Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 114

Search results for: Salim Newaz Kazi

114 Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Acacia mangium

Authors: Samira Gharehkhani, Seyed Farid Seyed Shirazi, Abdolreza Gharehkhani, Hooman Yarmand, Ahmad Badarudin, Rushdan Ibrahim, Salim Newaz Kazi

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were prepared by acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of bleached Acacia mangium fibers. The obtained rod-shaped nanocrystals showed a uniform size. The results showed that NCC with high crystallinity can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The effect of synthesis condition was investigated. Different reaction times were examined to produce the NCC and the results revealed that an optimum reaction time has to be used for preparing the NCC. Morphological investigation was performed using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity increased with successive treatments. The NCC suspension was homogeneous and stable and no sedimentation was observed for a long time.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis, nanocrystalline cellulose, nano material, reaction time

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113 Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Ahmad Amiri, Hamid K. Arzani, Salim Newaz Kazi, Ahmad Badarudin

Abstract:

The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, turbulent flow, forced convection flow, graphene nanoplatelet

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
112 Thermophysical Properties of Water-Based Carboxylated Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Nanofluids

Authors: Ahmad Amiri, Hamed Khajeh Arzani, Md. Salim Newaz Kazi, Bee Teng Chew

Abstract:

Obviously, the behavior of thermophysical properties of covalently functionalized MWNT-based water nanofluids cannot be predicted from the predicted models. We present a study of the specific heat capacity, effective thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of coolants containing functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT-COOH) with carboxyl groups at different temperatures. After synthesizing of MWNT-COOH-based water, measurements on the prepared coolants were made at various concentrations by different experimental methods. While thermal conductivity of nanofluids illustrated a significant increase, the specific heat capacity of the samples showed a downward behavior with increasing temperature. The viscosity was investigated in different shear rates and temperatures. Interestingly, the specific heat capacity of all prepared nanofluids was decreased with increasing concentration. Also, the density of the MWNT-COOH-based water nanofluids increased and decreased smoothly with increasing MWNT-COOH concentration and temperature, respectively.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, coolant, heat capacity, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity

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111 An Approach to Apply Kernel Density Estimation Tool for Crash Prone Location Identification

Authors: Kazi Md. Shifun Newaz, S. Miaji, Shahnewaz Hazanat-E-Rabbi

Abstract:

In this study, the kernel density estimation tool has been used to identify most crash prone locations in a national highway of Bangladesh. Like other developing countries, in Bangladesh road traffic crashes (RTC) have now become a great social alarm and the situation is deteriorating day by day. Today’s black spot identification process is not based on modern technical tools and most of the cases provide wrong output. In this situation, characteristic analysis and black spot identification by spatial analysis would be an effective and low cost approach in ensuring road safety. The methodology of this study incorporates a framework on the basis of spatial-temporal study to identify most RTC occurrence locations. In this study, a very important and economic corridor like Dhaka to Sylhet highway has been chosen to apply the method. This research proposes that KDE method for identification of Hazardous Road Location (HRL) could be used for all other National highways in Bangladesh and also for other developing countries. Some recommendations have been suggested for policy maker to reduce RTC in Dhaka-Sylhet especially in black spots.

Keywords: hazardous road location (HRL), crash, GIS, kernel density

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
110 Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for Air-Conditioned Lecture Halls in Malaysia

Authors: B. T. Chew, S. N. Kazi, A. Amiri

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive thermal comfort model study in the tropical country of Malaysia. A number of researchers have been interested in applying the adaptive thermal comfort model to different climates throughout the world, but so far no study has been performed in Malaysia. For the use as a thermal comfort model, which better applies to hot and humid climates, the adaptive thermal comfort model was developed as part of this research by using the collected results from a large field study in six lecture halls with 178 students. The relationship between the operative temperature and behavioral adaptations was determined. In the developed adaptive model, the acceptable indoor neutral temperatures lay within the range of 23.9-26.0 oC, with outdoor temperatures ranging between 27.0–34.6oC. The most comfortable temperature for students in the lecture hall was 25.7 oC.

