Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2830

Search results for: ferulic acid

2830 Synthesis and Characterization of Water Soluble Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan


Chitosan is a derivative of chitin, which is a second most naturally abundant polysaccharide found in crab shells, shrimp shells, and squid pens. The applications of chitosan in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and packaging industries have been reported owing to its general recognition as safe, excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility, as well as ability to form films, membranes, gels, beads, fibers and particles. Nevertheless, chitosan is an amino polysaccharide consisting of strong inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds which limit its solubility in neutral pH water resulting in restricted utilization. Chemical modification is an alternative way to impede hydrogen bond formation. The objective of the present research is to improve water solubility and antioxidant activity of chitosan by grafting with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid was grafted onto chitosan at the C-2 position via a carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction. Different mole ratios of chitosan to ferulic acid (i.e. 1.0:0.0, 1.0:0.5, 1.0:1.0, 1.0:1.5, 1.0:2.0, and 1.0:2.5) and various reaction temperatures (i.e. 40, 60, and 80 °C) were used. The reaction was performed at different times (i.e. 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 h). The obtained ferulic acid-grafted chitosan was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR technique. The influences of ferulic acid on crystallinity, solubility and radical scavenging activity of chitosan were also investigated. Ferulic acid grafted chitosan was successfully synthesized as confirmed from (i) the appearance of FTIR absorption band at 1517 cm-1 belonging to C=C aromatic ring of ferulic acid and the increased C–H stretching band intensity and (ii) the appearance of proton signals at δ = 6.31-7.67 ppm ascribing to methine protons of ferulic acid. The condition in which the reaction temperature of 60°C, reaction time of 3 h and the mole ratio of chitosan to ferulic acid of 1:1 gave the highest ferulic acid substitution degree, i.e. 0.37. The resulting ferulic acid grafted chitosan was soluble in water (1.3 mg/mL) due to its reduced crystallinity as compared with chitosan and also exhibited 90% greater radical scavenging activity than chitosan. The result suggested the utilization of ferulic acid grafted chitosan as an antioxidant material.

Keywords: antioxidant property, chitosan, ferulic acid, grafting

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2829 Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan: Thermal Stability and Feasibility as an Antioxidant for Active Biodegradable Packaging Film

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan


Active packaging has been developed based on the incorporation of certain additives, in particular antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, into packaging systems to maintain or extend product quality and shelf-life. Ferulic acid is one of the most effective natural phenolic antioxidants, which has been used in food, pharmaceutical and active packaging film applications. However, most phenolic compounds are sensitive to oxygen, light and heat; its activities are thus lost during product formulation and processing. Grafting ferulic acid onto polymer is an alternative to reduce its loss under thermal processes. Therefore, the objectives of the present research were to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after grafting onto chitosan, and to investigate the possibility of using ferulic acid-grafted chitosan (FA-g-CTS) as an antioxidant for active biodegradable packaging film. FA-g-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperature up to 150 °C followed by blown film extrusion at temperature up to 175 °C. Although incorporating FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the films showed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the film containing FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.04% (w/w) were higher than that of the naked film about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by adding FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.08% (w/w). The results indicated that FA-g-CTS could be potentially used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

Keywords: active packaging film, antioxidant activity, chitosan, ferulic acid

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2828 Enzymatic Synthesis of Olive-Based Ferulate Esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: S. Mat Radzi, N. J. Abd Rahman, H. Mohd Noor, N. Ariffin


Ferulic acid has widespread industrial potential by virtue of its antioxidant properties. However, it is partially soluble in aqueous media, limiting their usefulness in oil-based processes in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and material industry. Therefore, modification of ferulic acid should be made by producing of more lipophilic derivatives. In this study, a preliminary investigation of lipase-catalyzed trans-esterification reaction of ethyl ferulate and olive oil was investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), to produce ferulate ester, a sunscreen agent. A statistical approach of Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the interactive effects of reaction temperature (40-80°C), reaction time (4-12 hours), and amount of enzyme (0.1-0.5 g). The optimum conditions derived via RSM were reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 2.34 hours, and amount of enzyme 0.3 g. The actual experimental yield was 59.6% ferulate ester under optimum condition, which compared well to the maximum predicted value of 58.0%.

