Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 669

Search results for: bone metastases

669 Production and Quality Control of a Novel 153Sm-Complex for Radiotherapy of Bone-Metastases

Authors: H. Yousefnia, R. Enayati, M. Hosntalab, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani

Abstract:

Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease, however their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation of 153Sm-(4-{[bis-(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (BPAMD) for bone pain palliation therapy. 153Sm was produced at Tehran research reactor via 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. 200 µl of 1mg/ml BPAMD solution was added to the vial containing 1 mCi 153Sm and the mixture was heated up to 90 0C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity of the complex was measured by ITLC method. The final solution with radiochemical purity of more than 95% was injected to BALB mice and bio distribution was determined up to 48 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. While high bone uptake was confirmed by both the bio distribution studies and SPECT imaging, accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 153Sm-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for bone pain palliation therapy.

Keywords: bone metastases, BPAMD, 153Sm, radiotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
668 Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-1,2-Propylene Di-Amino Tetra (Methylenephosphonic Acid)

Authors: N. Tadayon, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian

Abstract:

Bone metastases occur in many patients with solid malignant tumors. Recently, 1,2 propylene di-amino tetra methylenephosphonic acid (PDTMP) has been introduced as a suitable carrier in the development of therapeutic bone-avid radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, due to the desirable characteristics of 68Ga, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A stock solution of PDTMP was prepared by dissolving in 2 N NaOH. A certain volume of the stock solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared in only 15 min with radiochemical purity of more than 98%. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: bone metastases, Ga-68, imaging, PDTMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
667 The Superiority of 18F-Sodium Fluoride PET/CT for Detecting Bone Metastases in Comparison with Other Bone Diagnostic Imaging Modalities

Authors: Mojtaba Mirmontazemi, Habibollah Dadgar

Abstract:

Bone is the most common metastasis site in some advanced malignancies, such as prostate and breast cancer. Bone metastasis generally indicates fewer prognostic factors in these patients. Different radiological and molecular imaging modalities are used for detecting bone lesions. Molecular imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, planar bone scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography, and positron emission tomography as noninvasive visualization of the biological occurrences has the potential to exact examination, characterization, risk stratification and comprehension of human being diseases. Also, it is potent to straightly visualize targets, specify clearly cellular pathways and provide precision medicine for molecular targeted therapies. These advantages contribute implement personalized treatment for each patient. Currently, NaF PET/CT has significantly replaced standard bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. On one hand, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has gained high attention for accurate staging of primary prostate cancer and restaging after biochemical recurrence. On the other hand, FDG PET/CT is not commonly used in osseous metastases of prostate and breast cancer as well as its usage is limited to staging patients with aggressive primary tumors or localizing the site of disease. In this article, we examine current studies about FDG, NaF, and PSMA PET/CT images in bone metastases diagnostic utility and assess response to treatment in patients with breast and prostate cancer.

Keywords: skeletal metastases, fluorodeoxyglucose, sodium fluoride, molecular imaging, precision medicine, prostate cancer (68Ga-PSMA-11)

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
666 Psychological Aspects of Quality of Life in Patients with Primary and Metastatic Bone Tumors

Authors: O. Yu Shchelkova, E. B. Usmanova

Abstract:

Introduction: Last decades scientific research of quality of life (QoL) is developing fast worldwide. QoL concept pays attention to emotional experience of disease in patients, particularly to personal sense of possibility to satisfy actual needs and possibility of full social functioning in spite of disease limitations. QoL in oncological patients is studied intensively. Nevertheless, the issue of QoL in patients with bone tumors focused on psychological factors of QoL and relation to disease impact on QoL is not discussed. The aim of the study was to reveal the basic aspects and personality factors of QoL in patients with bone tumor. Results: Study participants were 139 patients with bone tumors. The diagnoses were osteosarcoma (n=42), giant cell tumor (n=32), chondrosarcoma (n=32), Ewing sarcoma (n=10) and bone metastases (n=23). The study revealed that patients with bone metastases assess their health significantly worse than other patients. Besides patients with osteosarcoma evaluate their general health higher than patients with giant cell tumors. Social functioning in patients with chondrosarcoma is higher than in patients with bone metastases and patients with giant cell tumor. Patients with chondrosarcoma have higher physical functioning and less restricted in daily activities than patients with bone metastases. Patients with bone metastases characterize their pain as more widespread than patients with primary bone tumors and have more functional restrictions due to bone incision. Moreover, the study revealed personality significant influence on QoL related to bone tumors. Such characteristics in structure of personality as high degree of self-consciousness, personal resources, cooperation and disposition to positive reappraisal in difficult situation correspond to higher QoL. Otherwise low personal resources and slight problem solving behaviour, low degree of self-consciousness and high social dependence correspond to decrease of QoL in patients with bone tumors. Conclusion: Patients with bone metastasis have lower QoL compared to patients with primary bone tumors. Patients with giant cell tumor have the worth quality of life among patients with primary bone tumors. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in QoL parameters associated with personality characteristics in patients with bone tumors. Such psychological factors as future goals, interest in life and emotional saturation, besides high degree of personal resources and cooperation influence on increasing QoL in patients with bone tumors.

