Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2227

Search results for: energetic electron

2227 Comparative Study on Productivity, Chemical Composition and Yield Quality of Some Alternative Crops in Romanian Organic Farming

Authors: Maria Toader, Gheorghe Valentin Roman, Alina Maria Ionescu

Abstract:

Crops diversity and maintaining and enhancing the fertility of agricultural lands are basic principles of organic farming. With a wider range of crops in agroecosystem can improve the ability to control weeds, pests and diseases, and the performance of crops rotation and food safety. In this sense, the main objective of the research was to study the productivity and chemical composition of some alternative crops and their adaptability to soil and climatic conditions of the agricultural area in Southern Romania and to cultivation in the organic farming system. The alternative crops were: lentil (7 genotypes); five species of grain legumes (5 genotypes); four species of oil crops (5 genotypes). The seed production was, on average: 1343 kg/ha of lentil; 2500 kg/ha of field beans; 2400 kg/ha of chick peas and blackeyed peas; more than 2000 kg/ha of atzuki beans, over 1250 kg/ha of fenugreek; 2200 kg/ha of safflower; 570 kg/ha of oil pumpkin; 2150 kg/ha of oil flax; 1518 kg/ha of camelina. Regarding chemical composition, lentil seeds contained: 22.18% proteins, 3.03% lipids, 33.29% glucides, 4.00% minerals, and 259.97 kcal energy values. For field beans: 21.50% proteins, 4.40% lipids, 63.90% glucides, 5.85% minerals, 395.36 kcal energetic value. For chick peas: 21.23% proteins, 4.55% lipids, 53.00% glucides, 3.67% minerals, 348.22 kcal energetic value. For blackeyed peas: 23.30% proteins, 2.10% lipids, 68.10% glucides, 3.93% minerals, 350.14 kcal energetic value. For adzuki beans: 21.90% proteins, 2.60% lipids, 69.30% glucides, 4.10% minerals, 402.48 kcal energetic value. For fenugreek: 21.30% proteins, 4.65% lipids, 63.83% glucides, 5.69% minerals, 396.54 kcal energetic value. For safflower: 12.60% proteins, 28.37% lipids, 46.41% glucides, 3.60% minerals, 505.78 kcal energetic value. For camelina: 20.29% proteins, 31.68% lipids, 36.28% glucides, 4.29% minerals, 526.63 kcal energetic value. For oil pumpkin: 29.50% proteins, 36.92% lipids, 18.50% glucides, 5.41% minerals, 540.15 kcal energetic value. For oil flax: 22.56% proteins, 34.10% lipids, 27.73% glucides, 5.25% minerals, 558.45 kcal energetic value.

Keywords: adaptability, alternative crops, chemical composition, organic farming productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
2226 The Effects of Plantation Size and Internal Transport on Energy Efficiency of Biofuel Production

Authors: Olga Orynycz, Andrzej Wasiak

Abstract:

Mathematical model describing energetic efficiency (defined as a ratio of energy obtained in the form of biofuel to the sum of energy inputs necessary to facilitate production) of agricultural subsystem as a function of technological parameters was developed. Production technology is characterized by parameters of machinery, topological characteristics of the plantation as well as transportation routes inside and outside of plantation. The relationship between the energetic efficiency of agricultural and industrial subsystems is also derived. Due to the assumed large area of the individual field, the operations last for several days increasing inter-fields routes because of several returns. The total distance driven outside of the fields is, however, small as compared to the distance driven inside of the fields. This results in small energy consumption during inter-fields transport that, however, causes a substantial decrease of the energetic effectiveness of the whole system.

Keywords: biofuel, energetic efficiency, EROEI, mathematical modelling, production system

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2225 Challenges in E-Government: Conceptual Views and Solutions

Authors: Rasim Alguliev, Farhad Yusifov

Abstract:

Considering the international experience, conceptual and architectural principles of forming of electron government are researched and some suggestions were made. The assessment of monitoring of forming processes of electron government, intellectual analysis of web-resources, provision of information security, electron democracy problems were researched, conceptual approaches were suggested. By taking into consideration main principles of electron government theory, important research directions were specified.