Keywords: ferulic acid, enzymatic synthesis, esters, RSM

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2827 Chemical and Electrochemical Syntheses of Two Organic Components of Ginger

Authors: Adrienn Kiss, Karoly Zauer, Gyorgy Keglevich, Rita Molnarne Bernath


Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a perennial plant from Southeast Asia, widely used as a spice, herb, and medicine for many illnesses since its beneficial health effects were observed thousands of years ago. Among the compounds found in ginger, zingerone [4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl-2-butanone] deserves special attention: it has an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic effect, it can be used in case of diarrheal disease, helps to prevent the formation of blood clots, has antimicrobial properties, and can also play a role in preventing the Alzheimer's disease. Ferulic acid [(E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-prop-2-enoic acid] is another cinnamic acid derivative in ginger, which has promising properties. Like many phenolic compounds, ferulic acid is also an antioxidant. Based on the results of animal experiments, it is assumed to have a direct antitumoral effect in lung and liver cancer. It also deactivates free radicals that can damage the cell membrane and the DNA and helps to protect the skin against UV radiation. The aim of this work was to synthesize these two compounds by new methods. A few of the reactions were based on the hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone [4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one] to zingerone. Dehydrozingerone can be synthesized by a relatively simple method from acetone and vanillin with good yield (80%, melting point: 41 °C). Hydrogenation can be carried out chemically, for example by the reaction of zinc and acetic acid, or Grignard magnesium and ethyl alcohol. Another way to complete the reduction is the electrochemical pathway. The electrolysis of dehydrozingerone without diaphragm in aqueous media was attempted to produce ferulic acid in the presence of sodium carbonate and potassium iodide using platinum electrodes. The electrolysis of dehydrozingerone in the presence of potassium carbonate and acetic acid to prepare zingerone was carried out similarly. Ferulic acid was expected to be converted to dihydroferulic acid [3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid] in potassium hydroxide solution using iron electrodes, separating the anode and cathode space with a Soxhlet paper sheath impregnated with saturated magnesium chloride solution. For this reaction, ferulic acid was synthesized from vanillin and malonic acid in the presence of pyridine and piperidine (yield: 88.7%, melting point: 173°C). Unfortunately, in many cases, the expected transformations did not happen or took place in low conversions, although gas evolution occurred. Thus, a deeper understanding of these experiments and optimization are needed. Since both compounds are found in different plants, they can also be obtained by alkaline extraction or steam distillation from distinct plant parts (ferulic acid from ground bamboo shoots, zingerone from grated ginger root). The products of these reactions are rich in several other organic compounds as well; therefore, their separation must be solved to get the desired pure material. The products of the reactions described above were characterized by infrared spectral data and melting points. The use of these two simple methods may be informative for the formation of the products. In the future, we would like to study the ferulic acid and zingerone content of other plants and extract them efficiently. The optimization of electrochemical reactions and the use of other test methods are also among our plans.

Keywords: ferulic acid, ginger, synthesis, zingerone

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2826 Statistical Optimization of Vanillin Production by Pycnoporus Cinnabarinus 1181

Authors: Swarali Hingse, Shraddha Digole, Uday Annapure


The present study investigates the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and its optimization using one-factor-at-a-time method as well as statistical approach. Effect of various physicochemical parameters and medium components was studied using one-factor-at-a-time method. Screening of the significant factors was carried out using L25 Taguchi orthogonal array and then these selected significant factors were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Significant media components obtained using Taguchi L25 orthogonal array were glucose, KH2PO4 and yeast extract. Further, a Box Behnken design was used to investigate the interactive effects of the three most significant media components. The final medium obtained after optimization using RSM containing glucose (34.89 g/L), diammonium tartrate (1 g/L), yeast extract (1.47 g/L), MgSO4•7H2O (0.5 g/L), KH2PO4 (0.15 g/L), and CaCl2•2H2O (20 mg/L) resulted in amplification of vanillin production from 30.88 mg/L to 187.63 mg/L.

