treatment, various radiopharmaceuticals using phosphonates like 68Ga-EDTMP have been developed. In this work, due to the importance of absorbed dose, human absorbed dose of this new agent was calculated for the first time based on biodistribution data in Wild-type rats. 68Ga was obtained from 68Ge/68Ga generator with radionuclidic purity and radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) method using Whatman No. 2 paper and saline. The results indicated the radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabelled complex was injected into the Wild-type rats and its biodistribution was studied up to 120 min. As expected, major accumulation was observed in the bone. Absorbed dose of each human organ was calculated based on biodistribution in the rats using RADAR method. Bone surface and bone marrow with 0.112 and 0.053 mSv/MBq, respectively, received the highest absorbed dose. According to these results, the radiolabeled complex is a suitable and safe option for PET bone imaging.

Keywords: absorbed dose, EDTMP, ⁶⁸Ga, rats

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1352 Estimation of Human Absorbed Dose Using Compartmental Model

Authors: M. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, H. Yousefnia, F. Abbasi-Davani, S. Zolghadri


Dosimetry is an indispensable and precious factor in patient treatment planning to minimize the absorbed dose in vital tissues. In this study, compartmental model was used in order to estimate the human absorbed dose of 177Lu-DOTATOC from the biodistribution data in wild type rats. For this purpose, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions and its biodistribution was studied in male Syrian rats up to 168 h. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. Dosimetric estimation of the complex was performed using radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR). The biodistribution data showed high accumulation in the adrenal and pancreas as the major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR). While kidneys as the major route of excretion receive 0.037 mSv/MBq, pancreas and adrenal also obtain 0.039 and 0.028 mSv/MBq. Due to the usage of this method, the points of accumulated activity data were enhanced, and further information of tissues uptake was collected that it will be followed by high (or improved) precision in dosimetric calculations.

Keywords: compartmental modeling, human absorbed dose, ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTATOC, Syrian rats

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1351 Optical Properties of N-(Hydroxymethyl) Acrylamide Polymer Gel Dosimeters for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Khalid A. Rabaeh, Belal Moftah, Ahmed A. Basfar, Akram A. Almousa


Polymer gel dosimeters are tissue equivalent martial that fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Polymer gel dosimeters can uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D). A novel composition of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) is introduced in this study for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 30 Gy. The polymerization degree is directly proportional to absorbed dose received by the polymer gel. UV/Vis spectrophotometer was used to investigate the degree of white color of irradiated NHMA gel which is associated to the degree of polymerization of polymer gel dosimeters. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose for all gel dosimeters in the dose range between 0 and 30 Gy. Dose rate , energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

Keywords: dosimeter, gel, spectrophotometer, N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide

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1350 Evolution of Cord Absorbed Dose during Larynx Cancer Radiotherapy, with 3D Treatment Planning and Tissue Equivalent Phantom

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Amir Hossein Goodarzi, Majid Azarniush


Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic phantom as an equivalent to the human body. When high-energy X-rays are externally applied to treat laryngeal cancer, the absorbed dose at the laryngeal lumen is lower than given dose because of air space which it should pass through before reaching the lesion. Specially in case of high-energy X-rays, the loss of dose is considerable. Three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions have been computed for high-energy photon radiation therapy of laryngeal and hypo pharyngeal cancers, using a coaxial pair of opposing lateral beams in fixed positions. Treatment plans obtained under various conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: 3D treatment planning, anthropomorphic phantom, larynx cancer, radiotherapy

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1349 Absorbed Dose Estimation of 177Lu-DOTATOC in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer Bearing Mice

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, H. Yousefnia, F. Abbasi-Davani


In this study, the absorbed dose of human organs after injection of 177Lu-DOTATOC was studied based on the biodistribution of the complex in adenocarcinoma breast cancer bearing mice. For this purpose, the biodistribution of the radiolabelled complex was studied and compartmental modeling was applied to calculate the absorbed dose with high precision. As expected, 177Lu-DOTATOC illustrated a notable specific uptake in tumor and pancreas, organs with high level of somatostatin receptor on their surface and the effectiveness of the radio-conjugate for targeting of the breast adenocarcinoma tumors was indicated. The elicited results of modeling were the exponential equations, and those are utilized for obtaining the cumulated activity data by taking their integral. The results also exemplified that non-target absorbed-doses such as the liver, spleen and pancreas were approximately 0.008, 0.004, and 0.039, respectively. While these values were so much lower than target (tumor) absorbed-dose, it seems due to this low toxicity, this complex is a good agent for therapy.

