Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: RADionuclide

36 Radionuclide Determination Study for Some Fish Species in Kuwait

Authors: Ahmad Almutairi


Kuwait lies to the northwest of the Arabian Gulf. The levels of radionuclides are unknown in this area. Radionuclide like ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, and ⁹⁰Sr accumulated in certain body tissues and bones, relate primarily to dietary uptake and inhalation. A large fraction of radiation exposure experienced by individuals comes from food chain transfer. In this study, some types of Kuwait fish were studied for radionuclide determination. These fish were taken from the Kuwaiti water territory during May. The study is to determine the radiation exposure for ²¹⁰Po in some fish species in Kuwait the ²¹⁰Po concentration was found to be between 0.089 and 2.544 Bq/kg the highs was in Zubaidy and the lowest was in Hamour.

Keywords: the radionuclide, radiation exposure, fish species, Zubaida, Hamour

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35 Radionuclide Contents and Exhalation Studies in Soil Samples from Sub-Mountainous Region of Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Manpreet Kaur


The effect of external and internal exposure in outdoor and indoor environment can be significantly gauged by natural radionuclides. Therefore, it is a consequential to approximate the level of radionuclide contents in soil samples of any area and the risks associated with it. Rate of radon emerging from soil is also one of the prominent parameters for the assessment of radon levels in environmental. In present study, natural radionuclide contents viz. ²³²Th, ²³⁸U and ⁴⁰K and radon/thoron exhalation rates were evaluated operating thallium doped sodium iodide gamma radiation detector and advanced Smart Rn Duo technique in the soil samples from 30 villages of Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Radon flux rate was also measured by using surface chamber technique. Results obtained with two different methods were compared to investigate the cause of emanation factor in the soil profile. The radon mass exhalation rate in the soil samples has been found varying from 15 ± 0.4 to 38 ± 0.8 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ while thoron surface exhalation rate has been found varying from 90 ± 22 to 4880 ± 280 Bq m⁻² h⁻¹. The mean value of radium equivalent activity (99 ± 27 Bq kg⁻¹) was appeared to be well within the admissible limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹ suggested by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2009) report. The values of various parameters related to radiological hazards were also calculated and all parameters have been found to be well below the safe limits given by various organizations. The outcomes pointed out that region was protected from danger as per health risks effects associated with these radionuclide contents is concerned.

Keywords: absorbed dose rate, exhalation rate, human health, radionuclide

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
34 Natural Radionuclides and Doses Assessment in Soil Samples from Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayorinde B. Ogunremi, Kehinde A. Adewoyin, Adebamwo Adebayo


Record of radionuclide concentration in an environment is essential to ensure human safety due to exposure to ionizing radiation. This study aimed at assessing the radionuclide concentration and doses from soil samples in the study area. Twenty soil samples were collected and dried in the oven at 110°C to remove the moisture, pulverized, and sieved. 200 g of each of the samples were sealed in cylindrical sample holders; they were left for four weeks to attain secular equilibrium between ²²⁶Ra and its decay daughters, after which the sample was analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. After the well-guided procedure for the calibrations, the analysis of the samples was carried out using a well-calibrated NaI (TI) and well-shielded detector coupled to a computer resident quantum MCA2100 R Multichannel analyzer for 36,000 s. The mean activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th obtained were calculated to be 272.37 ± 33.58, 10.97 ± 3.24, 9.39 ± 2.27 Bqkg-1 respectively. The average absorbed dose obtained was 22.10 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) was estimated to be 43.27 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) were below the recommended values, which are 420, 33, and 45 for ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th, respectively. Considering the results, we conclude thus, the radiation level within the estate poses no significant health risk on dwellers and workers.

Keywords: absorbed, effective, multichannel, radionuclide

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33 Optimization and Evaluation of 177lu-Dotatoc as a Potential Agent for Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

Authors: H. Yousefnia, MS. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, S. Zolghadri, F. Abbasi-Davani


High expression of somatostatin receptors on a wide range of human tumours makes them as potential targets for peptide receptor radionuclide tomography. A series of octreotide analogues were synthesized while [DOTA-DPhe1, Tyr3]octreotide (DOTATOC) indicated advantageous properties in tumour models. In this study, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% in 30 min at the optimized condition. Biological behavior of the complex was studied after intravenous injection into the Syrian rats. Major difference uptake was observed compared to 177LuCl3 solution especially in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and adrenal.

Keywords: Biodistribution, 177Lu, Octreotide, Syrian rats

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32 Microdosimetry in Biological Cells: A Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Hamidreza Jabal Ameli, Anahita Movahedi


Purpose: In radionuclide therapy, radioactive atoms are coupled to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for treating cancer tumor while limiting radiation to healthy tissues. We know that tumoral and normal tissues are not equally sensitive to radiation. In fact, biological effects such as cellular repair processes or the presence of less radiosensitive cells such as hypoxic cells should be taken account. For this reason, in this paper, we want to calculate biological effect dose (BED) inside tumoral area and healthy cells around tumors. Methods: In this study, deposited doses of a radionuclide, gold-198, inside cells lattice and surrounding healthy tissues were calculated with Monte Carlo method. The elemental compositions and density of malignant and healthy tissues were obtained from ICRU Report 44. For reaching to real condition of oxygen effects, the necrosis and hypoxia area inside tumors has been assessed. Results: With regard to linear-quadratic expression which was defined in Monte Carlo, results showed that a large amount of BED is deposited in the well-oxygenated part of the hypoxia area compared to necrosis area. Moreover, there is a significant difference between the curves of absorbed dose with BED and without BED.