Keywords: electron government, public administration, information security, web-analytics, social networks, data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
2224 Low Dose In-Line Electron Holography for 3D Atomic Resolution Tomography of Soft Materials

Authors: F. R. Chen, C. Kisielowski, D. Van Dyck

Abstract:

In principle, the latest generation aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) could achieve sub-Å resolution, but there is bottleneck that hinders the final step towards revealing 3D structure. Firstly, in order to achieve a resolution around 1 Å with single atom sensitivity, the electron dose rate needs to be sufficiently large (10⁴-10⁵eÅ⁻² s⁻¹). With such large dose rate, the electron beam can induce surfaces alterations or even bulk modifications, in particular, for electron beam sensitive (soft) materials such as nm size particles, organic materials, proteins or macro-molecules. We will demonstrate methodology of low dose electron holography for observing 3D structure for soft materials such as single Oleic acid molecules at atomic resolution. The main improvement of this new type of electron holography is based on two concepts. Firstly, the total electron dose is distributed over many images obtained at different defocus values from which the electron hologram is then reconstructed. Secondly, in contrast to the current tomographic methods that require projections from several directions, the 3D structural information of the nano-object is then extracted from this one hologram obtained from only one viewing direction.

Keywords: low dose electron microscopy, in-line electron holography, atomic resolution tomography, soft materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2223 Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic Wave in Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas with Two-Electron Temperature Distributions

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Chawla, Mukesh Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave is studied in the presence of two-electron temperature distribution in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky (KBM) perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depend on the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron species as well as the positron density and temperature. The modulationally unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. The effects of the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron on the modulational stability are investigated in detail.

Keywords: modulational instability, ion acoustic wave, KBM method

Procedia PDF Downloads 532
2222 Nano-Sensors: Search for New Features

Authors: I. Filikhin, B. Vlahovic

Abstract:

We focus on a novel type of detection based on electron tunneling properties of double nanoscale structures in semiconductor materials. Semiconductor heterostructures as quantum wells (QWs), quantum dots (QDs), and quantum rings (QRs) may have energy level structure of several hundred of electron confinement states. The single electron spectra of the double quantum objects (DQW, DQD, and DQR) were studied in our previous works with relation to the electron localization and tunneling between the objects. The wave function of electron may be localized in one of the QDs or be delocalized when it is spread over the whole system. The localizing-delocalizing tunneling occurs when an electron transition between both states is possible. The tunneling properties of spectra differ strongly for “regular” and “chaotic” systems. We have shown that a small violation of the geometry drastically affects localization of electron. In particular, such violations lead to the elimination of the delocalized states of the system. The same symmetry violation effect happens if electrical or magnetic fields are applied. These phenomena could be used to propose a new type of detection based on the high sensitivity of charge transport between double nanostructures and small violations of the shapes. It may have significant technological implications.

Keywords: double quantum dots, single electron levels, tunneling, electron localizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
2221 Comparison Between the Radiation Resistance of n/p and p/n InP Solar Cell

Authors: Mazouz Halima, Belghachi Abdrahmane

Abstract:

Effects of electron irradiation-induced deep level defects have been studied on both n/p and p/n indium phosphide solar cells with very thin emitters. The simulation results show that n/p structure offers a somewhat better short circuit current but the p/n structure offers improved circuit voltage, not only before electron irradiation, but also after 1MeV electron irradiation with 5.1015 fluence. The simulation also shows that n/p solar cell structure is more resistant than that of p/n structure.