Keywords: ¹⁷⁷Lu, breast cancer, compartmental modeling, dosimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
1348 Preliminary Dosimetric Evaluation of Two New 153Sm Bone Pain Palliative Agents

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, N. Amraee, Z. Naseri, Ar. Jalilian


The purpose of this study was to calculate the absorbed dose to each human organ for two new Sm-153 bone-seeking agents in order to evaluate their effectiveness in bone pain palliation therapy. In this work, the absorbed dose of 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP to each human organ was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats by radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. The highest absorbed dose for 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP is observed in trabecular bone with 1.844 and 3.167 mGy/MBq, respectively. Bone/red marrow dose ratio, as the target/critical organ dose ratio, for 153Sm-PDTMP is greater than 153Sm-TTHMP and is compatible with 153Sm-EDTMP. The results showed that these bone-seeking agents, specially 153Sm-PDTMP, have considerable characteristics compared to the most clinically used bone pain palliative radiopharmaceutical, and therefore, can be good candidates for bone pain palliation in patients with bone metastasis; however, further biological studies in other mammals are still needed.

Keywords: internal dosimetry, PDTMP, 153Sm, TTHMP

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1347 Human Absorbed Dose Estimation of a New In-111 Imaging Agent Based on Rat Data

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri


The measurement of organ radiation exposure dose is one of the most important steps to be taken initially, for developing a new radiopharmaceutical. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis, 111In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10 tetraethylene phosphonic acid (111In-DOTMP) complex, have been carried out to estimate the dose in human organs based on the data derived from rats. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity in the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex was investigated in the male Syrian rats at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was made based on data derived from the rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-DOTMP complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity of >99% (ITLC). Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-DOTMP was 0.061 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose with respect to the critical organs is satisfactory within the acceptable range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-DOTMP has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, DOTMP, Internal Dosimetry, RADAR

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1346 Estimated Human Absorbed Dose of 111 In-BPAMD as a New Bone-Seeking Spect-Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri


An early diagnosis of bone metastases is very important for providing a profound decision on a subsequent therapy. A prerequisite for the clinical application of new diagnostic radiopharmaceutical is the measurement of organ radiation exposure dose from biodistribution data in animals. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of bone methastases, 111In-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (111In-BPAMD) complex, have been estimated in human organs based on mice data. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity at the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex were investigated in male Syrian mice at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was performed based on mice data by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-BPAMD complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity >95% (ITLC) and specific activities of 2.85 TBq/mmol. Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-BPAMD was 0.205 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose to critical organs the complex is well within the acceptable considered range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-BPAMD has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastases in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, BPAMD, absorbed dose, RADAR

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1345 Preliminary dosimetric Evaluation of a New Therapeutic 177LU Complex for Human Based on Biodistribution Data in Rats

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Golabi Dezfuli


Tris (1,10-phenanthroline) lanthanum(III)] trithiocyanate is a new compound that has shown to stop DNA synthesis in CCRF-CEM and Ehrlich ascites cells leading to a cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. One other important property of the phenanthroline nucleus is its ability to act as a triplet-state photosensitizer especially in complexes with lanthanides. In Nowadays, the radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method is known as the most common method for absorbed dose calculation. 177Lu was produced by irradiation of a natural Lu2O3 target at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 4 × 1013 n/cm2•s. 177Lu-PL3 was prepared in the optimized condition. The radiochemical yield was checked by ITLC method. The biodistribution of the complex was investigated by intravenously injection to wild-type rats via their tail veins. In this study, the absorbed dose of 177Lu-PL3 to human organs was estimated by RADAR method. 177Lu was prepared with a specific activity of 2.6-3 and radionuclide purity of 99.98 %. The 177Lu-PL3 complex can prepare with high radiochemical yield (> 99 %) at optimized conditions. The results show that liver and spleen have received the highest absorbed dose of 1.051 and 0.441 mSv/MBq, respectivley. The absorbed dose values for these two dose-limiting tissues suggest more biological studies special in tumor-bearing animals.

