Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3233

Search results for: parameter interactions

3233 Parameter Interactions in the Cumulative Prospect Theory: Fitting the Binary Choice Experiment Data

Authors: Elzbieta Babula, Juhyun Park


Tversky and Kahneman’s cumulative prospect theory assumes symmetric probability cumulation with regard to the reference point within decision weights. Theoretically, this model should be invariant under the change of the direction of probability cumulation. In the present study, this phenomenon is being investigated by creating a reference model that allows verifying the parameter interactions in the cumulative prospect theory specifications. The simultaneous parametric fitting of utility and weighting functions is applied to binary choice data from the experiment. The results show that the flexibility of the probability weighting function is a crucial characteristic allowing to prevent parameter interactions while estimating cumulative prospect theory.

Keywords: binary choice experiment, cumulative prospect theory, decision weights, parameter interactions

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3232 The Hansen Solubility Parameters of Some Lignosulfonates

Authors: Bernt O. Myrvold


Lignosulfonates (LS) find widespread use as dispersants, binders, anti-oxidants, and fillers. In most of these applications LS is used in formulation together with a number of other components. To better understand the interactions between LS and water and possibly other components in a formulation, the Hansen solubility parameters have been determined for some LS. The Hansen solubility parameter splits the total solubility parameter into three components, the dispersive, polar and hydrogen bonding part. The Hansen solubility parameter was determined by comparing the solubility in a number of solvents and solvent mixtures. We have found clear differences in the solubility parameters, with softwood LS being closer to water than hardwood LS.

Keywords: Hansen solubility parameter, lignosulfonate (LS), solubility, solvent

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3231 Effects of Twitter Interactions on Self-Esteem and Narcissistic Behaviour

Authors: Leena-Maria Alyedreessy


Self-esteem is thought to be determined by ones’ own feeling of being included, liked and accepted by others. This research explores whether this concept may also be applied in the virtual world and assesses whether there is any relationship between Twitter users' self-esteem and the amount of interactions they receive. 20 female Arab participants were given a survey asking them about their Twitter interactions and their feelings of having an imagined audience to fill out and a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Assessment to complete. After completion and statistical analysis, results showed a significant correlation between the feeling of being Twitter elite, the feeling of having a lot of people listening to your tweets and having a lot of interactions with high self-esteem. However, no correlations were detected for low-self-esteem and low interactions.

Keywords: twitter, social media, self-esteem, narcissism, interactions

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3230 Generalized Hyperbolic Functions: Exponential-Type Quantum Interactions

Authors: Jose Juan Peña, J. Morales, J. García-Ravelo


In the search of potential models applied in the theoretical treatment of diatomic molecules, some of them have been constructed by using standard hyperbolic functions as well as from the so-called q-deformed hyperbolic functions (sc q-dhf) for displacing and modifying the shape of the potential under study. In order to transcend the scope of hyperbolic functions, in this work, a kind of generalized q-deformed hyperbolic functions (g q-dhf) is presented. By a suitable transformation, through the q deformation parameter, it is shown that these g q-dhf can be expressed in terms of their corresponding standard ones besides they can be reduced to the sc q-dhf. As a useful application of the proposed approach, and considering a class of exactly solvable multi-parameter exponential-type potentials, some new q-deformed quantum interactions models that can be used as interesting alternative in quantum physics and quantum states are presented. Furthermore, due that quantum potential models are conditioned on the q-dependence of the parameters that characterize to the exponential-type potentials, it is shown that many specific cases of q-deformed potentials are obtained as particular cases from the proposal.

Keywords: diatomic molecules, exponential-type potentials, hyperbolic functions, q-deformed potentials

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3229 Efficient Tuning Parameter Selection by Cross-Validated Score in High Dimensional Models

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung


As DNA microarray data contain relatively small sample size compared to the number of genes, high dimensional models are often employed. In high dimensional models, the selection of tuning parameter (or, penalty parameter) is often one of the crucial parts of the modeling. Cross-validation is one of the most common methods for the tuning parameter selection, which selects a parameter value with the smallest cross-validated score. However, selecting a single value as an "optimal" value for the parameter can be very unstable due to the sampling variation since the sample sizes of microarray data are often small. Our approach is to choose multiple candidates of tuning parameter first, then average the candidates with different weights depending on their performance. The additional step of estimating the weights and averaging the candidates rarely increase the computational cost, while it can considerably improve the traditional cross-validation. We show that the selected value from the suggested methods often lead to stable parameter selection as well as improved detection of significant genetic variables compared to the tradition cross-validation via real data and simulated data sets.