Keywords: InP solar cell, p/n and n/p structure, electron irradiation, output parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
2220 Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, A. Senol, A. T. Tasci, O. Cakir

Abstract:

We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of the ep→νqγX and ep→νqZX processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (Δκγ,λγ) and (Δκz,λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101,0.065) and (0.320,0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

Keywords: anomalous couplings, future circular collider, large hadron electron collider, W-boson and Z-boson

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
2219 Relation of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of Electron with the Proton and Neutron Masses

Authors: Sergei P. Efimov

Abstract:

The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron is calculated by introducing the effective mass of the virtual part of the electron structure. In this case, the anomalous moment is inversely proportional to the effective mass Meff, which is shown to be a linear combination of the neutron, proton, and electrostatic electron field masses. The spin of a rotating structure is assumed to be equal to 3/2, while the spin of a 'bare' electron is equal to unity, the resultant spin being 1/2. A simple analysis gives the coefficients for a linear combination of proton and electron masses, the approximation precision giving here nine significant digits after the decimal point. The summand proportional to α² adds four more digits. Thus, the conception of the effective mass Meff leads to the formula for the total magnetic moment of the electron, which is accurate to fourteen digits. Association with the virtual beta-decay reaction and possible reasons for simplicity of the derived formula are discussed.

Keywords: anomalous magnetic moment of electron, comparison with quantum electrodynamics. effective mass, fifteen significant figures, proton and neutron masses

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
2218 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter

Abstract:

Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2217 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan

Authors: Emad A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behaviour of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Keywords: electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, scattering, computer software, computation physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 523
2216 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid

Abstract:

One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
2215 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
2214 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu

Abstract:

Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation and photons, respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photon absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that photons have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: electrostatic, electron, photon, proton, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
2213 Generation and Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon/Air

Authors: R. Shrestha, D. P. Subedi, R. B. Tyata, C. S. Wong,

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique for the determination of electron temperatures and electron densities in atmospheric pressure Argon/air discharge by the analysis of optical emission spectra (OES) is reported. The discharge was produced using a high voltage (0-20) kV power supply operating at a frequency of 27 kHz in parallel electrode system, with glass as dielectric. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. Optical emission spectra in the range of (300nm-850nm) were recorded for the discharge with different inter electrode gap keeping electric field constant. Electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) are estimated from electrical and optical methods. Electron density was calculated using power balance method. The optical methods are related with line intensity ratio from the relative intensities of Ar-I and Ar-II lines in Argon plasma. The electron density calculated by using line intensity ratio method was compared with the electron density calculated by stark broadening method. The effect of dielectric thickness on plasma parameters (Te and ne) have also been studied and found that Te and ne increases as thickness of dielectric decrease for same inter electrode distance and applied voltage.

Keywords: electron density, electron temperature, optical emission spectra,

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
2212 Geometric, Energetic and Topological Analysis of (Ethanol)₉-Water Heterodecamers

Authors: Jennifer Cuellar, Angie L. Parada, Kevin N. S. Chacon, Sol M. Mejia

Abstract:

The purification of bio-ethanol through distillation methods is an unresolved issue at the biofuel industry because of the ethanol-water azeotrope formation, which increases the steps of the purification process and subsequently increases the production costs. Therefore, understanding the mixture nature at the molecular level could provide new insights for improving the current methods and/or designing new and more efficient purification methods. For that reason, the present study focuses on the evaluation and analysis of (ethanol)₉-water heterodecamers, as the systems with the minimum molecular proportion that represents the azeotropic concentration (96 %m/m in ethanol). The computational modelling was carried out with B3LYP-D3/6-311++G(d,p) in Gaussian 09. Initial explorations of the potential energy surface were done through two methods: annealing simulated runs and molecular dynamics trajectories besides intuitive structures obtained from smaller (ethanol)n-water heteroclusters, n = 7, 8 and 9. The energetic order of the seven stable heterodecamers determines the most stable heterodecamer (Hdec-1) as a structure forming a bicyclic geometry with the O-H---O hydrogen bonds (HBs) where the water is a double proton donor molecule. Hdec-1 combines 1 water molecule and the same quantity of every ethanol conformer; this is, 3 trans, 3 gauche 1 and 3 gauche 2; its abundance is 89%, its decamerization energy is -80.4 kcal/mol, i.e. 13 kcal/mol most stable than the less stable heterodecamer. Besides, a way to understand why methanol does not form an azeotropic mixture with water, analogous systems ((ethanol)10, (methanol)10, and (methanol)9-water)) were optimized. Topologic analysis of the electron density reveals that Hec-1 forms 33 weak interactions in total: 11 O-H---O, 8 C-H---O, 2 C-H---C hydrogen bonds and 12 H---H interactions. The strength and abundance of the most unconventional interactions (H---H, C-H---O and C-H---O) seem to explain the preference of the ethanol for forming heteroclusters instead of clusters. Besides, O-H---O HBs present a significant covalent character according to topologic parameters as the Laplacian of electron density and the relationship between potential and kinetic energy densities evaluated at the bond critical points; obtaining negatives values and values between 1 and 2, for those two topological parameters, respectively.