Keywords: internal dosimetry, Lutetium-177, radar, animals

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1344 Mathematical modeling of the calculation of the absorbed dose in uranium production workers with the genetic effects.

Authors: P. Kazymbet, G. Abildinova, K.Makhambetov, M. Bakhtin, D. Rybalkina, K. Zhumadilov


Conducted cytogenetic research in workers Stepnogorsk Mining-Chemical Combine (Akmola region) with the study of 26341 chromosomal metaphase. Using a regression analysis with program DataFit, version 5.0, dependence between exposure dose and the following cytogenetic exponents has been studied: frequency of aberrant cells, frequency of chromosomal aberrations, frequency of the amounts of dicentric chromosomes, and centric rings. Experimental data on calibration curves "dose-effect" enabled the development of a mathematical model, allowing on data of the frequency of aberrant cells, chromosome aberrations, the amounts of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings calculate the absorbed dose at the time of the study. In the dose range of 0.1 Gy to 5.0 Gy dependence cytogenetic parameters on the dose had the following equation: Y = 0,0067е^0,3307х (R2 = 0,8206) – for frequency of chromosomal aberrations; Y = 0,0057е^0,3161х (R2 = 0,8832) –for frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations; Y =5 Е-0,5е^0,6383 (R2 = 0,6321) – or frequency of the amounts of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings on cells. On the basis of cytogenetic parameters and regression equations calculated absorbed dose in workers of uranium production at the time of the study did not exceed 0.3 Gy.

Keywords: Stepnogorsk, mathematical modeling, cytogenetic, dicentric chromosomes

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1343 Ethanol Chlorobenzene Dosimetr Usage for Measuring Dose of the Intraoperative Linear Electron Accelerator System

Authors: Mojtaba Barzegar, Alireza Shirazi, Saied Rabi Mahdavi


Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is an innovative treatment modality that the delivery of a large single dose of radiation to the tumor bed during the surgery. The radiotherapy success depends on the absorbed dose delivered to the tumor. The achievement better accuracy in patient treatment depends upon the measured dose by standard dosimeter such as ionization chamber, but because of the high density of electric charge/pulse produced by the accelerator in the ionization chamber volume, the standard correction factor for ion recombination Ksat calculated with the classic two-voltage method is overestimated so the use of dose/pulse independent dosimeters such as chemical Fricke and ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosimeters have been suggested. Dose measurement is usually calculated and calibrated in the Zmax. Ksat calculated by comparison of ion chamber response and ECB dosimeter at each applicator degree, size, and dose. The relative output factors for IORT applicators have been calculated and compared with experimentally determined values and the results simulated by Monte Carlo software. The absorbed doses have been calculated and measured with statistical uncertainties less than 0.7% and 2.5% consecutively. The relative differences between calculated and measured OF’s were up to 2.5%, for major OF’s the agreement was better. In these conditions, together with the relative absorbed dose calculations, the OF’s could be considered as an indication that the IORT electron beams have been well simulated. These investigations demonstrate the utility of the full Monte Carlo simulation of accelerator head with ECB dosimeter allow us to obtain detailed information of clinical IORT beams.