Keywords: hot and humid, lecture halls, neutral temperature, adaptive thermal comfort model

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109 Study of the Nanostructured Fe₅₀Cr₃₅Ni₁₅ Powder Alloy Developed by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: Salim Triaa, Fella Kali-Ali

Abstract:

Nanostructured Fe₅₀Cr3₃₅Ni₁₅ alloys were prepared from pure elemental powders using high energy mechanical alloying. The mixture powders obtained are characterized by several techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis revelated the formation of the Fe₁Cr₁ compound with BBC structure after one hour of milling. A second compound Fe₃Ni₂ with FCC structure was observed after 12 hours of milling. The size of crystallite determined by Williamson Hall method was about 5.1 nm after 48h of mill. SEM observations confirmed the growth of crushed particles as a function of milling time, while the homogenization of our powders into different constituent elements was verified by the EDX analysis.

Keywords: Fe-Cr-Ni alloy, mechanical alloying, nanostructure, SEM, XRD

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108 SOTM: A New Cooperation Based Trust Management System for VANET

Authors: Amel Ltifi, Ahmed Zouinkhi, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

Security and trust management in Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANET) is a crucial research domain which is the scope of many researches and domains. Although, the majority of the proposed trust management systems for VANET are based on specific road infrastructure, which may not be present in all the roads. Therefore, road security should be managed by vehicles themselves. In this paper, we propose a new Self Organized Trust Management system (SOTM). This system has the responsibility to cut with the spread of false warnings in the network through four principal components: cooperation, trust management, communication and security.

Keywords: ative vehicle, cooperation, trust management, VANET

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
107 Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications

Authors: A. Fakhri Makram, Marwa S. Alwazni, Al-Douri Yarub, Evan T. Salim, Hashim Uda, Chin C. Woei

Abstract:

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500°C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.

Keywords: lithium niobate, morphological properties, thin film, pechini method, XRD

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106 Effect of Oyster Mushroom on Biodegradation of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Saidu, Afiz Busari, Ali Yuzir, Mohd Razman Salim

Abstract:

Degradation of agricultural residues from palm oil industry is increasing due to its expansion. Lignocelloulosic waste from these industry represent large amount of unutilized resources, this is due to their high lignin content. Since, white rot fungi are capable of degrading the lignin, its potential to degradation was accessed for upgrading it. The lignocellluloses content was measured before and after biodegradation and the rate of reduction was determined. From the results of biodegradation, it was observed that hemicellulose reduces by 22.62%, cellulose by 20.97% and lignin by 10.65% from the initials lignocelluloses contents. Thus, to improve the digestibility of palm oil mesocarp fibre, treatment by white rot-fungi is recommended.

Keywords: biological, fungi, lignocelluses, oil palm

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105 Smart Trust Management for Vehicular Networks

Authors: Amel Ltifi, Ahmed Zouinkhi, Med Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

Spontaneous networks such as VANET are in general deployed in an open and thus easily accessible environment. Therefore, they are vulnerable to attacks. Trust management is one of a set of security solutions dedicated to this type of networks. Moreover, the strong mobility of the nodes (in the case of VANET) makes the establishment of a trust management system complex. In this paper, we present a concept of ‘Active Vehicle’ which means an autonomous vehicle that is able to make decision about trustworthiness of alert messages transmitted about road accidents. The behavior of an “Active Vehicle” is modeled using Petri Nets.

Keywords: active vehicle, cooperation, petri nets, trust management, VANET

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104 Structural and Leaching Properties of Irradiated Lead Commercial Glass by Using XRD, Ultrasonic, UV-VIS and AAS Technique

Authors: N. H. Alias, S. A. Aziz, Y. Abdullah, H. M. Kamari, S. Sani, M. P. Ismail, N. U. Saidin, N. A. A. Salim, N. E. E. Abdullah

Abstract:

Gamma (γ) irradiation study has been investigated on the 6 rectangular shape of the standard X-Ray lead glass with 5/16” thick, providing 2.00 mm lead shielding value; at selected Sievert doses (C1; 0, C2; 0.07, C3; 0.035, C4; 0.07, C5; 0.105 and C6; 0.14) by using (XRD) X-ray Diffraction techniques, ultrasonic and (UV-VIS) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Concentration of lead in 0.5 N acid nitric (HNO3) environments is then studied by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as to observe the glass corrosion behavior after irradiation at room temperature. This type of commercial glass is commonly used as radiation shielding glass in medical application.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, lead glass, leaching, structural

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103 Exhaustive Study of Essential Constraint Satisfaction Problem Techniques Based on N-Queens Problem

Authors: Md. Ahsan Ayub, Kazi A. Kalpoma, Humaira Tasnim Proma, Syed Mehrab Kabir, Rakib Ibna Hamid Chowdhury

Abstract:

Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is observed in various applications, i.e., scheduling problems, timetabling problems, assignment problems, etc. Researchers adopt a CSP technique to tackle a certain problem; however, each technique follows different approaches and ways to solve a problem network. In our exhaustive study, it has been possible to visualize the processes of essential CSP algorithms from a very concrete constraint satisfaction example, NQueens Problem, in order to possess a deep understanding about how a particular constraint satisfaction problem will be dealt with by our studied and implemented techniques. Besides, benchmark results - time vs. value of N in N-Queens - have been generated from our implemented approaches, which help understand at what factor each algorithm produces solutions; especially, in N-Queens puzzle. Thus, extended decisions can be made to instantiate a real life problem within CSP’s framework.