Keywords: quality of life, psychological factors, bone tumor, personality

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
665 Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Solitary Bony Metastases to the Frontal Bone of the Skull

Authors: Christy M. Moen, Richard B. Townsley

Abstract:

Introduction: Metastasis to the frontal bone in thyroid cancer is extremely rare. A literature review found only six cases of thyroid cancer that metastasised to the frontal bone, with two of those involving further bone sites. Case Report: The patient was originally referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery team with an isolated mass on her forehead. Biopsies were performed, which showed this was likely a metastatic deposit from thyroid cancer. CT-PET scan showed this was an isolated lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy, and the forehead lesion was managed with radiotherapy. On interval scanning, the patient’s bony lesion had increased in size and had new lung nodules, which likely represented further metastasis. Conclusion: Isolated bony metastases to the frontal bone are rare. An important clinical principle to remember is that a bony metastasis from an unknown primary is more likely than primary bone cancer.

Keywords: cancer, thyroid, head and neck, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
664 Production, Quality Control, and Biodistribution Assessment of 111In-BPAMD as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, A. Aghanejad, A. Mirzaei, R. Enayati, A. R. Jalilian, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease; however, their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 111In-BPAMD for diagnostic purposes. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with BPAMD was carried out by using acidic solution of 111InCl3 and BPAMD in absolute water. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, ligand concentration, pH, and time on the radiolabeled yield was studied. 111In-BPAMD was prepared successfully with the radiochemical purity of 95% at the optimized condition (100 µg of BPAMD, pH=5, and at 90°C for 1 h) which was measured by ITLC method. The final solution was injected to wild-type mice and biodistribution was determined up to 72 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake while accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 111In-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, BPAMD, 111In, SPECT

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
663 Assessment of the Radiation Absorbed Dose Produced by Lu-177, Ra-223, AC-225 for Metastatic Prostate Cancer in a Bone Model

Authors: Maryam Tajadod

Abstract:

The treatment of cancer is one of the main challenges of nuclear medicine; while cancer begins in an organ, such as the breast or prostate, it spreads to the bone, resulting in metastatic bone. In the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy, the determination of the involved tissues’ dose is one of the important steps in the treatment protocol. Comparing absorbed doses for Lu-177 and Ra-223 and Ac-225 in the bone marrow and soft tissue of bone phantom with evaluating energetic emitted particles of these radionuclides is the important aim of this research. By the use of MCNPX computer code, a model for bone phantom was designed and the values of absorbed dose for Ra-223 and Ac-225, which are Alpha emitters & Lu-177, which is a beta emitter, were calculated. As a result of research, in comparing gamma radiation for three radionuclides, Lu-177 released the highest dose in the bone marrow and Ra-223 achieved the lowest level. On the other hand, the result showed that although the figures of absorbed dose for Ra and Ac in the bone marrow are near to each other, Ra spread more energy in cortical bone. Moreover, The alpha component of the Ra-223 and Ac-225 have very little effect on bone marrow and soft tissue than a beta component of the lu-177 and it leaves the highest absorbed dose in the bone where the source is located.