Keywords: cross validation, parameter averaging, parameter selection, regularization parameter search

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3228 Frustration Measure for Dipolar Spin Ice and Spin Glass

Authors: Konstantin Nefedev, Petr Andriushchenko


Usually under the frustrated magnetics, it understands such materials, in which ones the interaction between located magnetic moments or spins has competing character, and can not to be satisfied simultaneously. The most well-known and simplest example of the frustrated system is antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle. Physically, the existence of frustrations means, that one cannot select all three pairs of spins anti-parallel in the basic unit of the triangle. In physics of the interacting particle systems, the vector models are used, which are constructed on the base of the pair-interaction law. Each pair interaction energy between one-component vectors can take two opposite in sign values, excluding the case of zero. Mathematically, the existence of frustrations in system means that it is impossible to have all negative energies of pair interactions in the Hamiltonian even in the ground state (lowest energy). In fact, the frustration is the excitation, which leaves in system, when thermodynamics does not work, i.e. at the temperature absolute zero. The origin of the frustration is the presence at least of one ''unsatisfied'' pair of interacted spins (magnetic moments). The minimal relative quantity of these excitations (relative quantity of frustrations in ground state) can be used as parameter of frustration. If the energy of the ground state is Egs, and summary energy of all energy of pair interactions taken with a positive sign is Emax, that proposed frustration parameter pf takes values from the interval [0,1] and it is defined as pf=(Egs+Emax)/2Emax. For antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle pf=1/3. We calculated the parameters of frustration in thermodynamic limit for different 2D periodical structures of Ising dipoles, which were on the ribs of the lattice and interact by means of the long-range dipolar interaction. For the honeycomb lattice pf=0.3415, triangular - pf=0.2468, kagome - pf=0.1644. All dependencies of frustration parameter from 1/N obey to the linear law. The given frustration parameter allows to consider the thermodynamics of all magnetic systems from united point of view and to compare the different lattice systems of interacting particle in the frame of vector models. This parameter can be the fundamental characteristic of frustrated systems. It has no dependence from temperature and thermodynamic states, in which ones the system can be found, such as spin ice, spin glass, spin liquid or even spin snow. It shows us the minimal relative quantity of excitations, which ones can exist in system at T=0.

Keywords: frustrations, parameter of order, statistical physics, magnetism

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3227 Parameter Selection for Computationally Efficient Use of the Bfvrns Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme

Authors: Cavidan Yakupoglu, Kurt Rohloff


In this study, we aim to provide a novel parameter selection model for the BFVrns scheme, which is one of the prominent FHE schemes. Parameter selection in lattice-based FHE schemes is a practical challenges for experts or non-experts. Towards a solution to this problem, we introduce a hybrid principles-based approach that combines theoretical with experimental analyses. To begin, we use regression analysis to examine the parameters on the performance and security. The fact that the FHE parameters induce different behaviors on performance, security and Ciphertext Expansion Factor (CEF) that makes the process of parameter selection more challenging. To address this issue, We use a multi-objective optimization algorithm to select the optimum parameter set for performance, CEF and security at the same time. As a result of this optimization, we get an improved parameter set for better performance at a given security level by ensuring correctness and security against lattice attacks by providing at least 128-bit security. Our result enables average ~ 5x smaller CEF and mostly better performance in comparison to the parameter sets given in [1]. This approach can be considered a semiautomated parameter selection. These studies are conducted using the PALISADE homomorphic encryption library, which is a well-known HE library. The abstract goes here.

Keywords: lattice cryptography, fully homomorphic encryption, parameter selection, LWE, RLWE

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3226 Application of a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction Algorithm of Soft Sets in Online Shopping

Authors: Xiuqin Ma, Hongwu Qin


A new efficient normal parameter reduction algorithm of soft set in decision making was proposed. However, up to the present, few documents have focused on real-life applications of this algorithm. Accordingly, we apply a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction algorithm into real-life datasets of online shopping, such as Blackberry Mobile Phone Dataset. Experimental results show that this algorithm is not only suitable but feasible for dealing with the online shopping.