Keywords: biological dose, monte carlo, hypoxia, radionuclide therapy

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31 Production Radionuclide Therapy 161-Terbium Using by Talys1.6 and Empire 3.2 Codes in Reactions Cyclotron

Authors: Shohreh Rahimi Lascokalayeh, Hasan Yousefnia, Mojtaba Tajik, Samaneh Zolghadri, Bentehoda Abdolhosseini


In this study, the production of terbium-161 as new therapeutic radionuclide was investigated using TALYS1.6& EMPIRE 3.2 codes. For this purpose, cross section for the reactions reactor to produce 161Tb were extracted by mean of this code In the following step, stopping power of the reactions reactor was calculated by SRIM code. The best reaction in the production of 161Tb is160 Gd(d,n)161Tb Production yield of the 161Tb was obtained by utilization of MATLAB calculation code and based on the charged particle reaction formalism.The results showed that Production yield of the 161Tb was obtained 0.8 (mci/ A*h).

Keywords: terbium161, TALYS1.6, EMPIRE3.2, yield, cross-section

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30 [Keynote Speech]: Determination of Naturally Occurring and Artificial Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Marine Sediments in Western Marmara, Turkey

Authors: Erol Kam, Z. U. Yümün


Natural and artificial radionuclides cause radioactive contamination in environments, just as the other non-biodegradable pollutants (heavy metals, etc.) sink to the sea floor and accumulate in sediments. Especially the habitat of benthic foraminifera living on the surface of sediments or in sediments at the seafloor are affected by radioactive pollution in the marine environment. Thus, it is important for pollution analysis to determine the radionuclides. Radioactive pollution accumulates in the lowest level of the food chain and reaches humans at the highest level. The more the accumulation, the more the environment is endangered. This study used gamma spectrometry to investigate the natural and artificial radionuclide distribution of sediment samples taken from living benthic foraminifera habitats in the Western Marmara Sea. The radionuclides, K-40, Cs-137, Ra-226, Mn 54, Zr-95+ and Th-232, were identified in the sediment samples. For this purpose, 18 core samples were taken from depths of about 25-30 meters in the Marmara Sea in 2016. The locations of the core samples were specifically selected exclusively from discharge points for domestic and industrial areas, port locations, and so forth to represent pollution in the study area. Gamma spectrometric analysis was used to determine the radioactive properties of sediments. The radionuclide concentration activity values in the sediment samples obtained were Cs-137=0.9-9.4 Bq/kg, Th-232=18.9-86 Bq/kg, Ra-226=10-50 Bq/kg, K-40=24.4–670 Bq/kg, Mn 54=0.71–0.9 Bq/kg and Zr-95+=0.18–0.19 Bq/kg. These values were compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data, and an environmental analysis was carried out. The Ra-226 series, the Th-232 series, and the K-40 radionuclides accumulate naturally and are increasing every day due to anthropogenic pollution. Although the Ra-226 values obtained in the study areas remained within normal limits according to the UNSCEAR values, the K-40, and Th-232 series values were found to be high in almost all the locations.

Keywords: Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, Cs-137, Mn 54, Zr-95+, radionuclides, Western Marmara Sea

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29 Pretherapy Initial Dosimetry Results in Prostat Cancer Radionuclide Therapy with Lu-177-PSMA-DOTA-617

Authors: M. Abuqebitah, H. Tanyildizi, N. Yeyin, I. Cavdar, M. Demir, L. Kabasakal


Aim: Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is an increasingly used treatment modality for wide range of cancers. Presently dosimetry is highly required either to plan treatment or to ascertain the absorbed dose delivered to critical organs during treatment. Methods and Materials: The study comprised 7 patients suffered from prostate cancer with progressive disease and candidate to undergo Lu-177-DOTA-617 therapy following to PSMA- PET/CT imaging for all patients. (5.2±0.3 mCi) was intravenously injected. To evaluate bone marrow absorbed dose 2 cc blood samples were withdrawn in short variable times (3, 15, 30, 60, 180 minutes) after injection. Furthermore, whole body scans were performed using scintillation gama camera in 4, 24, 48, and 120 hours after injection and in order to quantify the activity taken up in the body, kidneys , liver, right parotid, and left parotid the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts were determined through ROI analysis, after that background subtraction and attenuation correction were applied using patients PSMA- PET/CT images taking in a consideration: organ thickness, body thickness, and Hounsfield unites from CT scan. OLINDA/EXM dosimetry program was used for curve fitting, residence time calculation, and absorbed dose calculations. Findings: Absorbed doses of bone marrow, left kidney, right kidney, liver, left parotid, right parotid, total body were 1.28±0.52, 32.36±16.36, 32.7±13.68, 10.35±3.45, 38.67±21.29, 37.55±19.77, 2.25±0.95 (mGy/mCi), respectively. Conclusion: Our first results clarify that Lu-177-DOTA-617 is safe and reliable therapy as there were no complications seen. In the other hand, the observable variation in the absorbed dose of the critical organs among the patients necessitate patient-specific dosimetry approach to save body organs and particularly highly exposed kidneys and parotid gland.

Keywords: Lu-177-PSMA, prostate cancer, radionuclide therapy

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28 Dose Evaluations with SNAP/RADTRAD for Loss of Coolant Accidents in a BWR6 Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: Kai Chun Yang, Shao-Wen Chen, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih, Jung-Hua Yang, Hsiung-Chih Chen, Wen-Sheng Hsu


In this study, we build RADionuclide Transport, Removal And Dose Estimation/Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package (SNAP/RADTRAD) model of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant which is based on the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSAR) and other data of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant. It is used to estimate the radiation dose of the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB), the Low Population Zone (LPZ), and the control room following ‘release from the containment’ case in Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The RADTRAD analysis result shows that the evaluation dose at EAB, LPZ, and the control room are close to the FSAR data, and all of the doses are lower than the regulatory limits. At last, we do a sensitivity analysis and observe that the evaluation doses increase as the intake rate of the control room increases.