Keywords: ADMP, DFT, ethanol-water azeotrope, Grimme dispersion correction, simulated annealing, weak interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
2211 New Kinetic Effects in Spatial Distribution of Electron Flux and Excitation Rates in Glow Discharge Plasmas in Middle and High Pressures

Authors: Kirill D. Kapustin, Mikhail B. Krasilnikov, Anatoly A. Kudryavtsev

Abstract:

Physical formation mechanisms of differential electron fluxes is high pressure positive column gas discharge are discussed. It is shown that the spatial differential fluxes of the electrons are directed both inward and outward depending on the energy relaxation law. In some cases the direction of energy differential flux at intermediate energies (5-10eV) in whole volume, except region near the wall, appeared to be down directed, so electron in this region dissipate more energy than gain from axial electric field. Paradoxical behaviour of electron flux in spatial-energy space is presented.

Keywords: plasma kinetics, electron distribution function, excitation and radiation rates, local and nonlocal EDF

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
2210 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi

Abstract:

A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
2209 Replacing MOSFETs with Single Electron Transistors (SET) to Reduce Power Consumption of an Inverter Circuit

Authors: Ahmed Shariful Alam, Abu Hena M. Mustafa Kamal, M. Abdul Rahman, M. Nasmus Sakib Khan Shabbir, Atiqul Islam

Abstract:

According to the rules of quantum mechanics there is a non-vanishing probability of for an electron to tunnel through a thin insulating barrier or a thin capacitor which is not possible according to the laws of classical physics. Tunneling of electron through a thin insulating barrier or tunnel junction is a random event and the magnitude of current flowing due to the tunneling of electron is very low. As the current flowing through a Single Electron Transistor (SET) is the result of electron tunneling through tunnel junctions of its source and drain the supply voltage requirement is also very low. As a result, the power consumption across a Single Electron Transistor is ultra-low in comparison to that of a MOSFET. In this paper simulations have been done with PSPICE for an inverter built with both SETs and MOSFETs. 35mV supply voltage was used for a SET built inverter circuit and the supply voltage used for a CMOS inverter was 3.5V.

Keywords: ITRS, enhancement type MOSFET, island, DC analysis, transient analysis, power consumption, background charge co-tunneling

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
2208 Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence

Authors: H. Mazouz, A. Belghachi, F. Hadjaj

Abstract:

Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of gaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current.

Keywords: gaAs solar cell, MeV electron irradiation, irradiation fluence, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
2207 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy After Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Anna A. Atroshkina

Abstract:

Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increase in fatigue life of the material has been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
2206 Improved Ohmic Contact by Li Doping in Electron Transport Layers

Authors: G. Sivakumar, T. Pratyusha, D. Gupta, W. Shen

Abstract:

To get ohmic contact between the cathode and organic semiconductor, transport layers are introduced between the active layer and the electrodes. Generally zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are used as electron transport layer. When electron transport layer is doped with lithium, the resultant film exhibited superior electronic properties, which enables faster electron transport. Doping is accomplished by heat treatment of films with Lithium salts. Li-doped films. We fabricated organic solar cell using PTB7(poly(3-hexylthiopene-2,5- diyl):PCBM(phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) and found that the solar cells prepared using Li doped films had better performance in terms of efficiency when compared to the undoped transport layers.