Keywords: intra operative radiotherapy, ethanol chlorobenzene, ksat, output factor, monte carlo simulation

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1342 Pretherapy Initial Dosimetry Results in Prostat Cancer Radionuclide Therapy with Lu-177-PSMA-DOTA-617

Authors: M. Abuqebitah, H. Tanyildizi, N. Yeyin, I. Cavdar, M. Demir, L. Kabasakal


Aim: Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is an increasingly used treatment modality for wide range of cancers. Presently dosimetry is highly required either to plan treatment or to ascertain the absorbed dose delivered to critical organs during treatment. Methods and Materials: The study comprised 7 patients suffered from prostate cancer with progressive disease and candidate to undergo Lu-177-DOTA-617 therapy following to PSMA- PET/CT imaging for all patients. (5.2±0.3 mCi) was intravenously injected. To evaluate bone marrow absorbed dose 2 cc blood samples were withdrawn in short variable times (3, 15, 30, 60, 180 minutes) after injection. Furthermore, whole body scans were performed using scintillation gama camera in 4, 24, 48, and 120 hours after injection and in order to quantify the activity taken up in the body, kidneys , liver, right parotid, and left parotid the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts were determined through ROI analysis, after that background subtraction and attenuation correction were applied using patients PSMA- PET/CT images taking in a consideration: organ thickness, body thickness, and Hounsfield unites from CT scan. OLINDA/EXM dosimetry program was used for curve fitting, residence time calculation, and absorbed dose calculations. Findings: Absorbed doses of bone marrow, left kidney, right kidney, liver, left parotid, right parotid, total body were 1.28±0.52, 32.36±16.36, 32.7±13.68, 10.35±3.45, 38.67±21.29, 37.55±19.77, 2.25±0.95 (mGy/mCi), respectively. Conclusion: Our first results clarify that Lu-177-DOTA-617 is safe and reliable therapy as there were no complications seen. In the other hand, the observable variation in the absorbed dose of the critical organs among the patients necessitate patient-specific dosimetry approach to save body organs and particularly highly exposed kidneys and parotid gland.

Keywords: Lu-177-PSMA, prostate cancer, radionuclide therapy

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1341 Assessment of Gamma Radiation Exposure of Soils Associated with Granitic Rocks in Kapıdağ Peninsula, Turkey

Authors: Buket Canbaz Öztürk, N. Füsun Çam, Günseli Yaprak, Osman Candan


The external terrestrial radiation exposure is related to the types of rock from which the soils originate. Higher radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks, such as granite, and lower levels with sedimentary rocks. Therefore, this study aims to assess the gamma radiation exposure of soils associated with granitic rocks in Kapıdağ Peninsula, Turkey. In the ongoing study, a comprehensive survey carried out systematically as a part of the environmental monitoring program on radiologic impact of the granitoid areas in Western Anatolia. The activity measurements of the gamma emitters (238U, 232Th and 40K) in the surface soil samples and the granitic rocks carried out by means of NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the external (Hex) hazard index were calculated according to the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all natural radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h-1 and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noticed in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the correlation between soil and granitic rock samples were utilized, and external gamma radiation exposure distribution was mapped in Kapıdağ Peninsula.

Keywords: external absorbed dose, granitic rocks, Kapıdağ Peninsula, soil

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1340 CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet

Authors: Amir Moslemi, Amir movafeghi, Shahab Moradi


One of the most important challenging factors in medical images is nominated as noise.Image denoising refers to the improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography (CT) images are subjected to low quality due to the noise. The quality of CT images is dependent on the absorbed dose to patients directly in such a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this manner, noise reduction techniques on the purpose of images quality enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise reduction in CT images was performed using two different directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and Contourlet and Discrete wavelet transform(DWT) thresholding methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result in good visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure similarity (Ssim).