Keywords: bone metastases, lutetium-177, radium-223, actinium-225, absorbed dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
662 Development of 111In-DOTMP as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, AR. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, A. Bahrami-Samani, M. Erfani

Abstract:

The objective of this study is the preparation of 111In-DOTMP as a new bone imaging agent. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with DOTMP was carried out by adding 0.1 ml of the stock solution (50 mg/ml in 2 N NaoH) to the vial containing 1 mCi of 111In. pH of the mixture was adjusted to 7-8 by means of phosphate buffer. The radiochemical purity of the complex at the optimized condition was higher than 98% (by using whatman No.1 paper in NH4OH:MeOH: H2O (0.2:2:4)). Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake. The ratio of bone to other soft tissue accumulation was significantly high which permit to observe high quality images. The results show that 111In-DOTMP can be used as a suitable tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, DOTMP, 111In, SPECT

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
661 A Review on Bone Grafting, Artificial Bone Substitutes and Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Kasun Gayashan Samarawickrama

Abstract:

Bone diseases, defects, and fractions are commonly seen in modern life. Since bone is regenerating dynamic living tissue, it will undergo healing process naturally, it cannot recover from major bone injuries, diseases and defects. In order to overcome them, bone grafting technique was introduced. Gold standard was the best method for bone grafting for the past decades. Due to limitations of gold standard, alternative methods have been implemented. Apart from them artificial bone substitutes and bone tissue engineering have become the emerging methods with technology for bone grafting. Many bone diseases and defects will be healed permanently with these promising techniques in future.

Keywords: bone grafting, gold standard, bone substitutes, bone tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
660 Radiological Analysis of Skeletal Metastases from Cervical Cancer

Authors: Jacklynn Walters, Amanda A. Alblas, Linda M. Greyling

Abstract:

Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer found in women. Diagnosis of skeletal metastases is uncommon in cervical cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of skeletal metastases in in a Western Cape skeletal population. Skeletal samples (n=14) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection at Stellenbosch University, diagnosed pre-mortem with cervical cancer, were examined. Macroscopic analysis was done using low magnification to examine each skeletal element for signs of disease. Skeletons were also x-rayed using the Lodox® Statscan® Imaging system and the scans evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Three (21%) of the skeletons showed metastases, with the os coxae and lower vertebral column affected in all three cases. Furthermore, metastases occurred in the scapulae and ribs in two of the cases and in one case the skull, mandible, and long bones were affected. Additionally, three skeletons without evidence of skeletal metastases presented with a periosteal reaction on the os coxae in response to the diseased adjacent soft tissue. Previous studies observed that skeletal metastases are more common than what is diagnosed pre-mortem with the vertebral spine most commonly affected. The findings of this study agree with previous reports and illustrate the effectiveness of the Lodox® scanner in diagnoses of metastases in skeletal material.

Keywords: cancer, cervix, radiology, skeletal metastases

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
659 Biodistribution Study of 68GA-PDTMP as a New Bone Pet Imaging Agent

Authors: N. Tadayon, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian

Abstract:

In this study, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared as a new agent for bone imaging. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A certain volume of the PDTMP solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution of this new agent was assessed in rats after intravenously injection of the complex. For this purpose, the rats were killed at specified times after injection and the weight and activity of each organ was measured. Injected dose per gram was calculated by dividing the activity of each organ to the total injected activity and the mass of each organ. As expected the most of the activity was accumulated in the bone tissue. The radiolabelled compound was extracted from blood very fast. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: biodistribution, Ga-68, imaging, PDTMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
658 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Secondary Distant Metastases Growth in Patients with Lymph Nodes Metastases

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of the progression and stages of breast cancer. We propose Consolidated mathematical growth model of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases (CoM-III) as a new research tool. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-III which reflects relations between primary tumor and secondary distant metastases; 3) analyzing the CoM-III scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. Firstly, the CoM-III includes exponential tumor growth model as a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations. Secondly, mathematical model corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-III model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; b) make forecast of the period of the distant metastases appearance in patients with lymph nodes metastases; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-III: the number of doublings for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of secondary distant metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of secondary distant metastases. The CoM-III enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-III describes correctly primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth of IA, IIA, IIB, IIIB (T1-4N1-3M0) stages in patients with lymph nodes metastases (N1-3); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and inception of secondary distant metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical model, primary tumor, secondary metastases, survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
657 Estimated Human Absorbed Dose of 111 In-BPAMD as a New Bone-Seeking Spect-Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

An early diagnosis of bone metastases is very important for providing a profound decision on a subsequent therapy. A prerequisite for the clinical application of new diagnostic radiopharmaceutical is the measurement of organ radiation exposure dose from biodistribution data in animals. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of bone methastases, 111In-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (111In-BPAMD) complex, have been estimated in human organs based on mice data. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity at the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex were investigated in male Syrian mice at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was performed based on mice data by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-BPAMD complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity >95% (ITLC) and specific activities of 2.85 TBq/mmol. Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-BPAMD was 0.205 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose to critical organs the complex is well within the acceptable considered range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-BPAMD has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastases in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, BPAMD, absorbed dose, RADAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
656 Preliminary Evaluation of Maximum Intensity Projection SPECT Imaging for Whole Body Tc-99m Hydroxymethylene Diphosphonate Bone Scanning