Keywords: arc consistency (AC), backjumping algorithm (BJ), backtracking algorithm (BT), constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), forward checking (FC), least constrained values (LCV), maintaining arc consistency (MAC), minimum remaining values (MRV), N-Queens problem

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102 Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin

Abstract:

Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: laminar forced convection, curve pipe, return bend, nanufluid, CFD

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101 Critical Evaluation of the Effects of Conditionalities and Structural Adjustments on the Poor and Developing Countries

Authors: Kazi Rafikoddin

Abstract:

Conditionality refers to a precondition for getting external funds from IMF or WB by giving consent for implementation of the program of economic or political reforms especially relating to open economies. These are put forth under the label of structural adjustment. It is a kind of challenge on the part of borrowing government to exercise balance between the domestic obligations and the expectations of external funding agencies. Countries have to take loans under certain criteria and regulations because better loans are often not readily available. Therefore taking loans and renewing them to pay the same with new interest rates and conditions makes the governments entangled in the circle of debt. They are forced to compete with well-established multinational companies. If their access to industrialized countries' markets is impaired through protectionism, the developed world will be condemning the indebted nations to perpetual financial crisis. On the other hand, the ability to sell their goods free in the world market is reduced through the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes. Although there are examples of positive effects on certain economies like India, some Third World, and poor countries have experienced the ire of these remedies. This paper tries to find out the effects of SAPs on some borrowing countries.

Keywords: IMF, world bank, conditionalities, SAPs, Third World Countries

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100 Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluid Flow over Vertical Double Forward-Facing Step

Authors: Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, Hussein Togun, M. K. A. Ariffin, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, N. M. Adam, S. Masuri

Abstract:

Numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow over vertical double forward facing step were presented. The k-w model with finite volume method was employed to solve continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Different step heights were adopted for range of Reynolds number varied from 10000 to 40000, and range of temperature varied from 310K to 340 K. The straight side of duct is insulated while the side of double forward facing step is heated. The result shows augmentation of heat transfer due to the recirculation region created after and before steps. Effect of step length and Reynolds number observed on increase of local Nusselt number particularly at recirculation regions. Contour of streamline velocity is plotted to show recirculation regions after and before steps. Numerical simulation in this paper done by used ANSYS Fluent 14.

Keywords: turbulent flow, double forward, heat transfer, separation flow

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99 Disaster Probability Analysis of Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for Train Accidents and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Bangladesh

Authors: Shahab Uddin, Kazi M. Uddin, Hamamah Sadiqa

Abstract:

The paper deals with the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge (BMB), the 11th longest bridge in the world was constructed in 1998 aimed at contributing to promote economic development in Bangladesh. In recent years, however, the high incidence of traffic accidents and injuries at the bridge sites looms as a great safety concern. Investigation into the derailment of nine bogies out of thirteen of Dinajpur-bound intercity train ‘Drutajan Express ’were derailed and inclined on the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge on 28 April 2014. The train accident in Bridge will be deep concern for both structural safety of bridge and people than other vehicles accident. In this study we analyzed the disaster probability of the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for accidents by checking the fitness of Bridge structure. We found that train accident impact is more risky than other vehicles accidents. We also found that socio-economic impact on Bangladesh will be deep concerned.

Keywords: train accident, derailment, disaster, socio-economic

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
98 Multi-Scale Modelling of Thermal Wrinkling of Thin Membranes

Authors: Salim Belouettar, Kodjo Attipou

Abstract:

The thermal wrinkling behavior of thin membranes is investigated. The Fourier double scale series are used to deduce the macroscopic membrane wrinkling equations. The obtained equations account for the global and local wrinkling modes. Numerical examples are conducted to assess the validity of the approach developed. Compared to the finite element full model, the present model needs only few degrees of freedom to recover accurately the bifurcation curves and wrinkling paths. Different parameters such as membrane’s aspect ratio, wave number, pre-stressed membranes are discussed from a numerical point of view and the properties of the wrinkles (critical load, wavelength, size and location) are presented.