Keywords: soft sets, parameter reduction, normal parameter reduction, online shopping

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3225 Bleeding-Heart Altruists and Calculating Utilitarians: Applying Process Dissociation to Self-sacrificial Dilemmas

Authors: David Simpson, Kyle Nash


There is considerable evidence linking slow, deliberative reasoning (system 2) with utilitarian judgments in dilemmas involving the sacrificing of another person for the greater good (other-sacrificial dilemmas). Joshua Greene has argued, based on this kind of evidence, that system 2 drives utilitarian judgments. However, the evidence on whether system 2 is associated with utilitarian judgments in self-sacrificial dilemmas is more mixed. We employed process dissociation to measure a self-sacrificial utilitarian (SU) parameter and an other-sacrificial (OU) utilitarian parameter. It was initially predicted that contra Greene, the cognitive reflection test (CRT) would only be positively correlated with the OU parameter and not the SU parameter. However, Greene’s hypothesis was corroborated: the CRT positively correlated with both the OU parameter and the SU parameter. By contrast, the CRT did not correlate with the other two moral parameters we extracted (altruism and deontology).

Keywords: dual-process model, utilitarianism, altruism, reason, emotion, process dissociation

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3224 Robust Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Underwater Robots against Parameter Uncertainties

Authors: Riku Hayashida, Tomoaki Hashimoto


This paper provides a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. Underwater robots are expected to be used for various work assignments. The large variety of applications of underwater robots motivates researchers to develop control systems and technologies for underwater robots. Several control methods have been proposed so far for the stabilization of nominal system model of underwater robots with no parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainties are considered to be obstacles in implementation of the such nominal control methods for underwater robots. The objective of this study is to establish a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: robust control, stabilization method, underwater robot, parameter uncertainty

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3223 Method of Parameter Calibration for Error Term in Stochastic User Equilibrium Traffic Assignment Model

Authors: Xiang Zhang, David Rey, S. Travis Waller


Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE) model is a widely used traffic assignment model in transportation planning, which is regarded more advanced than Deterministic User Equilibrium (DUE) model. However, a problem exists that the performance of the SUE model depends on its error term parameter. The objective of this paper is to propose a systematic method of determining the appropriate error term parameter value for the SUE model. First, the significance of the parameter is explored through a numerical example. Second, the parameter calibration method is developed based on the Logit-based route choice model. The calibration process is realized through multiple nonlinear regression, using sequential quadratic programming combined with least square method. Finally, case analysis is conducted to demonstrate the application of the calibration process and validate the better performance of the SUE model calibrated by the proposed method compared to the SUE models under other parameter values and the DUE model.

Keywords: parameter calibration, sequential quadratic programming, stochastic user equilibrium, traffic assignment, transportation planning

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3222 Vibration of a Beam on an Elastic Foundation Using the Variational Iteration Method

Authors: Desmond Adair, Kairat Ismailov, Martin Jaeger


Modelling of Timoshenko beams on elastic foundations has been widely used in the analysis of buildings, geotechnical problems, and, railway and aerospace structures. For the elastic foundation, the most widely used models are one-parameter mechanical models or two-parameter models to include continuity and cohesion of typical foundations, with the two-parameter usually considered the better of the two. Knowledge of free vibration characteristics of beams on an elastic foundation is considered necessary for optimal design solutions in many engineering applications, and in this work, the efficient and accurate variational iteration method is developed and used to calculate natural frequencies of a Timoshenko beam on a two-parameter foundation. The variational iteration method is a technique capable of dealing with some linear and non-linear problems in an easy and efficient way. The calculations are compared with those using a finite-element method and other analytical solutions, and it is shown that the results are accurate and are obtained efficiently. It is found that the effect of the presence of the two-parameter foundation is to increase the beam’s natural frequencies and this is thought to be because of the shear-layer stiffness, which has an effect on the elastic stiffness. By setting the two-parameter model’s stiffness parameter to zero, it is possible to obtain a one-parameter foundation model, and so, comparison between the two foundation models is also made.

Keywords: Timoshenko beam, variational iteration method, two-parameter elastic foundation model

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3221 Parameter Tuning of Complex Systems Modeled in Agent Based Modeling and Simulation

Authors: Rabia Korkmaz Tan, Şebnem Bora


The major problem encountered when modeling complex systems with agent-based modeling and simulation techniques is the existence of large parameter spaces. A complex system model cannot be expected to reflect the whole of the real system, but by specifying the most appropriate parameters, the actual system can be represented by the model under certain conditions. When the studies conducted in recent years were reviewed, it has been observed that there are few studies for parameter tuning problem in agent based simulations, and these studies have focused on tuning parameters of a single model. In this study, an approach of parameter tuning is proposed by using metaheuristic algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colonies (ABC), Firefly (FA) algorithms. With this hybrid structured study, the parameter tuning problems of the models in the different fields were solved. The new approach offered was tested in two different models, and its achievements in different problems were compared. The simulations and the results reveal that this proposed study is better than the existing parameter tuning studies.