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Hirotaka Shimada, Kyoko Saito

Abstract:

Bone scintigraphy is widely used as a screening tool for bone metastases. However, the 180 to 240 minutes (min) waiting time after the intravenous (i.v.) injection of the tracer is both long and tiresome. To solve this shortcoming, a bone scan with a shorter waiting time is needed. In this study, we applied the Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) and triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction to a whole body bone SPECT (Merged SPECT) and investigated shortening the waiting time. Methods: In a preliminary phantom study, hot gels of 99mTc-HMDP were inserted into sets of rods with diameters ranging from 4 to 19 mm. Each rod set covered a sector of a cylindrical phantom. The activity concentration of all rods was 2.5 times that of the background in the cylindrical body of the phantom. In the human study, SPECT images were obtained from chest to abdomen at 30 to 180 min after 99mTc- hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) injection of healthy volunteers. For both studies, MIP images were reconstructed. Planar whole body images of the patients were also obtained. These were acquired at 200 min. The image quality of the SPECT and the planar images was compared. Additionally, 36 patients with breast cancer were scanned in the same way. The delectability of uptake regions (metastases) was compared visually. Results: In the phantom study, a 4 mm size hot gel was difficult to depict on the conventional SPECT, but MIP images could recognize it clearly. For both the healthy volunteers and the clinical patients, the accumulation of 99mTc-HMDP in the SPECT was good as early as 90 min. All findings of both image sets were in agreement. Conclusion: In phantoms, images from MIP with TEW scatter correction could detect all rods down to those with a diameter of 4 mm. In patients, MIP reconstruction with TEW scatter correction could improve the detectability of hot lesions. In addition, the time between injection and imaging could be shortened from that conventionally used for whole body scans.

Keywords: merged SPECT, MIP, TEW scatter correction, 99mTc-HMDP

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
655 Production, Quality Control, and Biodistribution Studies of 141ce-Edtmp as a Potential Bone Pain Palliation Agent

Authors: Fatemeh Soltani, Simindokht Shirvani Arani, Ali Bahrami Samani, Mahdi Sadeghi, Kamal Yavari

Abstract:

Cerium-141 [T1/2 = 32.501 days, Eβ (max) = 0.580 (29.8%) and 0.435(70.2%) MeV, Eγ=145.44 (48.2%) keV] possesses radionuclidic properties suitable for use in palliative therapy of bone metastases. 141Ce also has gamma energy of 145.44 keV, which resembles that of 99mTc. Therefore, the energy window is adjustable on the Tc-99m energy because of imaging studies. 141Ce can be produced through a relatively easy route that involves thermal neutron bombardment on natural CeO2 in medium flux research reactors (4–5×1013 neutrons/cm2•s). The requirement for an enriched target does not arise. Ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) was synthesized and radiolabeled with 141Ce. Complexation parameters were optimized to achieve maximum yields (>99%). The radiochemical purity of 141Ce-EDTMP was evaluated by radio-thin layer chromatography. The stability of the prepared formulation was monitored for one week at room temperature, and results showed that the preparation was stable during this period (>99%). Biodistribution studies of the complexes carried out in wild-type rats exhibited significant bone uptake with rapid clearance from blood. The properties of produced 141Ce-EDTMP suggest applying a new efficient bone pain palliative therapeutic agent to overcome metastatic bone pains.

Keywords: bone pain palliative, cerium-141, EDTMP, radiopharmaceutical

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
654 Absorbed Dose Estimation of 68Ga-EDTMP in Human Organs

Authors: S. Zolghadri, H. Yousefnia, A. R. Jalilian

Abstract:

Bone metastases are observed in a wide range of cancers leading to intolerable pain. While early detection can help the physicians in the decision of the type of treatment, various radiopharmaceuticals using phosphonates like 68Ga-EDTMP have been developed. In this work, due to the importance of absorbed dose, human absorbed dose of this new agent was calculated for the first time based on biodistribution data in Wild-type rats. 68Ga was obtained from 68Ge/68Ga generator with radionuclidic purity and radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) method using Whatman No. 2 paper and saline. The results indicated the radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabelled complex was injected into the Wild-type rats and its biodistribution was studied up to 120 min. As expected, major accumulation was observed in the bone. Absorbed dose of each human organ was calculated based on biodistribution in the rats using RADAR method. Bone surface and bone marrow with 0.112 and 0.053 mSv/MBq, respectively, received the highest absorbed dose. According to these results, the radiolabeled complex is a suitable and safe option for PET bone imaging.