Keywords: wrinkling, thermal stresses, Fourier series, thin membranes

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97 Family Business Succession through the Eye of the Upper Echelon Theory: A Phenomenological Approach

Authors: Ruswiati Suryasaputra, Linda Salim

Abstract:

This concept paper, initially a proposal for the completion of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, is seeking to gain more understanding of family business succession in order to extend the average lifespan of family business that has shrunken significantly for the past 20 years. While multitude studies have been done in family business succession, the average lifespan of a family business continues to decline sharply over the past two decades to only 24 years, or 1.5 generations, in 2010, from 50-60 years, equivalent to 3 generations, as recently as 1990. While the qualitative approach of this study will not churn a theoretical framework unique to the family business field, it will bring to the surface important issues during a family business succession process that have been hidden behind the mostly profit-making issues that have been the main highlight of the family business field.

Keywords: family business, succession, nepotism, family studies

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96 Quality of Ram Semen in Relation to Scrotal Biometry

Authors: M. M. Islam, S. Sharmin, M. Shah Newaz, N. S. Juyena, M. M. Rahman, P. K. Jha, F. Y. Bari

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to select the high quality ram by measuring the scrotal biometry which has an effect on semen parameters. Ten rams were selected in the present study. Eight ejaculates were collected from each ram using artificial vagina method. Scrotal circumference was measured before and after semen collection on weekly basis using the Scrotal tape. Bio-metries of scrotum (scrotal length and scrotal volume) were calculated. Semen was evaluated for macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The average estimated scrotal circumference (cm) and scrotal volume (cm3) in 8 different age groups were 17.16±0.05 cm and 61.30±0.70 cm3, 17.17±0.62 cm and 63.67±4.49 cm3, 17.22±0.52 cm and 64.90±4.21 cm3, 17.72±0.37 cm and 67.10±4.20 cm3, 18.41±0.35cm and 69.52±4.12cm3, 18.45±0.36cm and 77.17±3.81 cm3, 18.55±0.41 cm and 78.72±4.90 cm3, 19.10±0.30 cm and 87.35±5.45 cm3 respectively. The body weight, scrotal circumference and scrotal volume increased with the progress of age (P < 0.05). Body weight of age group 381-410 days (13.62+1.48 kg) was significantly higher than group 169-200 days (10.17±0.05 kg) and 201-230 days (10.42±1.18 kg) (p < 0.05). Scrotal circumference (SC) of age group 381-410 days (19.10±0.30 cm) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other groups. In age group 381-410 days, scrotal volume (SCV) (87.35±5.45 cm3) was significantly higher than other first five groups (p < 0.05). Both scrotal circumference and scrotal volume development was positively correlated with the increasing of body weight (R2= 0.51). Semen volume increased accordingly with the increasing of ages, varied from 0.35±0.00 ml to 1.15+0.26 ml. Semen volume of age group 381-410 days (1.15±0.26 ml) was significantly higher than other age groups (p < 0.05) except age group 351-380 days (p > 0.05). Mass activity of different age groups varied from 2.75 (±0.35) to 4.25 (±0.29) ml in the scale of 1-5. Sperm concentration, progressive motility (%),progressively improved according to the increasing of ages, but significant changes in these parameters were seen when the animals reaches the age 291 days or more (p < 0.05). However, normal spermatozoa (%) improved significantly from the age of 261 days or more. Mass activity (mass) was positively correlated with sperm concentration (R2=0.568) and progressive motility (%) (R2=0.616). The relationships of semen volume with body weight and scrotal measurements and sperm concentration indicate that they are useful in evaluating rams for breeding soundness and genetic improvement for fertility in indigenous ram.

Keywords: breeding soundness, ram, semen quality, scrotal biometry

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95 Hardware Co-Simulation Based Based Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive

Authors: Hanan Mikhael Dawood, Haider Salim, Jafar Al-Wash

Abstract:

This paper presents Proportional-Integral (PI) controller to improve the system performance which gives better torque and flux response. In addition, it reduces the undesirable torque ripple. The conventional DTC controller approach for induction machines, based on an improved torque and stator flux estimator, is implemented using Xilinx System Generator (XSG) for MATLAB/Simulink environment through Xilinx blocksets. The design was achieved in VHDL which is based on a MATLAB/Simulink simulation model. The hardware in the loop results are obtained considering the implementation of the proposed model on the Xilinx NEXYS2 Spartan 3E1200 FG320 Kit.