Keywords: computed tomography (CT), noise reduction, curve-let, contour-let, signal to noise peak-peak ratio (PSNR), structure similarity (Ssim), absorbed dose to patient (ADP)

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1339 Comparison of Breast Surface Doses for Full-Field Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Using Breast Phantoms

Authors: Chia-Hui Chen, Chien-Kuo Wang


Background: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is widely used in diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Hence, the radiation dose delivered to the patients involved in an imaging protocol is of utmost concern. Aim: To compare the surface radiation dose (ESD) of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) by using breast phantoms. Method: We analyzed the average entrance surface dose (ESD) of FFDM and DBT by using breast phantoms. Optically Stimulated luminescent Dosimeters (OSLD) were placed in a tissue-equivalent Breast phantom at difference sites of interest. Absorbed dose measurements were obtained after digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) exposures. Results: An automatic exposure control (AEC) is proposed for surface dose measurement during DBT and FFDM. The mean ESD values for DBT and FFDM were 6.37 mGy and 3.51mGy, respectively. Using of OSLD measured for surface dose during DBT and FFDM. There were 19.87 mGy and 11.36 mGy, respectively. The surface exposure dose of DBT could possibly be increased by two times with FFDM. Conclusion: The radiation dose from DBT was higher than that of FFDM and the difference in dose between AEC and OSLD measurements at phantom surface.

Keywords: full-field digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, surface dose

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1338 Comparative Study of Dose Calculation Accuracy in Bone Marrow Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Marzieh Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh Rezaee


Introduction: The effect of ionizing radiation on human health can be effective for genomic integrity and cell viability. It also increases the risk of cancer and malignancy. Therefore, X-ray behavior and absorption dose calculation are considered. One of the applicable tools for calculating and evaluating the absorption dose in human tissues is Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo offers a straightforward way to simulate and integrate, and because it is simple and straightforward, Monte Carlo is easy to use. The Monte Carlo BEAMnrc code is one of the most common diagnostic X-ray simulation codes used in this study. Method: In one of the understudy hospitals, a certain number of CT scan images of patients who had previously been imaged were extracted from the hospital database. BEAMnrc software was used for simulation. The simulation of the head of the device with the energy of 0.09 MeV with 500 million particles was performed, and the output data obtained from the simulation was applied for phantom construction using CT CREATE software. The percentage of depth dose (PDD) was calculated using STATE DOSE was then compared with international standard values. Results and Discussion: The ratio of surface dose to depth dose (D/Ds) in the measured energy was estimated to be about 4% to 8% for bone and 3% to 7% for bone marrow. Conclusion: MC simulation is an efficient and accurate method for simulating bone marrow and calculating the absorbed dose.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, absorption dose, BEAMnrc, bone marrow

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1337 Viability of EBT3 Film in Small Dimensions to Be Use for in-Vivo Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

Authors: Abdul Qadir Jangda, Khadija Mariam, Usman Ahmed, Sharib Ahmed


The Gafchromic EBT3 film has the characteristic of high spatial resolution, weak energy dependence and near tissue equivalence which makes them viable to be used for in-vivo dosimetry in External Beam and Brachytherapy applications. The aim of this study is to assess the smallest film dimension that may be feasible for the use in in-vivo dosimetry. To evaluate the viability, the film sizes from 3 x 3 mm to 20 x 20 mm were calibrated with 6 MV Photon and 6 MeV electron beams. The Gafchromic EBT3 (Lot no. A05151201, Make: ISP) film was cut into five different sizes in order to establish the relationship between absorbed dose vs. film dimensions. The film dimension were 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 15 x 15, and 20 x 20 mm. The films were irradiated on Varian Clinac® 2100C linear accelerator for dose range from 0 to 1000 cGy using PTW solid water phantom. The irradiation was performed as per clinical absolute dose rate calibratin setup, i.e. 100 cm SAD, 5.0 cm depth and field size of 10x10 cm2 and 100 cm SSD, 1.4 cm depth and 15x15 cm2 applicator for photon and electron respectively. The irradiated films were scanned with the landscape orientation and a post development time of 48 hours (minimum). Film scanning accomplished using Epson Expression 10000 XL Flatbed Scanner and quantitative analysis carried out with ImageJ freeware software. Results show that the dose variation with different film dimension ranging from 3 x 3 mm to 20 x 20 mm is very minimal with a maximum standard deviation of 0.0058 in Optical Density for a dose level of 3000 cGy and the the standard deviation increases with the increase in dose level. So the precaution must be taken while using the small dimension films for higher doses. Analysis shows that there is insignificant variation in the absorbed dose with a change in film dimension of EBT3 film. Study concludes that the film dimension upto 3 x 3 mm can safely be used up to a dose level of 3000 cGy without the need of recalibration for particular dimension in use for dosimetric application. However, for higher dose levels, one may need to calibrate the films for a particular dimension in use for higher accuracy. It was also noticed that the crystalline structure of the film got damage at the edges while cutting the film, which can contribute to the wrong dose if the region of interest includes the damage area of the film