Keywords: absorbed dose, EDTMP, ⁶⁸Ga, rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
653 Induced Bone Tissue Temperature in Drilling Procedures: A Comparative Laboratory Study with and without Lubrication

Authors: L. Roseiro, C. Veiga, V. Maranha, A. Neto, N. Laraqi, A. Baïri, N. Alilat

Abstract:

In orthopedic surgery there are various situations in which the surgeon needs to implement methods of cutting and drilling the bone. With this type of procedure the generated friction leads to a localized increase in temperature, which may lead to the bone necrosis. Recognizing the importance of studying this phenomenon, an experimental evaluation of the temperatures developed during the procedure of drilling bone has been done. Additionally the influence of the use of the procedure with / without additional lubrication during drilling of bone has also been done. The obtained results are presented and discussed and suggests an advantage in using additional lubrication as a way to minimize the appearance of bone tissue necrosis during bone drilling procedures.

Keywords: bone necrosis, bone drilling, thermography, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
652 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Primary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

Finding algorithms to predict the growth of tumors has piqued the interest of researchers ever since the early days of cancer research. A number of studies were carried out as an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. Mathematical modeling can play a very important role in the prognosis of tumor process of breast cancer. However, mathematical models describe primary tumor growth and metastases growth separately. Consequently, we propose a mathematical growth model for primary tumor and primary metastases which may help to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoM-IV and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-IV which reflects relations between PT and MTS; 3) analyzing the CoM-IV scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The CoM-IV is based on exponential tumor growth model and consists of a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations; corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for primary metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for primary metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-IV model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases; b) make forecast of the period of primary metastases appearance; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of BC and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-IV: the number of doublings for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases. The CoM-IV enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-IV describes correctly primary tumor and primary distant metastases growth of IV (T1-4N0-3M1) stage with (N1-3) or without regional metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and manifestation of primary metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical modelling, primary metastases, primary tumor, survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
651 Computed Tomography Guided Bone Biopsies: Experience at an Australian Metropolitan Hospital

Authors: K. Hinde, R. Bookun, P. Tran

Abstract:

Percutaneous CT guided biopsies provide a fast, minimally invasive, cost effective and safe method for obtaining tissue for histopathology and culture. Standards for diagnostic yield vary depending on whether the tissue is being obtained for histopathology or culture. We present a retrospective audit from Western Health in Melbourne Australia over a 12-month period which aimed to determine the diagnostic yield, technical success and complication rate for CT guided bone biopsies and identify factors affecting these results. The digital imaging storage program (Synapse Picture Archiving and Communication System – Fujifilm Australia) was analysed with key word searches from October 2015 to October 2016. Nineteen CT guided bone biopsies were performed during this time. The most common referring unit was oncology, work up imaging included CT, MRI, bone scan and PET scan. The complication rate was 0%, overall diagnostic yield was 74% with a technical success of 95%. When performing biopsies for histologic analysis diagnostic yield was 85% and when performing biopsies for bacterial culture diagnostic yield was 60%. There was no significant relationship identified between size of lesion, distance of lesion to skin, lesion appearance on CT, the number of samples taken or gauge of needle to diagnostic yield or technical success. CT guided bone biopsy at Western Health meets the standard reported at other major clinical centres for technical success and safety. It is a useful investigation in identification of primary malignancy in distal bone metastases.

Keywords: bone biopsy, computed tomography, core biopsy, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
650 Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Secondary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