Keywords: RADTRAD, radionuclide transport, removal and dose estimation, snap, symbolic nuclear analysis package, boiling water reactor, NPP, kuosheng

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27 Atmospheric Transport Modeling of Radio-Xenon Detections Possibly Related to the Announced Nuclear Test in North Korea on February 12, 2013

Authors: Kobi Kutsher


On February 12th 2013, monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) detected a seismic event with explosion-like underground characteristics in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The location was found to be in the vicinity of the two previous announced nuclear tests in 2006 and 2009.The nuclear test was also announced by the government of the DPRK.After an underground nuclear explosion, radioactive fission products (mostly noble gases) can seep through layers of rock and sediment until they escape into the atmosphere. The fission products are dispersed in the atmosphere and may be detected thousands of kilometers downwind from the test site. Indeed, more than 7 weeks after the explosion, unusual detections of noble gases was reported at the radionuclide station in Takasaki, Japan. The radionuclide station is a part of the International Monitoring System, operated to verify the CTBT. This study provides an estimation of the possible source region and the total radioactivity of the release using Atmospheric Transport Modeling.

Keywords: atmospheric transport modeling, CTBTO, nuclear tests, radioactive fission products

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26 Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Mathuthu, N. N. Gaxela, R. Y. Olobatoke


A study was carried out to assess the heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations of water from the waste water treatment plant in Mafikeng Local Municipality to evaluate treatment efficiency. Ten water samples were collected from various stages of water treatment which included sewage delivered to the plant, the two treatment stages and the effluent and also the community. The samples were analyzed for heavy metal content using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Gross α/β activity concentration in water samples was evaluated by Liquid Scintillation Counting whereas the concentration of individual radionuclides was measured by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed marked reduction in the levels of heavy metal concentration from 3 µg/L (As)–670 µg/L (Na) in sewage into the plant to 2 µg/L (As)–170 µg/L (Fe) in the effluent. Beta activity was not detected in water samples except in the in-coming sewage, the concentration of which was within reference limits. However, the gross α activity in all the water samples (7.7-8.02 Bq/L) exceeded the 0.1 Bq/L limit set by World Health Organization (WHO). Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed very high concentrations of 235U and 226Ra in water samples, with the lowest concentrations (9.35 and 5.44 Bq/L respectively) in the in-coming sewage and highest concentrations (73.8 and 47 Bq/L respectively) in the community water suggesting contamination along water processing line. All the values were considerably higher than the limits of South Africa Target Water Quality Range and WHO. However, the estimated total doses of the two radionuclides for the analyzed water samples (10.62 - 45.40 µSv yr-1) were all well below the reference level of the committed effective dose of 100 µSv yr-1 recommended by WHO.

Keywords: gross α/β activity, heavy metals, radionuclides, 235U, 226Ra, water sample

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25 Tumour Radionuclides Therapy: in vitro and in vivo Dose Distribution Study

Authors: Rekaya A. Shabbir, Marco Mingarelli, Glenn Flux, Ananya Choudhury, Tim A. D. Smith


Introduction: Heterogeneity of dose distributions across a tumour is problematic for targeted radiotherapy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhance dose-distributions of targeted radionuclides. The aim of this study is to demonstrate if tumour dose-distribution of targeted AuNPs radiolabelled with either of two radioisotopes (¹⁷⁷Lu and ⁹⁰Y) in breast cancer cells produced homogeneous dose distributions. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to study the importance of receptor level on cytotoxicity of EGFR-targeted AuNPs in breast and colorectal cancer cells. Methods: AuNPs were functionalised with DOTA and OPPS-PEG-SVA to optimise labelling with radionuclide tracers and targeting with Erbitux. Radionuclides were chelated with DOTA, and the uptake of the radiolabelled AuNPs and targeted activity in vitro in both cell lines measured using liquid scintillation counting. Cells with medium (HCT8) and high (MDA-MB-468) EGFR expression were incubated with targeted ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs for 4h, then washed and allowed to form colonies. Nude mice bearing tumours were used to study the biodistribution by injecting ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs or ⁹⁰Y-AuNPs via the tail vein. Heterogeneity of dose-distribution in tumours was determined using autoradiography. Results: Colony formation (% control) was 81 ± 4.7% (HCT8) and 32 ± 9% (MDA-MB-468). High uptake was observed in the liver and spleen, indicating hepatobiliary excretion. Imaging showed heterogeneity in dose-distributions for both radionuclides across the tumours. Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect of EGFR-targeted AuNPs is greater in cells with higher EGFR expression. Dose-distributions for individual radiolabelled nanoparticles were heterogeneous across tumours. Further strategies are required to improve the uniformity of dose distribution prior to clinical trials.

Keywords: cancer cells, dose distributions, radionuclide therapy, targeted gold nanoparticles

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24 Latitudinal Impact on Spatial and Temporal Variability of 7Be Activity Concentrations in Surface Air along Europe

Authors: M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, M. Marín-Ferrer, G. Cinelli, L. De Felice, T. Tollefsen, E. Nweke, P. V. Tognoli, S. Vanzo, M. De Cort