Keywords: external beam radiotherapy, film calibration, film dosimetery, in-vivo dosimetery

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1336 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Hard Ferrites

Authors: F. Abbas Pour Khotbehsara, B. Salehpour, A. Kianvash


Many industrial materials like magnets need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) where the accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large influences of beta, neutron and gamma’s over their life Gamma irradiation of the permanent sample magnets using a 60Co source was investigated up to an absorbed dose of 700Mrad shows a negligible effect on some magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B. In this work, it has been tried to investigate the change of some important properties of Barium hexa ferrite. Results showed little decreases of magnetic properties at doses rang of 0.5 to 2.5 Mrad. But at the gamma irradiation dose up to 10 Mrad it is showed a few increase of properties. Also study of gamma irradiation of Nd-Fe-B showed considerably increase of magnetic properties.

Keywords: gamma ray irradiation, hard ferrite, magnetic coefficient, magnetic material, radiation dose

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1335 The Use of the Matlab Software as the Best Way to Recognize Penumbra Region in Radiotherapy

Authors: Alireza Shayegan, Morteza Amirabadi


The y tool was developed to quantitatively compare dose distributions, either measured or calculated. Before computing ɣ, the dose and distance scales of the two distributions, referred to as evaluated and reference, are re-normalized by dose and distance criteria, respectively. The re-normalization allows the dose distribution comparison to be conducted simultaneously along dose and distance axes. Several two-dimensional images were acquired using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber EPID and Extended Dose Range (EDR2) films for regular and irregular radiation fields. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional dose maps. Transitional and rotational manipulations were performed for images using Matlab software. As evaluated dose distribution maps, they were then compared with the corresponding original dose maps as the reference dose maps.

Keywords: energetic electron, gamma function, penumbra, Matlab software

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1334 Measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in Soil Samples Collected from Coal City Dhanbad, India

Authors: Zubair Ahmad


Specific activities of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using γ - ray spectrometric technique in soil samples collected from the city of Dhanbad, which is located near coal mines. Mean activity values for 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 60.29 Bq/kg, 64.50 Bq/kg and 481.0 Bq/kg, respectively. Mean radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, outdoor dose, external hazard index, internal hazard index, for the area under study were determined as 189.53 Bq/kg, 87.21 nGy/h, 0.37 mSv/y, 0.52 and 0.64, respectively. The annual effective dose to the general public was found 0.44 mSv/y. This value lies well below the limit of 1 mSv/y as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Measured values were found safe for environment and public health.

Keywords: coal city Dhanbad, gamma-ray spectroscopy, natural radioactivity, soil samples

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1333 The Effect of Varying Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Resolution and Field-of-View Centralization on the Effective Radiation Dose

Authors: Fatima M. Jadu, Asmaa A. Alzahrani, Maha A. Almutairi, Salma O. Al-Amoudi, Mawya A. Khafaji


Introduction: Estimating the potential radiation risk for a widely used imaging technique such as cone beam CT (CBCT) is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying two CBCT technical factors, the voxel size (VOX) and the Field-of-View (FOV) centralization, on the radiation dose. Methodology: The head and neck slices of a RANDO® man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories) were used with nanoDot™ OSLD dosimeters to measure the absorbed radiation dose at 25 predetermined sites. Imaging was done using the i-CAT® (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA, USA) CBCT unit. The VOX was changed for every three cycles of exposures from 0.2mm to 0.3mm and then 0.4mm. Then the FOV was centered on the maxilla and mandible alternatively while holding all other factors constant. Finally, the effective radiation dose was calculated for each view and voxel setting. Results: The effective radiation dose was greatest when the smallest VOX was chosen. When the FOV was centered on the maxilla, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the eyes and parotid glands. While on the mandible, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the sublingual and submandibular glands. Conclusion: Minor variations in the CBCT exposure factors significantly affect the effective radiation dose and thus the radiation risk to the patient. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when choosing these parameters especially for vulnerable patients such as children.