Keywords: electron transport layer, higher efficiency, lithium doping, ohmic contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
2205 Energy Deposited by Secondary Electrons Generated by Swift Proton Beams through Polymethylmethacrylate

Authors: Maurizio Dapor, Isabel Abril, Pablo de Vera, Rafael Garcia-Molina

Abstract:

The ionization yield of ion tracks in polymers and bio-molecular systems reaches a maximum, known as the Bragg peak, close to the end of the ion trajectories. Along the path of the ions through the materials, many electrons are generated, which produce a cascade of further ionizations and, consequently, a shower of secondary electrons. Among these, very low energy secondary electrons can produce damage in the biomolecules by dissociative electron attachment. This work deals with the calculation of the energy distribution of electrons produced by protons in a sample of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a material that is used as a phantom for living tissues in hadron therapy. PMMA is also of relevance for microelectronics in CMOS technologies and as a photoresist mask in electron beam lithography. We present a Monte Carlo code that, starting from a realistic description of the energy distribution of the electrons ejected by protons moving through PMMA, simulates the entire cascade of generated secondary electrons. By following in detail the motion of all these electrons, we find the radial distribution of the energy that they deposit in PMMA for several initial proton energies characteristic of the Bragg peak.

Keywords: Monte Carlo method, secondary electrons, energetic ions, ion-beam cancer therapy, ionization cross section, polymethylmethacrylate, proton beams, secondary electrons, radial energy distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
2204 Electron Beam Effects on Kinetic Alfven Waves in the Cold Homogenous Plasma

Authors: Jaya Shrivastava

Abstract:

The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, growth/damping rate and associated currents in the presence of electron beam in homogenous plasma. Kinetic effects of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. It is found that downward electron beam affects the dispersion relation, growth/damping-rate and associated currents in cold electron limit.

Keywords: magnetospheric physics, plasma waves and instabilities, electron beam, space plasma physics, wave-particle interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2203 Comparison of Dose Rate and Energy Dependence of Soft Tissue Equivalence Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Karim Adinehvand, Amin Sahebnasagh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies as well as on different mean dose rates for a standard clinically used Co-60 therapy unit and an ELECTA linear accelerator. A multi echo sequence with 32 equidistant echoes was used for the evaluation of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be one day. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18MV. Dose rate dependence was studied in 6MeV electron beam and 6MV photon beam with the use of dose rates 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480cGy/min. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean dose rate and energy for electron and photon beams.

Keywords: polymer gels, PAGAT gel, electron and photon beams, MRI

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
2202 Peril´s Environment of Energetic Infrastructure Complex System, Modelling by the Crisis Situation Algorithms

Authors: Jiří F. Urbánek, Alena Oulehlová, Hana Malachová, Jiří J. Urbánek Jr.

Abstract:

Crisis situations investigation and modelling are introduced and made within the complex system of energetic critical infrastructure, operating on peril´s environments. Every crisis situations and perils has an origin in the emergency/ crisis event occurrence and they need critical/ crisis interfaces assessment. Here, the emergency events can be expected - then crisis scenarios can be pre-prepared by pertinent organizational crisis management authorities towards their coping; or it may be unexpected - without pre-prepared scenario of event. But the both need operational coping by means of crisis management as well. The operation, forms, characteristics, behaviour and utilization of crisis management have various qualities, depending on real critical infrastructure organization perils, and prevention training processes. An aim is always - better security and continuity of the organization, which successful obtainment needs to find and investigate critical/ crisis zones and functions in critical infrastructure organization models, operating in pertinent perils environment. Our DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method is disposables for it. Here, it is necessary to derive and create identification algorithm of critical/ crisis interfaces. The locations of critical/ crisis interfaces are the flags of crisis situation in organization of critical infrastructure models. Then, the model of crisis situation will be displayed at real organization of Czech energetic crisis infrastructure subject in real peril environment. These efficient measures are necessary for the infrastructure protection. They will be derived for peril mitigation, crisis situation coping and for environmentally friendly organization survival, continuity and its sustainable development advanced possibilities.