Keywords: induction motor, Direct Torque Control (DTC), Xilinx FPGA, motor drive

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94 Contribution to the Evaluation of Uncertainties of Measurement to the Data Processing Sequences of a Cmm

Authors: Hassina Gheribi, Salim Boukebbab

Abstract:

The measurement of the parts manufactured on CMM (coordinate measuring machine) is based on the association of a surface of perfect geometry to the group of dots palpated via a mathematical calculation of the distances between the palpated points and itself surfaces. Surfaces not being never perfect, they are measured by a number of points higher than the minimal number necessary to define them mathematically. However, the central problems of three-dimensional metrology are the estimate of, the orientation parameters, location and intrinsic of this surface. Including the numerical uncertainties attached to these parameters help the metrologist to make decisions to be able to declare the conformity of the part to specifications fixed on the design drawing. During this paper, we will present a data-processing model in Visual Basic-6 which makes it possible automatically to determine the whole of these parameters, and their uncertainties.

Keywords: coordinate measuring machines (CMM), associated surface, uncertainties of measurement, acquisition and modeling

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93 NABERS Indoor Environment - a Rating Tool to Benchmark the IEQ of Australian Office Commercial Buildings

Authors: Kazi Hossain

Abstract:

The National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS) is the key industry standard for measuring and benchmarking environmental performance of existing buildings in Australia. Developed and run by the New South Wales government, NABERS measures the operational efficiency of different types of buildings by using a set of tools that provide an easy to understand graphical rating outcome ranged from 0 to 6 stars. This set of tools also include a tool called NABERS IE which enables tenants or building managers to benchmark their buildings indoor environment quality against the national market. Launched in 2009, the number NABERS IE ratings have steadily increased from 10 certified ratings in 2011 to 43 in 2013. However there is a massive uptake of over 50 ratings alone in 2014 making the number of ratings to reach over 100. This paper outlines the methodology used to create this tool, a statistical overview of the tool, and the driving factor that motivates the building owners and managers to use this tool every year to rate their buildings.

Keywords: Acoustic comfort, Indoor air quality, Indoor Environment, NABERS, National Australian Built Environment Rating System, Performance rating, Rating System, Thermal comfort, Ventilation effectiveness, Visual comfort.

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92 A Neural Approach for the Offline Recognition of the Arabic Handwritten Words of the Algerian Departments

Authors: Salim Ouchtati, Jean Sequeira, Mouldi Bedda

Abstract:

In this work we present an off line system for the recognition of the Arabic handwritten words of the Algerian departments. The study is based mainly on the evaluation of neural network performances, trained with the gradient back propagation algorithm. The used parameters to form the input vector of the neural network are extracted on the binary images of the handwritten word by several methods: the parameters of distribution, the moments centered of the different projections and the Barr features. It should be noted that these methods are applied on segments gotten after the division of the binary image of the word in six segments. The classification is achieved by a multi layers perceptron. Detailed experiments are carried and satisfactory recognition results are reported.

Keywords: handwritten word recognition, neural networks, image processing, pattern recognition, features extraction

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91 Numerical Heat Transfer Performance of Water-Based Graphene Nanoplatelets

Authors: Ahmad Amiri, Hamed K. Arzani, S. N. Kazi, B. T. Chew

Abstract:

Since graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) is a promising material due to desirable thermal properties, this paper is related to the thermophysical and heat transfer performance of covalently functionalized GNP-based water/ethylene glycol nanofluid through an annular channel. After experimentally measuring thermophysical properties of prepared samples, a computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop of well-dispersed and stabilized nanofluids. The effect of concentration of GNP and Reynolds number at constant wall temperature boundary condition under turbulent flow regime on convective heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. Based on the results, for different Reynolds numbers, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the prepared nanofluid is higher than that of the base fluid. Also, the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity increase with the increase of GNP concentration in base-fluid. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant enhancement on the heat transfer rate associated with loading well-dispersed GNP in base-fluid.