Keywords: ferulic acid, pycnoporus cinnabarinus, response surface methodology, vanillin

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2825 Effect of Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis Caffra L.) Fruit

Authors: Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-SaEz


Kei-apple is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of alcoholic and acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals. The fruit has increased L-malic, ascorbic, and phenolic acids. Juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation and acetous fermentation using acetic acid bacteria. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe wines and vinegars had highest pH. Total acidity, soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during alcoholic and acetous fermentation with highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. Volatile acidity was highest in S. pombe vinegars but not different from S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae+S. pombe. Gallic acid was highest in S. pombe wines and vinegars. Syringic acid was highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. S. cerevisiae+S. pombe wines were highest in caffeic, p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe vinegars were highest in caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Ferulic and sinapic acids were highest in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae wines, respectively. Chlorogenic acid was most abundant in both wines and vinegars. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe and S. cerevisiae had a positive effect on most phenolic acids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae +acetic acid bacteria had an increased effect on syringic and chlorogenic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe+acetic acid bacteria resulted in an increase in gallic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Acetic acid bacteria had minimal performance with respect to volatile acidity production in comparison to commercial vinegars. Acetic acid bacteria selection should therefore be reconsidered and the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, liquid chromatography, phenolics, saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe

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2824 Effect of Phenolic Acids on Human Saliva: Evaluation by Diffusion and Precipitation Assays on Cellulose Membranes

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, F. Orellana-Rodríguez, R. López-Solís


Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites present in some foods, such as wine. Polyphenols comprise two main groups: flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols) and non-flavonoids (stilbenes and phenolic acids). Phenolic acids are low molecular weight non flavonoid compounds that are usually grouped into benzoic (gallic, vanillinic and protocatechuic acids) and cinnamic acids (ferulic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids). Likewise, tannic acid is an important polyphenol constituted mainly by gallic acid. Phenolic compounds are responsible for important properties in foods and drinks, such as color, aroma, bitterness, and astringency. Astringency is a drying, roughing, and sometimes puckering sensation that is experienced on the various oral surfaces during or immediately after tasting foods. Astringency perception has been associated with interactions between flavanols present in some foods and salivary proteins. Despite the quantitative relevance of phenolic acids in food and beverages, there is no information about its effect on salivary proteins and consequently on the sensation of astringency. The objective of this study was assessed the interaction of several phenolic acids (gallic, vanillinic, protocatechuic, ferulic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids) with saliva. Tannic acid was used as control. Thus, solutions of each phenolic acids (5 mg/mL) were mixed with human saliva (1:1 v/v). After incubation for 5 min at room temperature, 15-μL aliquots of the mixtures were dotted on a cellulose membrane and allowed to diffuse. The dry membrane was fixed in 50 g/L trichloroacetic acid, rinsed in 800 mL/L ethanol and stained for protein with Coomassie blue for 20 min, destained with several rinses of 73 g/L acetic acid and dried under a heat lamp. Both diffusion area and stain intensity of the protein spots were semiqualitative estimates for protein-tannin interaction (diffusion test). The rest of the whole saliva-phenol solution mixtures of the diffusion assay were centrifuged and fifteen-μL aliquots of each supernatant were dotted on a cellulose membrane, allowed to diffuse and processed for protein staining, as indicated above. In this latter assay, reduced protein staining was taken as indicative of protein precipitation (precipitation test). The diffusion of the salivary protein was restricted by the presence of each phenolic acids (anti-diffusive effect), while tannic acid did not alter diffusion of the salivary protein. By contrast, phenolic acids did not provoke precipitation of the salivary protein, while tannic acid produced precipitation of salivary proteins. In addition, binary mixtures (mixtures of two components) of various phenolic acids with gallic acid provoked a restriction of saliva. Similar effect was observed by the corresponding individual phenolic acids. Contrary, binary mixtures of phenolic acid with tannic acid, as well tannic acid alone, did not affect the diffusion of the saliva but they provoked an evident precipitation. In summary, phenolic acids showed a relevant interaction with the salivary proteins, thus suggesting that these wine compounds can also contribute to the sensation of astringency.