Keywords: parameter tuning, agent based modeling and simulation, metaheuristic algorithms, complex systems

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3220 Optimization of a Cone Loudspeaker Parameter of Design Parameters by Analysis of a Narrow Acoustic Sound Pathway

Authors: Yue Hu, Xilu Zhao, Takao Yamaguchi, Manabu Sasajima, Yoshio Koike, Akira Hara


This study tried optimization of design parameter of a cone loudspeaker unit as an example of the high flexibility of the products design. We developed an acoustic analysis software program that considers the impact of damping caused by air viscosity. In sound reproduction, it is difficult to each design the parameter of the loudspeaker. To overcome the limitation of the design problem in practice, this paper proposes a new an acoustic analysis algorithm to optimize design the parameter of the loudspeaker. The material character of cone paper and the loudspeaker edge was the design parameter, and the vibration displacement of the cone paper was the objective function. The results of the analysis were compared with the predicted value. They had high accuracy to the predicted value. These results suggest that, though the parameter design is difficult by experience and intuition, it can be performed comparatively easily using the optimization design by the developed acoustic analysis software.

Keywords: air viscosity, loudspeaker, cone paper, edge, optimization

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3219 Impact of New Media Technologies to News, Social Interactions, and Traditional Media

Authors: Ademola Bamgbose


The new media revolution, which encompasses a wide variety of new media technologies like blogs, social networking, visual worlds, wikis, have had a great influence on communications, traditional media and across other disciplines. This paper gives a review of the impact of new media technologies on the news, social interactions and traditional media in developing and developed countries. The study points to the fact that there is a significant impact of new media technologies on the news, social interactions and the traditional media in developing and developed countries, albeit both positively and negatively. Social interactions have been significantly affected, as well as in news production and reporting. It is reiterated that despite the pervasiveness of new media technologies, it would not bring to a total decline of traditional media. This paper contributes to the theoretical framework on the new media and will help to assess the extent of the impact of the new media in different locations.

Keywords: communication, media, news, new media technologies, social interactions, traditional media

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3218 Confidence Intervals for Quantiles in the Two-Parameter Exponential Distributions with Type II Censored Data

Authors: Ayman Baklizi


Based on type II censored data, we consider interval estimation of the quantiles of the two-parameter exponential distribution and the difference between the quantiles of two independent two-parameter exponential distributions. We derive asymptotic intervals, Bayesian, as well as intervals based on the generalized pivot variable. We also include some bootstrap intervals in our comparisons. The performance of these intervals is investigated in terms of their coverage probabilities and expected lengths.

Keywords: asymptotic intervals, Bayes intervals, bootstrap, generalized pivot variables, two-parameter exponential distribution, quantiles

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3217 Determination of Biomolecular Interactions Using Microscale Thermophoresis

Authors: Lynn Lehmann, Dinorah Leyva, Ana Lazic, Stefan Duhr, Philipp Baaske


Characterization of biomolecular interactions, such as protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid or protein-small molecule, provides critical insights into cellular processes and is essential for the development of drug diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we present a novel, label-free, and tether-free technology to analyze picomolar to millimolar affinities of biomolecular interactions by Microscale Thermophoresis (MST). The entropy of the hydration shell surrounding molecules determines thermophoretic movement. MST exploits this principle by measuring interactions using optically generated temperature gradients. MST detects changes in the size, charge and hydration shell of molecules and measures biomolecule interactions under close-to-native conditions: immobilization-free and in bioliquids of choice, including cell lysates and blood serum. Thus, MST measures interactions under close-to-native conditions, and without laborious sample purification. We demonstrate how MST determines the picomolar affinities of antibody::antigen interactions, and protein::protein interactions measured from directly from cell lysates. MST assays are highly adaptable to fit to the diverse requirements of different and complex biomolecules. NanoTemper´s unique technology is ideal for studies requiring flexibility and sensitivity at the experimental scale, making MST suitable for basic research investigations and pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: biochemistry, biophysics, molecular interactions, quantitative techniques