This study analyses the latitudinal impact of the spatial and temporal distribution on the cosmogenic isotope 7Be in surface air along Europe. The long-term database of the 6 sampling sites (Ivalo, Helsinki, Berlin, Freiburg, Sevilla and La Laguna), that regularly provide data to the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) network managed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, were used. The selection of the stations was performed attending to different factors, such as 1) heterogeneity in terms of latitude and altitude, and 2) long database coverage. The combination of these two parameters ensures a high degree of representativeness of the results. In the later, the temporal coverage varies between stations, being used in the present study sampling stations with a database more or less continuously from 1984 to 2011. The mean values of 7Be activity concentration presented a spatial distribution value ranging from 2.0 ± 0.9 mBq/m3 (Ivalo, north) to 4.8 ± 1.5 mBq/m3 (La Laguna, south). An increasing gradient with latitude was observed from the north to the south, 0.06 mBq/m3. However, there was no correlation with altitude, since all stations are sited within the atmospheric boundary layer. The analyses of the data indicated a dynamic range of 7Be activity for solar cycle and phase (maximum or minimum), having been observed different impact on stations according to their location. The results indicated a significant seasonal behavior, with the maximum concentrations occurring in the summer and minimum in the winter, although with differences in the values reached and in the month registered. Due to the large heterogeneity in the temporal pattern with which the individual radionuclide analyses were performed in each station, the 7Be monthly index was calculated to normalize the measurements and perform the direct comparison of monthly evolution among stations. Different intensity and evolution of the mean monthly index were observed. The knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of this natural radionuclide in the atmosphere is a key parameter for modeling studies of atmospheric processes, which are important phenomena to be taken into account in the case of a nuclear accident.

Keywords: Berilium-7, latitudinal impact in Europe, seasonal and monthly variability, solar cycle

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23 Determination of Unknown Radionuclides Using High Purity Germanium Detectors

Authors: O. G. Onuk, L. S. Taura, C. M. Eze, S. M. Ngaram


The decay chain of radioactive elements in the laboratory and the verification of natural radioactivity of the human body was investigated using the High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Properties of the HPGe detectors were also investigated. The efficiency and energy resolution of HPGe detector used in the laboratory was found to be excellent. The detector was calibrated three times so as to cover a wider energy range. Also the Centroid C of the detector was found to have a linear relationship with the energies of the known gamma-rays. Using the three calibrations of the detector, the energy of an unknown radionuclide was found to follow the decay chain of thorium-232 (232Th) and it was also found that an average adult has about 2.5g Potasium-40 (40K) in the body.

Keywords: detector, efficiency, energy, radionuclides, resolution

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22 Preparation and Quality Control of a Novel Radiolabeled Complex of 166ho for the Treatment of Somatostatin Receptor Expressing Tumours

Authors: H. Yousefnia, A. Golabi Dezfuli, S. Zolghadri, M. Hosntalab


Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is nowadays used for the treatment of various abnormalities with somatostatin receptors. In this study, 166Ho-DOTATOC was prepared and the best conditions for its radiolabeling was obtained. For this purpose, a certain of DOTATOC was added to a vial containing 166Ho. various experiments by varying ligand concentration, pH, temperature and time were performed to determine the best conditions. Radiochemical purity of the complex was assessed by instant thin layer chromatography method utilizing 0.9% NaCl as the mobile phase. 166Ho-DOTATOC was prepared with radiochemical purity of higher than 95% at the optimized condition (pH=4, temperature: 95° C, time:30 min). In 0.9% NaCl, free Ho cation was developed at Rf of 0.8 while the complex was remained at the front of the paper.

Keywords: Ho-166, neuroendocrine, octreotide, quality control

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21 Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, Y. Chiang


In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).

Keywords: RADionuclide, transport, removal, and dose estimation (RADTRAD), symbolic nuclear analysis package (SNAP), dose, PWR

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20 Study on Co-Relation of Prostate Specific Antigen with Metastatic Bone Disease in Prostate Cancer on Skeletal Scintigraphy

Authors: Muhammad Waleed Asfandyar, Akhtar Ahmed, Syed Adib-ul-Hasan Rizvi


Objective: To evaluate the ability of serum concentration of prostate specific antigen between two cutting points considering it as a predictor of skeletal metastasis on bone scintigraphy in men with prostate cancer. Settings: This study was carried out in department of Nuclear Medicine at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Method: From August 2013 to November 2013, forty two (42) consecutive patients with prostate cancer who underwent technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99mMDP) whole body bone scintigraphy were prospectively analyzed. The information was collected from the scintigraphic database at a Nuclear medicine department Sindh institute of urology and transplantation Karachi Pakistan. Patients who did not have a serum PSA concentration available within 1 month before or after the time of performing the Tc-99m MDP whole body bone scintigraphy were excluded from this study. A whole body bone scintigraphy scan (from the toes to top of the head) was performed using a whole-body Moving gamma camera technique (anterior and posterior) 2–4 hours after intravenous injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m MDP. In addition, all patients necessarily have a pathological report available. Bony metastases were determined from the bone scan studies and no further correlation with histopathology or other imaging modalities were performed. To preserve patient confidentiality, direct patient identifiers were not collected. In all the patients, Prostate specific antigen values and skeletal scintigraphy were evaluated. Results: The mean age, mean PSA, and incidence of bone metastasis on bone scintigraphy were 68.35 years, 370.51 ng/mL and 19/42 (45.23%) respectively. According to PSA levels, patients were divided into 5 groups < 10ng/mL (10/42), 10-20 ng/mL (5/42), 20-50 ng/mL (2/42), 50-100 (3/42), 100- 500ng/mL (3/42) and more than 500ng/mL (0/42) presenting negative bone scan. The incidence of positive bone scan (%) for bone metastasis for each group were O1 patient (5.26%), 0%, 03 patients (15.78%), 01 patient (5.26%), 04 patients (21.05%), and 10 patients (52.63%) respectively. From the 42 patients 19 (45.23%) presented positive scintigraphic examination for the presence of bone metastasis. 1 patient presented bone metastasis on bone scintigraphy having PSA level less than 10ng/mL, and in only 1 patient (5.26%) with bone metastasis PSA concentration was less than 20 ng/mL. therefore, when the cutting point adopted for PSA serum concentration was 10ng/mL, a negative predictive value for bone metastasis was 95% with sensitivity rates 94.74% and the positive predictive value and specificities of the method were 56.53% and 43.48% respectively. When the cutting point of PSA serum concentration was 20ng/mL the observed results for Positive predictive value and specificity were (78.27% and 65.22% respectively) whereas negative predictive value and sensitivity stood (100% and 95%) respectively. Conclusion: Results of our study allow us to conclude that serum PSA concentration of higher than 20ng/mL was the most accurate cutting point than a serum concentration of PSA higher than 10ng/mL to predict metastasis in radionuclide bone scintigraphy. In this way, unnecessary cost can be avoided, since a considerable part of prostate adenocarcinomas present low serum PSA levels less than 20 ng/mL and for these cases radionuclide bone scintigraphy could be unnecessary.