Keywords: astringency, polyphenols, tannins, tannin-protein interaction

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2823 Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeasts and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations: Effect on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis caffra L.) Vinegar

Authors: Phillip Minnaar, Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-Saez


Dovyalis caffra is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals of Kei-apple fruit. The phytochemical content of vinegars is derived from compounds present in the fruit the vinegar is made of. Kei-apple fruit juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation (AF). Acetous fermentation followed AF, using an acetic acid bacteria consortium as an inoculant. Juice had the lowest pH and highest total acidity (TA). The wine had the highest pH and vinegars lowest TA. Total soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during AF and acetous fermentation. Volatile acidity concentration was not different among vinegars. Gallic, syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic acids increased during acetous fermentation, whereas ferulic, sinapic, and protocatechuic acids decreased. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in both wines and vinegars. It is evident from this investigation that Kei-apple vinegar is a source of plant-derived phenolics, which evolved through fermentation. However, the AAB selection showed minimal performance with respect to VA production. Acetic acid bacteria selection for acetous fermentation should be reconsidered, and the reasons for the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, acetous fermentation, liquid chromatography, phenolic acids

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2822 Is there Anything Useful in That? High Value Product Extraction from Artemisia annua L. in the Spent Leaf and Waste Streams

Authors: Anike Akinrinlade


The world population is estimated to grow from 7.1 billion to 9.22 billion by 2075, increasing therefore by 23% from the current global population. Much of the demographic changes up to 2075 will take place in the less developed regions. There are currently 54 countries which fall under the bracket of being defined as having ‘low-middle income’ economies and need new ways to generate valuable products from current resources that is available. Artemisia annua L is well used for the extraction of the phytochemical artemisinin, which accounts for around 0.01 to 1.4 % dry weight of the plant. Artemisinin is used in the treatment of malaria, a disease rampart in sub-Saharan Africa and in many other countries. Once artemisinin has been extracted the spent leaf and waste streams are disposed of as waste. A feasibility study was carried out looking at increasing the biomass value of A. annua, by designing a biorefinery where spent leaf and waste streams are utilized for high product generation. Quercetin, ferulic acid, dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinic acid and artemsinin were screened for in the waste stream samples and the spent leaf. The analytical results showed that artemisinin, artemisinic acid and dihydroartemisinic acid were present in the waste extracts as well as camphor and arteannuin b. Ongoing effects are looking at using more industrially relevant solvents to extract the phytochemicals from the waste fractions and investigate how microwave pyrolysis of spent leaf can be utilized to generate bio-products.

Keywords: high value product generation, bioinformatics, biomedicine, waste streams, spent leaf

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2821 Preliminary Evaluation of Echinacea Species by UV-VIS Spectroscopy Fingerprinting of Phenolic Compounds

Authors: Elena Ionescu, Elena Iacob, Marie-Louise Ionescu, Carmen Elena Tebrencu, Oana Teodora Ciuperca