This study is an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. We analyze the opportunities for using classical mathematical models (exponential and logistic tumor growth models, Gompertz and von Bertalanffy tumor growth models) to try to describe growth of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases of human breast cancer. The research aim is to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoMPaS and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoMPaS which reflects relations between the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; 3) analyzing the CoMPaS scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The foundation of the CoMPaS is the exponential tumor growth model, which is described by determinate nonlinear and linear equations. The CoMPaS corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for the primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for the secondary distant metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for the secondary distant metastases. The CoMPaS is validated on clinical data of 10-years and 15-years survival depending on the tumor stage and diameter of the primary tumor. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer growth models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. The CoMPaS model and predictive software: a) fit to clinical trials data; b) detect different growth periods of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; c) make forecast of the period of the secondary distant metastases appearance; d) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; e) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoMPaS: the number of doublings for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of the secondary distant metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of the secondary distant metastases. The CoMPaS enables, for the first time, to predict ‘whole natural history’ of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on the primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoMPaS describes correctly the primary tumor growth of IA, IIA, IIB, IIIB (T1-4N0M0) stages without metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and inception of the secondary distant metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical model, metastases in lymph nodes, primary tumor, survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
649 Study on Co-Relation of Prostate Specific Antigen with Metastatic Bone Disease in Prostate Cancer on Skeletal Scintigraphy

Authors: Muhammad Waleed Asfandyar, Akhtar Ahmed, Syed Adib-ul-Hasan Rizvi

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the ability of serum concentration of prostate specific antigen between two cutting points considering it as a predictor of skeletal metastasis on bone scintigraphy in men with prostate cancer. Settings: This study was carried out in department of Nuclear Medicine at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Method: From August 2013 to November 2013, forty two (42) consecutive patients with prostate cancer who underwent technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99mMDP) whole body bone scintigraphy were prospectively analyzed. The information was collected from the scintigraphic database at a Nuclear medicine department Sindh institute of urology and transplantation Karachi Pakistan. Patients who did not have a serum PSA concentration available within 1 month before or after the time of performing the Tc-99m MDP whole body bone scintigraphy were excluded from this study. A whole body bone scintigraphy scan (from the toes to top of the head) was performed using a whole-body Moving gamma camera technique (anterior and posterior) 2–4 hours after intravenous injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m MDP. In addition, all patients necessarily have a pathological report available. Bony metastases were determined from the bone scan studies and no further correlation with histopathology or other imaging modalities were performed. To preserve patient confidentiality, direct patient identifiers were not collected. In all the patients, Prostate specific antigen values and skeletal scintigraphy were evaluated. Results: The mean age, mean PSA, and incidence of bone metastasis on bone scintigraphy were 68.35 years, 370.51 ng/mL and 19/42 (45.23%) respectively. According to PSA levels, patients were divided into 5 groups < 10ng/mL (10/42), 10-20 ng/mL (5/42), 20-50 ng/mL (2/42), 50-100 (3/42), 100- 500ng/mL (3/42) and more than 500ng/mL (0/42) presenting negative bone scan. The incidence of positive bone scan (%) for bone metastasis for each group were O1 patient (5.26%), 0%, 03 patients (15.78%), 01 patient (5.26%), 04 patients (21.05%), and 10 patients (52.63%) respectively. From the 42 patients 19 (45.23%) presented positive scintigraphic examination for the presence of bone metastasis. 1 patient presented bone metastasis on bone scintigraphy having PSA level less than 10ng/mL, and in only 1 patient (5.26%) with bone metastasis PSA concentration was less than 20 ng/mL. therefore, when the cutting point adopted for PSA serum concentration was 10ng/mL, a negative predictive value for bone metastasis was 95% with sensitivity rates 94.74% and the positive predictive value and specificities of the method were 56.53% and 43.48% respectively. When the cutting point of PSA serum concentration was 20ng/mL the observed results for Positive predictive value and specificity were (78.27% and 65.22% respectively) whereas negative predictive value and sensitivity stood (100% and 95%) respectively. Conclusion: Results of our study allow us to conclude that serum PSA concentration of higher than 20ng/mL was the most accurate cutting point than a serum concentration of PSA higher than 10ng/mL to predict metastasis in radionuclide bone scintigraphy. In this way, unnecessary cost can be avoided, since a considerable part of prostate adenocarcinomas present low serum PSA levels less than 20 ng/mL and for these cases radionuclide bone scintigraphy could be unnecessary.