Keywords: bone scan, cut off value, prostate specific antigen value, scintigraphy

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19 Effect of Organics on Radionuclide Partitioning in Nuclear Fuel Storage Ponds

Authors: Hollie Ashworth, Sarah Heath, Nick Bryan, Liam Abrahamsen, Simon Kellet


Sellafield has a number of fuel storage ponds, some of which have been open to the air for a number of decades. This has caused corrosion of the fuel resulting in a release of some activity into solution, reduced water clarity, and accumulation of sludge at the bottom of the pond consisting of brucite (Mg(OH)2) and other uranium corrosion products. Both of these phases are also present as colloidal material. 90Sr and 137Cs are known to constitute a small volume of the radionuclides present in the pond, but a large fraction of the activity, thus they are most at risk of challenging effluent discharge limits. Organic molecules are known to be present also, due to the ponds being open to the air, with occasional algal blooms restricting visibility further. The contents of the pond need to be retrieved and safely stored, but dealing with such a complex, undefined inventory poses a unique challenge. This work aims to determine and understand the sorption-desorption interactions of 90Sr and 137Cs to brucite and uranium phases, with and without the presence of organic molecules from chemical degradation and bio-organisms. The influence of organics on these interactions has not been widely studied. Partitioning of these radionuclides and organic molecules has been determined through LSC, ICP-AES/MS, and UV-vis spectrophotometry coupled with ultrafiltration in both binary and ternary systems. Further detailed analysis into the surface and bonding environment of these components is being investigated through XAS techniques and PHREEQC modelling. Experiments were conducted in CO2-free or N2 atmosphere across a high pH range in order to best simulate conditions in the pond. Humic acid used in brucite systems demonstrated strong competition against 90Sr for the brucite surface regardless of the order of addition of components. Variance of pH did have a small effect, however this range (10.5-11.5) is close to the pHpzc of brucite, causing the surface to buffer the solution pH towards that value over the course of the experiment. Sorption of 90Sr to UO2 obeyed Ho’s rate equation and demonstrated a slow second-order reaction with respect to the sharing of valence electrons from the strontium atom, with the initial rate clearly dependent on pH, with the equilibrium concentration calculated at close to 100% sorption. There was no influence of humic acid seen when introduced to these systems. Sorption of 137Cs to UO3 was significant, with more than 95% sorbed in just over 24 hours. Again, humic acid showed no influence when introduced into this system. Both brucite and uranium based systems will be studied with the incorporation of cyanobacterial cultures harvested at different stages of growth. Investigation of these systems provides insight into, and understanding of, the effect of organics on radionuclide partitioning to brucite and uranium phases at high pH. The majority of sorption-desorption work for radionuclides has been conducted at neutral to acidic pH values, and mostly without organics. These studies are particularly important for the characterisation of legacy wastes at Sellafield, with a view to their safe retrieval and storage.

Keywords: caesium, legacy wastes, organics, sorption-desorption, strontium, uranium

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18 Experimental Research of Canine Mandibular Defect Construction with the Controlled Meshy Titanium Alloy Scaffold Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting Combined with BMSCs-Encapsulating Chitosan Hydrogel

Authors: Wang Hong, Liu Chang Kui, Zhao Bing Jing, Hu Min


Objection We observed the repairment effection of canine mandibular defect with meshy Ti6Al4V scaffold fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) encapsulated in chitosan hydrogel. Method Meshy titanium scaffolds were prepared by EBM of commercial Ti6Al4V power. The length of scaffolds was 24 mm, the width was 5 mm and height was 8mm. The pore size and porosity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel was prepared by chitosan, β- sodium glycerophosphate and Bio-Oss power. BMMSCs were harvested from canine iliac crests. BMMSCs were seeded in titanium scaffolds and encapsulated in Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel. The validity of BMMSCs was evaluated by cell count kit-8 (CCK-8). The osteogenic differentiation ability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expression of OC, OPN and CoⅠ. Combination were performed by injecting BMMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel into the meshy Ti6Al4V scaffolds and solidified. 24 mm long box-shaped bone defects were made at the mid-portion of mandible of adult beagles. The defects were randomly filled with BMMSCs/ Chitosan/Bio-Oss + titanium, Chitosan /Bio-Oss+titanium, titanium alone. Autogenous iliac crests graft as control group in 3 beagles. Radionuclide bone imaging was used to monitor the new bone tissue at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. CT examination was made on the surgery day and 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks after surgery. The animals were sacrificed in 4, 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. The bone formation were evaluated by histology and micro-CT. Results: The pores of the scaffolds was interconnected, the pore size was about 1 mm, the average porosity was about 76%. The pore size of the hydrogel was 50-200μm and the average porosity was approximately 90%. The hydrogel were solidified under the condition of 37℃in 10 minutes. The validity and the osteogenic differentiation ability of BMSCs were not affected by titanium scaffolds and hydrogel. Radionuclide bone imaging shown an increasing tendency of the revascularization and bone regeneration was observed in all the groups at 2, 4, 8 weeks after operation, and there were no changes at 12weeks.The tendency was more obvious in the BMMSCs/ Chitosan/Bio-Oss +titanium group and autogenous group. CT, Micro-CT and histology shown that new bone formed increasingly with the time extend. There were more new bone regenerated in BMMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss + titanium group and autogenous group than the other two groups. At 24 weeks, the autogenous group was achieved bone union. The BMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss group was seen extensive new bone formed around the scaffolds and more new bone inside of the central pores of scaffolds than Chitosan /Bio-Oss + titanium group and titanium group. The difference was significantly. Conclusion: The titanium scaffolds fabricated by EBM had controlled porous structure, good bone conduction and biocompatibility. Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel had injectable plasticity, thermosensitive property and good biocompatibility. The meshy Ti6Al4V scaffold produced by EBM combined BMSCs encapsulated in chitosan hydrogel had good capacity on mandibular bone defect repair.