Keywords: CBCT, cone beam CT, effective dose, field of view, mandible, maxilla, resolution, voxel

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1332 Compartmental Model Approach for Dosimetric Calculations of ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTATOC in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer Based on Animal Data

Authors: M. S. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, F. Abbasi-Davani


Dosimetry is an indispensable and precious factor in patient treatment planning; to minimize the absorbed dose in vital tissues. In this study, In accordance with the proper characteristics of DOTATOC and ¹⁷⁷Lu, after preparing ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTATOC at the optimal conditions for the first time in Iran, radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the solution was investigated using an HPGe spectrometer and ITLC method, respectively. The biodistribution of the compound was assayed for treatment of adenocarcinoma breast cancer in bearing BALB/c mice. The results have demonstrated that ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTATOC is a profitable selection for therapy of the tumors. Because of the vital role of internal dosimetry before and during therapy, the effort to improve the accuracy and rapidity of dosimetric calculations is necessary. For this reason, a new method was accomplished to calculate the absorbed dose through mixing between compartmental model, animal dosimetry and extrapolated data from animal to human and using MIRD method. Despite utilization of compartmental model based on the experimental data, it seems this approach may increase the accuracy of dosimetric data, confidently.

Keywords: ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTATOC, biodistribution modeling, compartmental model, internal dosimetry

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1331 Difference between 'HDR Ir-192 and Co-60 Sources' for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Machine

Authors: Md Serajul Islam


High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy is used for cancer patients. In our country’s prospect, we are using only cervices and breast cancer treatment by using HDR. The air kerma rate in air at a reference distance of less than a meter from the source is the recommended quantity for the specification of gamma ray source Ir-192 in brachytherapy. The absorbed dose for the patients is directly proportional to the air kerma rate. Therefore the air kerma rate should be determined before the first use of the source on patients by qualified medical physicist who is independent from the source manufacturer. The air kerma rate will then be applied in the calculation of the dose delivered to patients in their planning systems. In practice, high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 afterloader machines are mostly used in brachytherapy treatment. Currently, HDR-Co-60 increasingly comes into operation too. The essential advantage of the use of Co-60 sources is its longer half-life compared to Ir-192. The use of HDRCo-60 afterloading machines is also quite interesting for developing countries. This work describes the dosimetry at HDR afterloading machines according to the protocols IAEA-TECDOC-1274 (2002) with the nuclides Ir-192 and Co-60. We have used 3 different measurement methods (with a ring chamber, with a solid phantom and in free air and with a well chamber) in dependence of each of the protocols. We have shown that the standard deviations of the measured air kerma rate for the Co-60 source are generally larger than those of the Ir-192 source. The measurements with the well chamber had the lowest deviation from the certificate value. In all protocols and methods, the deviations stood for both nuclides by a maximum of about 1% for Ir-192 and 2.5% for Co-60-Sources respectively.

Keywords: Ir-192 source, cancer, patients, cheap treatment cost

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1330 Analysis of Radiation-Induced Liver Disease (RILD) and Evaluation of Relationship between Therapeutic Activity and Liver Clearance Rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin in Yttrium-90 Microspheres Treatment