Keywords: algorithms, energetic infrastructure complex system, modelling, peril´s environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2201 The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂ Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin

Authors: Mingmei Zhang, Xinyong Li

Abstract:

AgInS₂/SnS₂ (AIS) nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AIS nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AIS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, the interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed by DFT calculations.

Keywords: AIS nanocomposites, electron-hole pairs, charges transfer, DFTcaculations

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2200 Production of Energetic Nanomaterials by Spray Flash Evaporation

Authors: Martin Klaumünzer, Jakob Hübner, Denis Spitzer

Abstract:

Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. No drying gas is required, so the present technique should not be confused with spray dying. Resulting nanothermites, insensitive explosives or propellants and compositions are foreseen to replace toxic (according to REACH) and very sensitive matter in military and civil applications. Diverse examples are given in detail: nano-RDX (n-Cyclotrimethylentrinitramin) and nano-aluminum based systems, mixtures (n-RDX/n-TNT - trinitrotoluene) or even cocrystalline matter like n-CL-20/HMX (Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane/ Cyclotetra-methylentetranitramin). These nanomaterials show reduced sensitivity by trend without losing effectiveness and performance. An analytical study for material characterization was performed by using Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and combined techniques as well as spectroscopic methods. As a matter of course, sensitivity tests regarding electrostatic discharge, impact, and friction are provided.

Keywords: continuous synthesis, energetic material, nanoscale, nanoexplosive, nanothermite

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
2199 Slow Pyrolysis of Bio-Wastes: Environmental, Exergetic, and Energetic (3E) Assessment

Authors: Daniela Zalazar-Garcia, Erick Torres, German Mazza

Abstract:

Slow pyrolysis of a pellet of pistachio waste was studied using a lab-scale stainless-steel reactor. Experiments were conducted at different heating rates (5, 10, and 15 K/min). A 3-E (environmental, exergetic, and energetic) analysis for the processing of 20 kg/h of bio-waste was carried out. Experimental results showed that biochar and gas yields decreased with an increase in the heating rate (43 to 36 % and 28 to 24 %, respectively), while the bio-oil yield increased (29 to 40 %). Finally, from the 3-E analysis and the experimental results, it can be suggested that an increase in the heating rate resulted in a higher pyrolysis exergetic efficiency (70 %) due to an increase of the bio-oil yield with high-energy content.

Keywords: 3E assessment, bio-waste pellet, life cycle assessment, slow pyrolysis

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2198 The Use of the Matlab Software as the Best Way to Recognize Penumbra Region in Radiotherapy

Authors: Alireza Shayegan, Morteza Amirabadi

Abstract:

The y tool was developed to quantitatively compare dose distributions, either measured or calculated. Before computing ɣ, the dose and distance scales of the two distributions, referred to as evaluated and reference, are re-normalized by dose and distance criteria, respectively. The re-normalization allows the dose distribution comparison to be conducted simultaneously along dose and distance axes. Several two-dimensional images were acquired using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber EPID and Extended Dose Range (EDR2) films for regular and irregular radiation fields. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional dose maps. Transitional and rotational manipulations were performed for images using Matlab software. As evaluated dose distribution maps, they were then compared with the corresponding original dose maps as the reference dose maps.

Keywords: energetic electron, gamma function, penumbra, Matlab software

Procedia PDF Downloads 193