Keywords: mandibular reconstruction, tissue engineering, electron beam melting, titanium alloy

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17 The Transport of Radical Species to Single and Double Strand Breaks in the Liver’s DNA Molecule by a Hybrid Method of Type Monte Carlo - Diffusion Equation

Authors: H. Oudira, A. Saifi


The therapeutic utility of certain Auger emitters such as iodine-125 depends on their position within the cell nucleus . Or diagnostically, and to maintain as low as possible cell damage, it is preferable to have radionuclide localized outside the cell or at least the core. One solution to this problem is to consider markers capable of conveying anticancer drugs to the tumor site regardless of their location within the human body. The objective of this study is to simulate the impact of a complex such as bleomycin on single and double strand breaks in the DNA molecule. Indeed, this simulation consists of the following transactions: - Construction of BLM -Fe- DNA complex. - Simulation of the electron’s transport from the metastable state excitation of Fe 57 by the Monte Carlo method. - Treatment of chemical reactions in the considered environment by the diffusion equation. For physical, physico-chemical and finally chemical steps, the geometry of the complex is considered as a sphere of 50 nm centered on the binding site , and the mathematical method used is called step by step based on Monte Carlo codes.

Keywords: concentration, yield, radical species, bleomycin, excitation, DNA

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16 Experimental and Analytical Dose Assessment of Patient's Family Members Treated with I-131

Authors: Marzieh Ebrahimi, Vahid Changizi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Pooya, Parham Geramifar


Radiation exposure to the patient's family members is one of the major concerns during thyroid cancer radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to measure the total effective dose of the family members by means of thermoluminescence personal dosimeter, and compare with those calculated by analytical methods. Eighty-five adult family members of fifty-one patients volunteered to participate in this research study. Considering the minimum and maximum range of dose rate from 15 µsv/h to 120 µsv/h at patients' release time, the calculated mean and median dose values of family members were 0.45 mSv and 0.28 mSv, respectively. Moreover, almost all family members’ doses were measured to be less than the dose constraint of 5 mSv recommended by Basic Safety Standards. Considering the influence parameters such as patient dose rate and administrated activity, the total effective doses of family members were calculated by TEDE and NRC formulas and compared with those of experimental results. The results indicated that, it is fruitful to use the quantitative calculations for releasing patients treated with I-131 and correct estimation of patients' family doses.

Keywords: effective dose, thermoluminescence, I-131, thyroid cancer

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15 Measurement of Radionuclide Concentrations and Study on Transfer from Soil to Plant in Sfax-Tunisia

Authors: Sonia Machraoui, Salam Labidi, Karunakara Naregundi


Environmental radiation measurements are useful to identify areas of potential natural radiation hazard particularly in areas of phosphate industries where enhanced radiation levels are expected to be present. Measurements of primordial radionuclides concentrations have been carried out in samples collected from Sfax City around the SIAPE phosphate industry of Tunis. The samples analysed include fish, beef meat, egg, and vegetables as well as in soil and grass. Measurements were performed by gamma spectrometry method using a 42% relative efficiency N-type HPGe detector. The activity concentrations of radionuclides were measured by gamma ray spectrometry. As expected, the concentrations of radionuclides belonging to uranium and thorium series were low in food materials. In all the samples analysed, the 137Cs concentration was below detection level, except meat samples which showed the activity concentration of 2.4 Bq kg-1 (dry wt.) The soil to grass transfer factor was found to be similar to those reported in literature. The effective dose to the population due to intake of food products were also estimated and are presented in this paper.

Keywords: effective doses, phosphate industry, transfer coefficients, Tunisia

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14 Assessment of Radiological Dose for Th-232 Laboratory Accumulated in Tropical Freshwater Fish

Authors: Zal U’yun Wan Mahmood, Norfaizal Mohamed, Nita Salina Abu Bakar, Yii Mei Wo, Abdul Kadir Ishak, Mohamad Noh Sawon, Mohd Tarmizi Ishak, Khairul Nizam Razali


The study of thorium radiotracer bioaccumulation in the whole body tropical freshwater fish (Anabas testudeneus; climb pearch) was performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different Th-232 activity concentration andradiological dose in Anabas testudeneus under the laboratory bioaccumulation condition. Anabas testudeneus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL-1 (control), 50 BqL-1, 100 BqL-1,150 BqL-1and 200 BqL-1for 30 days. Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels were calculated and; total dose rates and risk quotients using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive decrease of Th concentration ratio. Meanwhile, the total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudeneus less than the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 µGyh-1 and the risk quotient less than one. Thus, the findings can be concluded that the radiological dose of Th-232 to Anabas testudeneus is a very low probability and the situation may be considered to be of negligible radiological concern.