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3216 Lifestyle Switching Phenomenon of Plant Associated Fungi

Authors: Gauravi Agarkar, Mahendra Rai


Fungi are closely associated with the plants in various types of interactions such as mycorrhizal, parasitic or endophytic. Some of these interactions are beneficial and a few are harmful to the host plants. It has been suggested that these plant-associated fungi are able to change their lifestyle abd this means endophyte may become parasite or vice versa. This phenomenon may have profound effect on plant-fungal interactions and various ecological niches. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that trigger the change in fungal lifestyle and understand whether these different lifestyles are interconnected at some points either by physiological, biochemical or molecular routes. This review summarizes the factors affecting plant fungal interactions and discusses the possible mechanisms for lifestyles switching of fungi based on available experimental evidences. Research should be boosted in this direction to fetch more advantages in future and to avoid the severe consequences in agriculture and other related fields.

Keywords: endophytic, lifestyle switching, mycorrhizal, parasitic, plant-fungal interactions

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3215 Dialogue, Agency and Appropriation in Peer Interactions

Authors: Mohammad Naseh Nasrollahi Shahri


The article draws on Michael Bakhtin’s theory of language to examine peer interactions. It represents an analysis of other-repetition in student interactions. Several recent studies have explored various aspects of repetition in multiple contexts. However, other-repetition in peer interactions has not received enough attention. Building on previous studies, this study examines patterns of other-repetition or appropriation in the context of discussion activities performed by EFL learners. The analysis highlights the meaningfulness of other-repetition in a way that distinguishes them from rote-repetition. It is suggested that instances of repetition constitute third spaces between the self and other which provide ideal settings for language learning and demonstrate student agency and engagement.

Keywords: repetition, agency, Bakhtin, dialogue

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3214 Stochastic Variation of the Hubble's Parameter Using Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process

Authors: Mary Chriselda A


This paper deals with the fact that the Hubble's parameter is not constant and tends to vary stochastically with time. This premise has been proven by converting it to a stochastic differential equation using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The formulated stochastic differential equation is further solved analytically using the Euler and the Kolmogorov Forward equations, thereby obtaining the probability density function using the Fourier transformation, thereby proving that the Hubble's parameter varies stochastically. This is further corroborated by simulating the observations using Python and R-software for validation of the premise postulated. We can further draw conclusion that the randomness in forces affecting the white noise can eventually affect the Hubble’s Parameter leading to scale invariance and thereby causing stochastic fluctuations in the density and the rate of expansion of the Universe.

Keywords: Chapman Kolmogorov forward differential equations, fourier transformation, hubble's parameter, ornstein-uhlenbeck process , stochastic differential equations

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3213 Turbulence Modeling and Wave-Current Interactions

Authors: A. C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, B. Blanke


The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: numerical modeling, wave-current interactions, turbulence modeling, rip currents

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3212 Humans as Enrichment: Human-Animal Interactions and the Perceived Benefit to the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), Human and Zoological Establishment

Authors: S. J. Higgs, E. Van Eck, K. Heynis, S. H. Broadberry


Engagement with non-human animals is a rapidly-growing field of study within the animal science and social science sectors, with human-interactions occurring in many forms; interactions, encounters and animal-assisted therapy. To our knowledge, there has been a wide array of research published on domestic and livestock human-animal interactions, however, there appear to be fewer publications relating to zoo animals and the effect these interactions have on the animal, human and establishment. The aim of this study was to identify if there were any perceivable benefits from the human-animal interaction for the cheetah, the human and the establishment. Behaviour data were collected before, during and after the interaction on the behaviour of the cheetah and the human participants to highlight any trends with nine interactions conducted. All 35 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire prior to the interaction and immediately after to ascertain if their perceptions changed following an interaction with the cheetah. An online questionnaire was also distributed for three months to gain an understanding of the perceptions of human-animal interactions from members of the public, gaining 229 responses. Both questionnaires contained qualitative and quantitative questions to allow for specific definitive answers to be analysed, but also expansion on the participants perceived perception of human-animal interactions. In conclusion, it was found that participants’ perceptions of human-animal interactions saw a positive change, with 64% of participants altering their opinion and viewing the interaction as beneficial for the cheetah (reduction in stress assumed behaviours) following participation in a 15-minute interaction. However, it was noted that many participants felt the interaction lacked educational values and therefore this is an area in which zoological establishments can work to further improve upon. The results highlighted many positive benefits for the human, animal and establishment, however, the study does indicate further areas for research in order to promote positive perceptions of human-animal interactions and to further increase the welfare of the animal during these interactions, with recommendations to create and regulate legislation.