Keywords: nanofluid, turbulent flow, forced convection flow, graphene, annular, annulus

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90 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Laminar Flow over a Backward Facing Step with and without Obstacle

Authors: Hussein Togun, Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, M. K. A. Ariffin, M. N. M. Zubir

Abstract:

Heat transfer and laminar fluid flow over backward facing step with and without obstacle numerically studied in this paper. The finite volume method adopted to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations in two dimensions. Backward facing step without obstacle and with different dimension of obstacle were presented. The step height and expansion ratio of channel were 4.8mm and 2 respectively, the range of Reynolds number varied from 75 to 225, constant heat flux subjected on downstream of wall was 2000W/m2, and length of obstacle was 1.5, 3, and 4.5mm with width 1.5mm. The separation length noticed increase with increase Reynolds number and height of obstacle. The result shows increase of heat transfer coefficient for backward facing step with obstacle in compared to those without obstacle. The maximum enhancement of heat transfer observed at 4.5mm of height obstacle due to increase recirculation flow after the obstacle in addition that at backward. Streamline of velocity showing the increase of recirculation region with used obstacle in compared without obstacle and highest recirculation region observed at obstacle height 4.5mm. The amount of enhancement heat transfer was varied between 3-5% compared to backward without obstacle.

Keywords: separation flow, backward facing step, heat transfer, laminar flow

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89 Age-Based Interface Design for Children’s CAPT Systems

Authors: Saratu Yusuf Ilu, Mumtaz B. Mustafa, Siti Salwah Salim, Mehdi Malekzadeh

Abstract:

Children today use computer based application in various activities especially for learning and education. Many of these tools and application such as the Computer Aided Pronunciation Training (CAPT) system enable children to explore and experience them with little supervision from the adults. In order for these tools and application to have maximum effect on the children’s learning and education, it must be attractive to the children to use them. This could be achieved with the proper user interface (UI) design. As children grow, so do their ability, taste and preferences. They interact differently with these applications as they grow older. This study reviews several articles on how age factor influences the UI design. The review focuses on age related abilities such as cognitive, literacy, concentration and feedback requirement. We have also evaluated few of existing CAPT systems and determine the influence of age-based factors on the interface design.

Keywords: children, age-based interaction, learning application, age-based capability

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88 Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach for Ensuring Community Satisfaction on Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Jason Salim, Zhouyang Lu

Abstract:

Private sector involvement in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects may raise public suspicion, as PPP is often mistaken as merely a partnership between private and government agencies without consideration for greater “public” (community). This public marginalization is crucial to be dealt with because undermining opinion of majority may cause problems such as protests and/ or low demand. Game theory approach applied in this paper shows that probability of public acceptance towards a project is affected by overall public’s perception on Private sectors’ possible profit accumulation from the project. On the contrary, goodwill of the government and private coalition alone is not enough to minimize the probability of public opposition towards a PPP project. Additionally, the threat of loss or damage raised from public opposition does not affect the profit-maximization behavior of Private sectors.

Keywords: community satisfaction, game theory, non-cooperative, PPP, public policy

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87 Spelling Errors of EFL Students: An Insight into Curriculum Development

Authors: Sheikha Ali Salim Al-Breiki

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the types of the spelling errors students of grade ten make and to find out whether there were any significant differences between males and females with respect to the types of the spelling errors made. The sample of the study included 90 grade ten students from four different schools in North Batinah. The researcher manipulated the use of a test that consisted of two questions: an oral dictation test of 70 words with a contextualizing sentence and a free writing task. The misspellings were classified into nine different types. The findings revealed that the most common spelling errors among Omani grade ten students were vowel substitution, then came vowel omission in the second place and consonant substitution in the third place. Male students omitted more vowels than female students while females made more true word errors than their male counterparts. In light of the findings, the study presents some recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

Keywords: types of spelling errors, errors, ESL/EFL, error analysis

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86 The Influence of Modern Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Improvement of Science

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim

Abstract:

The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary general science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multidimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al -Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, al-Qur’an textual studies

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85 A Framework for Review Spam Detection Research

Authors: Mohammadali Tavakoli, Atefeh Heydari, Zuriati Ismail, Naomie Salim

Abstract:

With the increasing number of people reviewing products online in recent years, opinion sharing websites has become the most important source of customers’ opinions. Unfortunately, spammers generate and post fake reviews in order to promote or demote brands and mislead potential customers. These are notably destructive not only for potential customers but also for business holders and manufacturers. However, research in this area is not adequate, and many critical problems related to spam detection have not been solved to date. To provide green researchers in the domain with a great aid, in this paper, we have attempted to create a high-quality framework to make a clear vision on review spam-detection methods. In addition, this report contains a comprehensive collection of detection metrics used in proposed spam-detection approaches. These metrics are extremely applicable for developing novel detection methods.

Keywords: fake reviews, feature collection, opinion spam, spam detection

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