Keywords: Anabas testudeneus, bioaccumulation, radiological dose, Th-232

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13 Preliminary dosimetric Evaluation of a New Therapeutic 177LU Complex for Human Based on Biodistribution Data in Rats

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Golabi Dezfuli


Tris (1,10-phenanthroline) lanthanum(III)] trithiocyanate is a new compound that has shown to stop DNA synthesis in CCRF-CEM and Ehrlich ascites cells leading to a cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. One other important property of the phenanthroline nucleus is its ability to act as a triplet-state photosensitizer especially in complexes with lanthanides. In Nowadays, the radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method is known as the most common method for absorbed dose calculation. 177Lu was produced by irradiation of a natural Lu2O3 target at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 4 × 1013 n/cm2•s. 177Lu-PL3 was prepared in the optimized condition. The radiochemical yield was checked by ITLC method. The biodistribution of the complex was investigated by intravenously injection to wild-type rats via their tail veins. In this study, the absorbed dose of 177Lu-PL3 to human organs was estimated by RADAR method. 177Lu was prepared with a specific activity of 2.6-3 and radionuclide purity of 99.98 %. The 177Lu-PL3 complex can prepare with high radiochemical yield (> 99 %) at optimized conditions. The results show that liver and spleen have received the highest absorbed dose of 1.051 and 0.441 mSv/MBq, respectivley. The absorbed dose values for these two dose-limiting tissues suggest more biological studies special in tumor-bearing animals.

Keywords: internal dosimetry, Lutetium-177, radar, animals

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12 Effect of Birks Constant and Defocusing Parameter on Triple-to-Double Coincidence Ratio Parameter in Monte Carlo Simulation-GEANT4

Authors: Farmesk Abubaker, Francesco Tortorici, Marco Capogni, Concetta Sutera, Vincenzo Bellini


This project concerns with the detection efficiency of the portable triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) at the National Institute of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (INMRI-ENEA) which allows direct activity measurement and radionuclide standardization for pure-beta emitter or pure electron capture radionuclides. The dependency of the simulated detection efficiency of the TDCR, by using Monte Carlo simulation Geant4 code, on the Birks factor (kB) and defocusing parameter has been examined especially for low energy beta-emitter radionuclides such as 3H and 14C, for which this dependency is relevant. The results achieved in this analysis can be used for selecting the best kB factor and the defocusing parameter for computing theoretical TDCR parameter value. The theoretical results were compared with the available ones, measured by the ENEA TDCR portable detector, for some pure-beta emitter radionuclides. This analysis allowed to improve the knowledge of the characteristics of the ENEA TDCR detector that can be used as a traveling instrument for in-situ measurements with particular benefits in many applications in the field of nuclear medicine and in the nuclear energy industry.

Keywords: Birks constant, defocusing parameter, GEANT4 code, TDCR parameter

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11 Pressure Relief in Prosthetic Sockets through Hole Implementation Using Different Materials

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme


Below-knee amputees commonly experience asymmetrical gait patterns. It is generally believed that ischemia is related to the formation of pressure sores due to uneven distribution of forces. Micro-vascular responses can reveal local malnutrition. Changes in local skin blood supply under various external loading conditions have been studied for a number of years. Radionuclide clearance, photo-plethysmography, trans-cutaneous oxygen tension along with other studies showed that the blood supply would be influenced by the epidermal forces, and the rate and the amount of blood supply would decrease with increased epidermal loads being shear forces or normal forces. Several cases of socket designs were investigated using Finite Element Model (FEM) and Design of Experiment (DOE) to increase flexibility and minimize the pressure at the limb/socket interface using ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polyamide 6 (PA6) or Duraform. The pressure reliefs at designated areas where reducing thickness is involved are seen to be critical in determination of amputees’ comfort and are very important to clinical applications. Implementing a hole between the Patellar Tendon (PT) and Distal Tibia (DT) would decrease stiffness and increase prosthesis range of motion where flexibility is needed. In addition, displacement and prosthetic energy storage increased without compromising mechanical efficiency and prosthetic design integrity.

Keywords: patellar tendon, distal tibia, prosthetic socket relief areas, hole implementation

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10 Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for a Hypothetical Accidental Release from the 3 MW TRIGA Research Reactor of Bangladesh

Authors: G. R. Khan, Sadia Mahjabin, A. S. Mollah, M. R. Mawla


Atmospheric dispersion modeling is significant for any nuclear facilities in the country to predict the impact of radiological doses on environment as well as human health. That is why to ensure safety of workers and population at plant site; Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations were carried out for a hypothetical accidental release of airborne radionuclide from the 3 MW TRIGA research reactor of Savar, Bangladesh. It is designed with reactor core which consists of 100 fuel elements(1.82245 cm in diameter and 38.1 cm in length), arranged in an annular corefor steady-state and square wave power level of 3 MW (thermal) and for pulsing with maximum power level of 860MWth.The fuel is in the form of a uniform mixture of 20% uranium and 80% zirconium hydride. Total effective doses (TEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were evaluated with a health physics computer code “HotSpot” developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. The doses were estimated at different Pasquill stability classes (categories A-F) with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The meteorological data, such as, average wind speed, frequency distribution of wind direction, etc. have also been analyzed based on the data collected near the reactor site. The results of effective doses obtained remain within the recommended maximum effective dose.