Keywords: Acinonyx jubatus, encounters, human-animal interactions, perceptions, zoological establishments

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3211 An Improved Parameter Identification Method for Three Phase Induction Motor

Authors: Liang Zhao, Chong-quan Zhong


In order to improve the control performance of vector inverter, an improved parameter identification solution for induction motor is proposed in this paper. Dc or AC voltage is applied to the induction motor using the SVPWM through the inverter. Then stator resistance, stator leakage inductance, rotor resistance, rotor leakage inductance and mutual inductance are obtained according to the signal response. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is used to deal with the noise and harmonic. The impact on parameter identification caused by delays in the inverter switch tube, tube voltage drop and dead-time is avoided by effective compensation measures. Finally, the parameter identification experiment is conducted based on the vector inverter which using TMS320F2808 DSP as the core processor and results show that the strategy is verified.

Keywords: vector inverter, parameter identification, SVPWM; DFT, dead-time compensation

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3210 Men and Feminism: Social Constructions of Masculinities in Relation to the Feminist Movement

Authors: Leonardo Dias Cruz


The advent of web 2.0 has enabled users to engage in translocal and transtemporal interactions in which meanings can be constantly (re)constructed. The fluidity of such interactions in the time-space spectrum makes it evident that D/discourses are always in movement and that here-and-now discursive practices are always linked to macro Discourses in social structures. Considering these assumptions, this study aims at exploring the social construction of masculinities in light of feminist D/discourses in online interactions. The data used are a series of comments from readers of articles posted in a website for (projected) male audiences. In order to approach the movable and fluid nature of such interactions, I examine the data through the lens of processes of entextualization, social positioning and indexical cues. The analysis explores the interactions as social arenas in which struggles for the control over entextualization processes are clearly noticeable. Moreover, two main stances are perceived: one that legitimates male’s participation in Feminism and one that rejects such participation.

Keywords: entextualization, feminism, masculinities, positionings

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3209 Effect of Velocity Slip on Two Phase Flow in an Eccentric Annular Region

Authors: Umadevi B., Dinesh P. A., Indira. R., Vinay C. V.


A mathematical model is developed to study the simultaneous effects of particle drag and slip parameter on the velocity as well as rate of flow in an annular cross sectional region bounded by two eccentric cylinders. In physiological flows this phenomena can be observed in an eccentric catheterized artery with inner cylinder wall is impermeable and outer cylinder wall is permeable. Blood is a heterogeneous fluid having liquid phase consisting of plasma in which a solid phase of suspended cells and proteins. Arterial wall gets damaged due to aging and lipid molecules get deposited between damaged tissue cells. Blood flow increases towards the damaged tissues in the artery. In this investigation blood is modeled as two phase fluid as one is a fluid phase and the other is particulate phase. The velocity of the fluid phase and rate of flow are obtained by transforming eccentric annulus to concentric annulus with the conformal mapping. The formulated governing equations are analytically solved for the velocity and rate of flow. The numerical investigations are carried out by varying eccentricity parameter, slip parameter and drag parameter. Enhancement of slip parameter signifies loss of fluid then the velocity and rate of flow will be decreased. As particulate drag parameter increases then the velocity as well as rate flow decreases. Eccentricity facilitates transport of more fluid then the velocity and rate of flow increases.

Keywords: catheter, slip parameter, drag parameter, eccentricity

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3208 Molecular Modeling a Tool for Postulating the Mechanism of Drug Interaction: Glimepiride Alters the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil Citrate in Diabetic Nephropathy Animals

Authors: Alok Shiomurti Tripathi, Ajay Kumar Timiri, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Anil Chandewar