Echinacea species (Asteraceae) has received a global attention because it is widely used for treatment of cold, flu and upper respiratory tract infections. Echinacea species contain a great variety of chemical components that contribute to their activity. The most important components responsible for the biological activity are those with high molecular-weight such as polysaccharides, polyacetylenes, highly unsaturated alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives. The principal factors that may influence the chemical composition of Echinacea include the species and the part of plant used (aerial parts or roots ). In recent years the market for Echinacea has grown rapidly and also the cases of adultery/replacement especially for Echinacea root. The identification of presence or absence of same biomarkers provide information for safe use of Echinacea species in food supplements industry. The aim of the study was the preliminary evaluation and fingerprinting by UV-VISIBLE spectroscopy of biomarkers in terms of content in phenolic derivatives of some Echinacea species (E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida) for identification and authentication of the species. The steps of the study were: (1) samples (extracts) preparation from Echinacea species (non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed ethanol extracts); (2) samples preparation of reference substances (polyphenol acids: caftaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid; flavonoids: rutoside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and their aglycones: quercitri, quercetol, luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin); (3) identification of specific absorption at wavelengths between 700-200 nm; (4) identify the phenolic compounds from Echinacea species based on spectral characteristics and the specific absorption; each class of compounds corresponds to a maximum absorption in the UV spectrum. The phytochemical compounds were identified at specific wavelengths between 700-200 nm. The absorption intensities were measured. The obtained results proved that ethanolic extract showed absorption peaks attributed to: phenolic compounds (free phenolic acids and phenolic acids derivatives) registrated between 220-280 nm, unsymmetrical chemical structure compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid) with maximum absorption peak and absorption "shoulder" that may be due to substitution of hydroxyl or methoxy group, flavonoid compounds (in free form or glycosides) between 330-360 nm, due to the double bond in position 2,3 and carbonyl group in position 4 flavonols. UV spectra showed two major peaks of absorption (quercetin glycoside, rutin, etc.). The results obtained by UV-VIS spectroscopy has revealed the presence of phenolic derivatives such as cicoric acid (240 nm), caftaric acid (329 nm), caffeic acid (240 nm), rutoside (205 nm), quercetin (255 nm), luteolin (235 nm) in all three species of Echinacea. The echinacoside is absent. This profile mentioned above and the absence of phenolic compound echinacoside leads to the conclusion that species harvested as Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea pallida are Echinacea purpurea also; It can be said that preliminary fingerprinting of Echinacea species through correspondence with the phenolic derivatives profile can be achieved by UV-VIS spectroscopic investigation, which is an adequate technique for preliminary identification and authentication of Echinacea in medicinal herbs.

Keywords: Echinacea species, Fingerprinting, Phenolic compounds, UV-VIS spectroscopy

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2820 Spectroscopic (Ir, Raman, Uv-Vis) and Biological Study of Copper and Zinc Complexes and Sodium Salt with Cichoric Acid

Authors: Renata Swislocka, Grzegorz Swiderski, Agata Jablonska-Trypuc, Wlodzimierz Lewandowski


Forming a complex of a phenolic compound with a metal not only alters the physicochemical properties of the ligand (including increase in stability or changes in lipophilicity), but also its biological activity, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and many others. As part of our previous projects, we examined the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of phenolic acids and their complexes with metals naturally occurring in foods. Previously we studied the complexes of manganese(II), copper(II), cadmium(II) and alkali metals with ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. In the framework of this study, the physicochemical and biological properties of cicoric acid, its sodium salt, and complexes with copper and zinc were investigated. Cichoric acid is a derivative of both caffeic acid and tartaric acid. It has first been isolated from Cichorium intybus (chicory) but also it occurs in significant amounts in Echinacea, particularly E. purpurea, dandelion leaves, basil, lemon balm and in aquatic plants, including algae and sea grasses. For the study of spectroscopic and biological properties of cicoric acid, its sodium salt, and complexes with zinc and copper a variety of methods were used. Studies of antioxidant properties were carried out in relation to selected stable radicals (method of reduction of DPPH and reduction of FRAP). As a result, the structure and spectroscopic properties of cicoric acid and its complexes with selected metals in the solid state and in the solutions were defined. The IR and Raman spectra of cicoric acid displayed a number of bands that were derived from vibrations of caffeic and tartaric acids moieties. At 1746 and 1716 cm-1 the bands assigned to the vibrations of the carbonyl group of tartaric acid occurred. In the spectra of metal complexes with cichoric these bands disappeared what indicated that metal ion was coordinated by the carboxylic groups of tartaric acid. In the spectra of the sodium salt, a characteristic wide-band vibrations of carboxylate anion occurred. In the spectra of cicoric acid and its salt and complexes, a number of bands derived from the vibrations of the aromatic ring (caffeic acid) were assigned. Upon metal-ligand attachment, the changes in the values of the wavenumbers of these bands occurred. The impact of metals on the antioxidant properties of cicoric acid was also examined. Cichoric acid has a high antioxidant potential. Complexation by metals (zinc, copper) did not significantly affect its antioxidant capacity. The work was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant no. 2015/17/B/NZ9/03581).