Keywords: bone scan, cut off value, prostate specific antigen value, scintigraphy

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648 Predictive Value of ¹⁸F-Fdg Accumulation in Visceral Fat Activity to Detect Colorectal Cancer Metastases

Authors: Amil Suleimanov, Aigul Saduakassova, Denis Vinnikov

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Objective: To assess functional visceral fat (VAT) activity evaluated by ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a predictor of metastases in colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and methods: We assessed 60 patients with histologically confirmed CRC who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT after a surgical treatment and courses of chemotherapy. Age, histology, stage, and tumor grade were recorded. Functional VAT activity was measured by maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) using ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT and tested as a predictor of later metastases in eight abdominal locations (RE – Epigastric Region, RLH – Left Hypochondriac Region, RRL – Right Lumbar Region, RU – Umbilical Region, RLL – Left Lumbar Region, RRI – Right Inguinal Region, RP – Hypogastric (Pubic) Region, RLI – Left Inguinal Region) and pelvic cavity (P) in the adjusted regression models. We also report the best areas under the curve (AUC) for SUVmax with the corresponding sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). Results: In both adjusted for age regression models and ROC analysis, 18F-FDG accumulation in RLH (cutoff SUVmax 0.74; Se 75%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.668; p = 0.049), RU (cutoff SUVmax 0.78; Se 69%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.679; p = 0.035), RRL (cutoff SUVmax 1.05; Se 69%; Sp 77%; AUC 0.682; p = 0.032) and RRI (cutoff SUVmax 0.85; Se 63%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.672; p = 0.043) could predict later metastases in CRC patients, as opposed to age, sex, primary tumor location, tumor grade and histology. Conclusions: VAT SUVmax is significantly associated with later metastases in CRC patients and can be used as their predictor.

Keywords: ¹⁸F-FDG, PET/CT, colorectal cancer, predictive value

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647 Design Improvement of Dental Implant-Based on Bone Remodelling

Authors: Solehuddin Shuib, Koay Boon Aik, Zainul Ahmad Rajion

Abstract:

There are many types of mechanical failure on the dental implant. In this project, the failure that needs to take into consideration is the bone resorption on the dental implant. Human bone has its ability to remodel after the implantation. As the dental implant is installed into the bone, the bone will detect and change the bone structure to achieve new biomechanical environment. This phenomenon is known as bone remodeling. The objective of the project is to improve the performance of dental implant by using different types of design. These designs are used to analyze and predict the failure of the dental implant by using finite element analysis (FEA) namely ANSYS. The bone is assumed to be fully attached to the implant or cement. Hence, results are then compared with other researchers. The results were presented in the form of Von Mises stress, normal stress, shear stress analysis, and displacement. The selected design will be analyzed further based on a theoretical calculation of bone remodeling on the dental implant. The results have shown that the design constructed passed the failure analysis. Therefore, the selected design is proven to have a stable performance at the recovery stage.

Keywords: dental implant, FEA, bone remodeling, design

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646 Identification of the Orthotropic Parameters of Cortical Bone under Nanoindentation

Authors: D. Remache, M. Semaan, C. Baron, M. Pithioux, P. Chabrand, J. M. Rossi, J. L. Milan

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A good understanding of the mechanical properties of the bone implies a better understanding of its various diseases, such as osteoporosis. Berkovich nanoindentation tests were performed on the human cortical bone to extract its orthotropic parameters. The nanoindentation experiments were then simulated by the finite element method. Different configurations of interactions between the tip indenter and the bone were simulated. The orthotropic parameters of the material were identified by the inverse method for each configuration. The friction effect on the bone mechanical properties was then discussed. It was found that the inverse method using the finite element method is a very efficient method to predict the mechanical behavior of the bone.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approaches

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645 Preliminary Dosimetric Evaluation of Two New 153Sm Bone Pain Palliative Agents

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, N. Amraee, Z. Naseri, Ar. Jalilian

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The purpose of this study was to calculate the absorbed dose to each human organ for two new Sm-153 bone-seeking agents in order to evaluate their effectiveness in bone pain palliation therapy. In this work, the absorbed dose of 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP to each human organ was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats by radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. The highest absorbed dose for 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP is observed in trabecular bone with 1.844 and 3.167 mGy/MBq, respectively. Bone/red marrow dose ratio, as the target/critical organ dose ratio, for 153Sm-PDTMP is greater than 153Sm-TTHMP and is compatible with 153Sm-EDTMP. The results showed that these bone-seeking agents, specially 153Sm-PDTMP, have considerable characteristics compared to the most clinically used bone pain palliative radiopharmaceutical, and therefore, can be good candidates for bone pain palliation in patients with bone metastasis; however, further biological studies in other mammals are still needed.