Keywords: accidental release, dispersion modeling, total effective dose, TRIGA

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9 The Influence of Phosphate Fertilizers on Radiological Situation of Cultivated Lands: ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs Concentrations in Soil

Authors: Grzegorz Szaciłowski, Marta Konop, Małgorzata Dymecka, Jakub Ośko


In 1996, the European Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM pointed phosphate fertilizers to have a potentially negative influence on the environment from the radiation protection point of view. Fertilizers along with irrigation and crop rotation were the milestones that allowed to increase agricultural productivity. Firstly based on natural materials such as compost, manure, fish processing waste, etc., and since the 19th century created synthetically, fertilizers caused a boom in crop yield and helped to propel global food production, especially after World War II. In this work the concentrations of ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, ⁴⁰K, and ¹³⁷Cs in selected fertilizers and soil samples were determined. The results were used to calculate the annual addition of natural radionuclides and increment of the external radiation exposure caused by the use of studied fertilizers. Soils intended for different types of crops were sampled in early spring when no vegetation had occurred yet. Analysed fertilizers were those with which the soil was previously fertilized. For gamma radionuclides, a high purity germanium detector GX3520 from Canberra was used. The polonium concentration was determined by radiochemical separation followed by measurement by means of alpha spectrometry. The spectrometer used in this study was equipped with 450 cm² PIPS detector from Canberra. Obtained results showed significant differences in radionuclide composition between phosphate and nitrogenous fertilizers (e.g. the radium equivalent activity for phosphate fertilizer was 207.7 Bq/kg in comparison to <5.6 Bq/kg for nitrogenous fertilizer). The calculated increase of external radiation exposure due to use of phosphate fertilizer ranged between 3.4 and 5.4 nG/h, which represents up to 10% of the polish average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation (45 nGy/h).

Keywords: ²¹⁰Po, alpha spectrometry, exposure, gamma spectrometry, phosphate fertilizer, soil

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8 Preparation and Characterization of Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ytterbium Nanoparticles to Produce a New Nano-Radio Pharmaceutical

Authors: Aghaei Amirkhizi Navideh, Sadjadi Soodeh Sadat, Moghaddam Banaem Leila, Athari Allaf Mitra, Johari Daha Fariba


Dendrimers are good candidates for preparing metal nanoparticles because they can structurally and chemically well-defined templates and robust stabilizers. Poly amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-based multifunctional cancer therapeutic conjugates have been designed and synthesized in pharmaceutical industry. In addition, encapsulated nanoparticle surfaces are accessible to substrates so that catalytic reactions can be carried out. For preparation of dendimer-metal nanocomposite, a dendrimer solution containing an average of 55 Yb+3 ions per dendrimer was prepared. Prior to reduction, the pH of this solution was adjusted to 7.5 using NaOH. NaBH4 was used to reduce the dendrimer-encapsulated Yb+3 to the zerovalent metal. The pH of the resulting solution was then adjusted to 3, using HClO4, to decompose excess BH4-. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the mixture were recorded to ensure the formation of Yb-G5-NH2 complex. High-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and size distribution results provide additional information about dendimer-metal nanocomposite shape, size, and size distribution of the particles. The resulting mixture was irradiated in Tehran Research Reactor 2h and neutron fluxes were 3×1011 n/cm2.Sec and the specific activity was 7MBq. Radiochemical and chemical and radionuclide quality control testes were carried. Gamma Spectroscopy and High-performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC, Thin-Layer Chromatography TLC were recorded. The injection of resulting solution to solid tumor in mice shows that it could be resized the tumor. The studies about solid tumors and nano composites show that ytterbium encapsulated-dendrimer radiopharmaceutical could be introduced as a new therapeutic for the treatment of solid tumors.

Keywords: nano-radio pharmaceutical, ytterbium, PAMAM, dendrimers

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7 Investigation of Correlation Between Radon Concentration and Metals in Produced Water from Oilfield Activities

Authors: Nacer Hamza


Naturally radiation exposure that present due to the cosmic ray or the naturel occurring radioactives materials(NORMs) that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment(1) , a significant concentration of NORMs reported in the produced water which comes out during the oil extraction process, so that the management of this produced water is a challenge for oil and gas companies which include either minimization of produced water which considered as the best way in the term of environment based in the fact that ,the lower water produced the lower cost in treating this water , recycling and reuse by reinjected produced water that fulfills some requirements to enhance oil recovery or disposal in the case that the produced water cannot be minimize or reuse. In the purpose of produced water management, the investigation of NORMs activity concentration present in it considered as the main step for more understanding of the radionuclide’s distribution. Many studies reported the present of NORMs in produced water and investigated the correlation between 〖Ra〗^226and the different metals present in produced water(2) including Cations and anions〖Na〗^+,〖Cl〗^-, 〖Fe〗^(2+), 〖Ca〗^(2+) . and lead, nickel, zinc, cadmium, and copper commonly exist as heavy metal in oil and gas field produced water(3). However, there are no real interesting to investigate the correlation between 〖Rn〗^222and the different metals exist in produced water. methods using, in first to measure the radon concentration activity in produced water samples is a RAD7 .RAD7 is a radiometer instrument based on the solid state detectors(4) which is a type of semi-conductor detector for alpha particles emitting from Rn and their progenies, in second the concentration of different metals presents in produced water measure using an atomic absorption spectrometry AAS. Then to investigate the correlation between the 〖Rn〗^222concentration activity and the metals concentration in produced water a statistical method is Pearson correlation analysis which based in the correlation coefficient obtained between the 〖Rn〗^222 and metals. Such investigation is important to more understanding how the radionuclides act in produced water based on this correlation with metals , in first due to the fact that 〖Rn〗^222decays through the sequence 〖Po〗^218, 〖Pb〗^214, 〖Bi〗^214, 〖Po〗^214, and〖Pb〗^210, those daughters are metals thus they will precipitate with metals present in produced water, secondly the short half-life of 〖Rn〗^222 (3.82 days) lead to faster precipitation of its progenies with metals in produced water.

Keywords: norms, radon concentration, produced water, heavy metals

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