The present study evaluates the possible drug interaction between glimepiride (GLIM) and sildenafil citrate (SIL) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced in diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals and also postulates the possible mechanism of interaction by molecular modeling studies. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) and confirms it by assessing the blood and urine biochemical parameters on 28th day of its induction. Selected DN animals were used for the drug interaction between GLIM (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) and SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) after 29th and 70th day of protocol. Drug interaction were assessed by evaluating the plasma drug concentration using HPLC-UV and also determine the change in the biochemical parameter in blood and urine. Mechanism of the interaction was postulated by molecular modeling study using Maestro module of Schrodinger software. DN was confirmed as there was significant alteration in the blood and urine biochemical parameter in STZ treated groups. The concentration of SIL increased significantly (p<0.001) in rat plasma when co administered with GLIM after 70th day of protocol. Molecular modelling study revealed few important interactions with rat serum albumin and CYP2C9.GLIM has strong hydrophobic interaction with binding site residues of rat serum albumin compared to SIL. Whereas, for CYP2C9, GLIM has strong hydrogen bond with polar contacts and hydrophobic interactions than SIL. Present study concludes that bioavailability of SIL increases when co-administered chronically with GLIM in the management of DN animals and mechanism has been supported by molecular modeling studies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, glimepiride, sildenafil citrate, pharmacokinetics, homology modeling, schrodinger

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3207 Application of the Discrete Rationalized Haar Transform to Distributed Parameter System

Authors: Joon-Hoon Park


In this paper the rationalized Haar transform is applied for distributed parameter system identification and estimation. A distributed parameter system is a dynamical and mathematical model described by a partial differential equation. And system identification concerns the problem of determining mathematical models from observed data. The Haar function has some disadvantages of calculation because it contains irrational numbers, for these reasons the rationalized Haar function that has only rational numbers. The algorithm adopted in this paper is based on the transform and operational matrix of the rationalized Haar function. This approach provides more convenient and efficient computational results.

Keywords: distributed parameter system, rationalized Haar transform, operational matrix, system identification

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3206 Location and Group Specific Differences in Human-Macaque Interactions in Singapore: Implications for Conflict Management

Authors: Srikantan L. Jayasri, James Gan


The changes in Singapore’s land use, natural preference of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to live in forest edges and their adaptability has led to interface between humans and macaques. Studies have shown that two-third of human-macaque interactions in Singapore were related to human food. We aimed to assess differences among macaques groups in their dependence on human food and interaction with humans as indicators of the level of interface. Field observations using instantaneous scan sampling and all occurrence ad-lib sampling were carried out for 23 macaque groups over 28 days recording 71.5 hours of observations. Data on macaque behaviour, demography, frequency, and nature of human-macaque interactions were collected. None of the groups were found to completely rely on human food source. Of the 23 groups, 40% of them were directly or indirectly provisioned by humans. One-third of the groups observed engaged in some form of interactions with the humans. Three groups that were directly fed by humans contributed to 83% of the total human-macaque interactions observed during the study. Our study indicated that interactions between humans and macaques exist in specific groups and in those fed by humans regularly. Although feeding monkeys is illegal in Singapore, such incidents seem to persist in specific locations. We emphasize the importance of group and location-specific assessment of the existing human-wildlife interactions. Conflict management strategies developed should be location specific to address the cause of interactions.

Keywords: primates, Southeast Asia, wildlife management, Singapore

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3205 An Investigation on Material Removal Rate of EDM Process: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

Authors: Azhar Equbal, Anoop Kumar Sood, M. Asif Equbal, M. Israr Equbal


In the present work response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) is used for analyzing the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. For experimentation, mild steel is selected as work piece and copper is used as electrode. Three machining parameters namely current (I), spark on time (Ton) and spark off time (Toff) are selected as the input variables. The output or response chosen is material removal rate (MRR) which is to be maximized. To reduce the number of runs face centered central composite design (FCCCD) was used. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of parameter and interactions. The suitability of model is tested using Anderson darling (AD) plot. The results conclude that different parameters considered i.e. current, pulse on and pulse off time; all have dominant effect on the MRR. At last, the optimized parameter setting for maximizing MRR is found through main effect plot analysis.

Keywords: EDM, electrode, MRR, RSM, ANOVA

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3204 Calculating Shear Strength Parameter from Simple Shear Apparatus

Authors: G. Nitesh


The shear strength of soils is a crucial parameter instability analysis. Therefore, it is important to determine reliable values for the accuracy of stability analysis. Direct shear tests are mostly performed to determine the shear strength of cohesionless soils. The major limitation of the direct shear test is that the failure takes place through the pre-defined failure plane but the failure is not along pre-defined plane and is along the weakest plane in actual shearing mechanism that goes on in the field. This leads to overestimating the strength parameter; hence, a new apparatus called simple shear is developed and used in this study to determine the shear strength parameter that simulates the field conditions.

Keywords: direct shear, simple shear, angle of shear resistance, cohesionless soils

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