Keywords: internal dosimetry, PDTMP, 153Sm, TTHMP

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644 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N.Khairudin , P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

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In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst

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643 A Radiographic Survey of Eggshell Powder Effect on Tibial Bone Defect Repair Tested in Dog

Authors: M. Yadegari, M. Nourbakhsh, N. Arbabzadeh

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The skeletal system injuries are of major importance. In addition, it is recommended to use materials for hard tissue repair in open or closed fractures. It is important to use complex minerals with a beneficial effect on hard tissue repair, stimulating cell growth in the bone. Materials that could help avoid bone fracture inflammatory reaction and speed up bone fracture repair are of utmost importance in the treatment of bone fractures. Similar to minerals, the inner eggshell membrane consists of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins with the high pH, high calcium absorptive capacity and with faster bone fracture repair ability. In the present radiographic survey, eggshell-derived bone graft substitutes were used for bone defect repair in 8 dog tibia, measuring bone density on the day of implant placement and 30 and 60 days after placement. In fact, the result of this study shows the difference in bone growth and misshapen bones between treatment and control sites. Cell growth was adequate in treatment sites and misshapen bones were less frequent here than in control sites.

Keywords: bone repair, eggshell powder, implant, radiography

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
642 Ultrasonic Densitometry of Bone Tissue of Jaws and Phalanges of Fingers in Patients after Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Margarita Belousova

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The ultrasonic densitometry (RU patent № 2541038) was used to assess the density of the bone tissue in the jaws of patients after orthodontic treatment. In addition, by ultrasonic densitometry assessed the state of the bone tissue in the region III phalanges of middle fingers in above mentioned patients. A comparative study was carried out in healthy volunteers of same age. It was established a significant decrease of the ultrasound wave speed and bone mineral density after active period of orthodontic treatment. Statistically, significant differences in bone mineral density of the fingers by ultrasonic densitometry in both groups of patients were not detected.

Keywords: intraoral ultrasonic densitometry, bone tissue density of jaws, bone tissue density of phalanges of fingers, orthodontic treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
641 Bilateral Choroidal Metastases as the Presenting Manifestation of Lung Adenocarcinoma in a Young, Non-smoking Female: A Case Report

Authors: Paras Agarwal

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Background: Initially believed to be rare, metastases to the eye are the most common ocular malignancy. The choroid’s high perfusion rate not only makes it the most susceptible ocular site for tumour seeding, but also promotes its growth. The cancers most frequently responsible for choroidal metastases originate from the breast and lung, although a significant proportion have unidentified primaries at the time of presentation. Case Presentation: This case report describes a 34 year old female presenting to the ophthalmology department with a one month history of painless distorted vision. On fundus examination, she was noted to have bilateral choroidal lesionsand subsequently underwent a comprehensive diagnostic work-up. The patient was diagnosed with metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma, despite lacking conventional risk factors. As she was found to have a mutation in EGFR, the patient was commenced on tyrosine-kinase inhibition with afatinib. The choroidal lesions regressed with a significant improvement in visual acuity and a dramatic anatomical reduction of the choroidal masses. Conclusions: Our case demonstrates the importance of considering metastases as a differential diagnosis for choroidal lesions. Appropriate and thorough history-taking, examination and investigations may be required in order to deduce the underlying cause. Our case is unusual in view of the choroidal lesion being the primary manifestation of metastatic lung cancer in a young patient with no known risk factors. Early recognition of choroidal metastases is important as it is often the first sign of tumour dissemination and will prompt earlier treatment with systemic medications such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy or hormonal therapy. Our case report also demonstrates the efficacy of afatinib for the treatment of choroidal metastases, with morphological and functional improvements observed with regard to the choroidal metastatic tumour.

Keywords: choroidal neoplasm, choroidal naevus, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, metastases, lung cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
640 Viscoelastic Characterization of Bovine Trabecular Bone Samples

Authors: I. Ramirez D. Edgar, J. Angeles H. José, Ruiz C. Osvaldo, H. Jacobo A. Victor, Ortiz P. Armando

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Knowledge of bone mechanical properties is important for bone substitutes design and fabrication, and more efficient prostheses development. The aim of this study is to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of bone specimens, through stress relaxation and fatigue tests performed to trabecular bone samples from bovine femoral heads. Relaxation tests consisted on preloading the samples at five different magnitudes and evaluate them for 1020 seconds, adjusting the results to a KWW mathematical model. Fatigue tests consisted of 700 load cycles and analyze their status at the end of the tests. As a conclusion we have that between relaxation stress and each preload there is linear relation and for samples with initial Young´s modulus greater than 1.5 GPa showed no effects due fatigue test loading cycles.

Keywords: bone viscoelasticity, fatigue test, stress relaxation test, trabecular bone properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 403