Authors: H. Tanyildizi, M. Abuqebitah, I. Cavdar, M. Demir, L. Kabasakal


Aim: Whole liver radiation has the modest benefit in the treatment of unresectable hepatic metastases but the radiation doses must keep in control. Otherwise, RILD complications may arise. In this study, we aimed to calculate amount of maximum permissible activity (MPA) and critical organ absorbed doses with MIRD methodology, to evaluate tumour doses for treatment response and whole liver doses for RILD and to find optimal liver function test additionally. Materials and Methods: This study includes 29 patients who attended our nuclear medicine department suffering from Y-90 microspheres treatment. 10 mCi Tc-99m MAA was applied to the patients for dosimetry via IV. After the injection, whole body SPECT/CT images were taken in one hour. The minimum therapeutic tumour dose is on the point of being 120 Gy1, the amount of activities were calculated with MIRD methodology considering volumetric tumour/liver rate. A sub-working group was created with 11 patients randomly and liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin was calculated according to Ekman formalism. Results: The volumetric tumour/liver rates were found between 33-66% (Maksimum Tolarable Dose (MTD) 48-52Gy3) for 4 patients, were found less than 33% (MTD 72Gy3) for 25 patients. According to these results the average amount of activity, mean liver dose and mean tumour dose were found 1793.9±1.46 MBq, 32.86±0.19 Gy, and 138.26±0.40 Gy. RILD was not observed in any patient. In sub-working group, the relationship between Bilirubin, Albumin, INR (which show presence of liver disease and its degree), liver clearance with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin and calculated activity amounts were found r=0.49, r=0.27, r=0.43, r=0.57, respectively. Discussions: The minimum tumour dose was found 120 Gy for positive dose-response relation. If volumetric tumour/liver rate was > 66%, dose 30 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate 33-66%, dose escalation 48 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate < 33%, dose 72 Gy. These dose limitations did not create RILD. Clearance measurement with Mebrofenin was concluded that the best method to determine the liver function. Therefore, liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin should be considered in calculation of yttrium-90 microspheres dosimetry.

Keywords: clearance, dosimetry, liver, RILD

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1329 Evaluation of Dynamic Log Files for Different Dose Rates in IMRT Plans

Authors: Saad Bin Saeed, Fayzan Ahmed, Shahbaz Ahmed, Amjad Hussain


The aim of this study is to evaluate dynamic log files (Dynalogs) at different dose rates by dose-volume histograms (DVH) and used as a (QA) procedure of IMRT. Seven patients of phase one head and neck cancer with similar OAR`s are selected randomly. Reference plans of dose rate 300 and 600 MU/Min with prescribed dose of 50Gy in 25 fractions for each patient is made. Dynalogs produced by delivery of reference plans processed by in-house MATLAB program which produces new field files contain actual positions of multi-leaf collimators (MLC`s) instead of planned positions in reference plans. Copies of reference plans are used to import new field files generated by MATLAB program and renamed as Dyn.plan. After dose calculations of Dyn.plans for different dose rates, DVH, and multiple linear regression tools are used to evaluate reference and Dyn.plans. The results indicate good agreement of correlation between different dose rate plans. The maximum dose difference among PTV and OAR`s are found to be less than 5% and 9% respectively. The study indicates the potential of dynalogs to be used as patient-specific QA of IMRT at different dose rate.

Keywords: IMRT, dynalogs, dose rate, DVH

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1328 Determination of Natural Gamma Radioactivity in Sand along the Black Sea Coastal Region of Giresun, North Turkey

Authors: A. Karadeniz, Belgin Kucukomeroglu


In this study natural gamma radioactivity levels are determined on sands along the coastal regions of Giresun/Turkey. The coast of Giresun about 290 km long in investigated to collect 101 sand samples. Natural and artificial radioactivity concentrations of sand samples were measured by using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs on sand samples of Giresun were found to be 10.83±2.92 Bq/kg, 21.28±3.22 Bq/kg, 6.42±1.06 Bq/kg, 230.94±10.67 Bq/kg respectively. The average activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other parts of Turkey and other countries. The average absorbed dose rate for Giresun was calculated to be 38.68 nGy/h respectively. This value is significantly lower than the World averaged value of 60 nGy/h. The external annual effective dose rate concentration in Giresun was found to be 0.047 mSv/y respectively. This result is much lower than the recommeded limit of 5 mSv/y. The external hazard dose rate for Giresun weas calculated to be 0.21 respectively. This result is much lower than the recommended limit of 1.0.

Keywords: concentration, radioactivity, Giresun, natural gamma radioactivity

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