Keywords: chicoric acid, metal complexes, natural antioxidant, phenolic acids

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2819 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama


Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC

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2818 Therapeutic Efficacy of Clompanus Pubescens Leaves Fractions via Downregulation of Neuronal Cholinesterases/NA⁺-K⁺ ATPase/IL-1 β and Improving the Neurocognitive and Antioxidants Status of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Amos Sunday Onikanni, Bashir Lawal, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Gomaa Mostafa-Hedeab, Mohammed Alorabi, Simona Cavalu, Augustine O. Olusola, Chih-Hao Wang, Gaber El-Saber Batiha


The increasing global burden of diabetes mellitus has called for the search for a therapeutic alternative that offers better activities and safety than conventional chemotherapy. Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties of different fractions (ethyl acetate, N-butanol and residual aqueous) of Clompanus pubescens leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results revealed a significant elevation in the levels of blood glucose, pro-inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation, neuronal activities of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, nitric oxide, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and Na+/K+-ATPase in diabetic non treated rats. In addition, decreased levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed. Treatment with different fractions of C. pubescens leaves resulted in a significant reversal of the biochemical alteration and improved the neurocognitive deficit in STZ-induced diabetic rats. However, the ethyl-acetate fraction demonstrated higher activities than the other fractions and was characterized for its phytoconstituents, revealing the presence of Gallic acid (713.00 ppm), catechin (0.91 ppm), ferulic acid (0.98 ppm), rutin (59.82 ppm), quercetin (3.22 ppm) and kaempferol (4.07 ppm). Our molecular docking analysis revealed that these compounds exhibited different binding affinities and potentials for targeting BChE/AChE/ IL-1 β/Na+-K+-ATPase. However, only Kampferol and ferulic exhibited good drug-like, ADMET, and permeability properties suitable for use as a neuronal drug target agent. Hence, the ethyl-acetate fraction of C. pubescent leaves could be considered a source of promising bioactive metabolite for the treatment and management of cognitive impairments related to type II diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, neuroprotective, antioxidant, pro-inflammatory cytokines

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2817 Characterization of Sunflower Oil for Illustration of Its Components

Authors: Mehwish Shahzadi


Sunflower is cultivated all over the world not only as an ornament plant but also for the purpose of getting oil. It is the third most cultivated plant in the history because its oil considered best for health. The present study deals with the preparation of sunflower oil from commercial seed sample which was obtained from local market. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined which included saponification value, acid value and ester value. Results showed that saponification value of the oil was 191.675, acid value was 0.64 and ester value to be 191.035 for the sample under observation. GC-MS analysis of sunflower oil was carried out to check its composition. Oleic acid was determined with linoleic acid and isopropyl palmitate. It represents the presence of three major components of sunflower oil. Other compounds detected were, p-toluylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl ester and 2,4-decadienal, (E,E).

Keywords: GC-MS, oleic acid, saponification value, sunflower oil

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2816 Quantitative Analysis of the High-Value Bioactive Components of Pre-Germinated and Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Superjami and Superhongmi)

Authors: Lara Marie Pangan Lo, Soo Im Chung, Yao Cheng Zhang, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang


Being the world’s most consumed grain crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) demands’ have increase and this prompted the development of new rice cultivars with high bio-functional properties than the commonly used white rice. Ordinary rice variety is already known to be a potential source for a number of nutritional as well as bioactive compounds. To further enhance the rice’s nutritive values, germination is done in addition to making it more tasty and palatable when cooked. Pigmented rice, on the other hand, has become increasingly popular in the recent years for their greater antioxidant potential and other nutraceutical properties which can help alleviate the occurrence of the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases. Combining these two (2) parameters, this research study is sought to quantitatively determine the pre-germinated and germinated quantities of the major bioactive compounds of South Korea’s newly developed purplish pigmented rice grain cultivar Superjami (SJ) and red pigmented rice grain Superhongmi (SH) and compare them against the non-pigmented Normal Brown (NB) rice variety. Powdered rice grain cultivars were subjected to 72-hour germination period and the quantities of GABA, γ-oryzanol, ferulic acid, tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were compared against their pre-germinated condition using γ- amino butyric acid (GABA) analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results revealed the effectiveness of germination in enhancing the bioactive components in all rice samples. GABA contents in germinated rice cultivars increased by more than 10-fold following the order: SJ >SH >NB. In addition, purple rice variety (SJ) has higher total γ-oryzanol and ferulic acid contents which increased by > 2-fold after germination followed by the red cultivar SH then the control, NB. Germinated varieties also possess higher total tocotrienol content than their pre-germinated state. As for the total tocopherol content, SJ has higher quantity, but the red-pigmented SH (0.16 mg/kg) is shown to have lower total tocopherol content than the control rice NB (0.86 mg/kg). However, all tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were present only in small amounts ( < 3.0 mg/kg) in all pre-germinated and germinated samples. In general, all of the analyzed pigmented rice cultivars were found to possess higher bioactive compounds than the control NB rice variety. Also, regardless of their strain, germinated rice samples have higher bioactive compounds than their pre-germinated counterparts. This only shows the effectiveness of germinating rice in enhancing bioactive constituents. Overall, these results suggest the potential of the pigmented rice varieties as natural source of nutraceuticals in bio-functional food development.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, germinated rice, superhongmi, superjami

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2815 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz


Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

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2814 Proximate Analysis of Muscle of Helix aspersa Living in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil


The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of variations in the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn (November) in 2015. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and cholesterol analysis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The protein contents of snail muscle were determined with Kjeldahl distillation units. Statistical comparisons were made by using SPSS Software (version 16.0). Thirty different fatty acids of different saturation levels were detected. As the predominant fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1ω9), linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), palmitic acid (C16:0), arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) were found in Helix aspersa. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was identified as the major SFA in autumn. Linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6) have the highest levels among the PUFAs. In the present study, ω3 were found 5.48% in autumn. Linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acid amounts in the autumn decreased significantly but cholesterol content was not affected in Helix aspersa in autumn (November) in 2015.

Keywords: Helix aspersa, fatty acid, SFA, PUFA, cholesterol

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2813 Phytochemistry and Biological Activity of Extracts of the Red Raspberry Rubus rosifolius

Authors: Theresa Campbell, Camille Bowen-Forbes, William Aalbersberg


Differences in the sensory properties of two subtly distinct varieties of Rubus rosifolius lead to the examination of their anthocyanin, essential oil and polyphenol profiles. In both cases, notable differences were identified. Pelargonidin-3-rhutinoside (17.2 mg/100 g FW) and Cyanidin-3-glucoside (66.2 mg/100g FW) proved to be the dominant anthocyanins in the red and wine red varieties respectively. Linalool and terpineol were the major constituents of the essential oil from the red variety; however, those of the wine red variety are unidentified. In regard to phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and quercetin were in a higher concentration in the red variety (1.85 and 0.73 mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 1.22 and 0.34 mg/100g FW respectively in the wine red fruits); while ellagic acid and ferulic acid were of a higher concentration in the wine red variety (0.92 and 0.84mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 0.15 and 0.48 mg/100g FW respectively in the red variety). The methanol extract of both fruit varieties showed great antioxidant activity. Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts against the growth of drug resistant pathogens revealed that they are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), rifampicin resistant S. aureus (RRSA), wild-type S. aureus (WTSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). Activity was also reported against several food-borne pathogens including two strains of E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Enterobacter aerogenes. The cytotoxicity of the various extracts was assessed and the essential oil extracts exhibited superior activity. The phenolic composition and biological activity of the fruits indicate that their consumption is beneficial to health and also that their incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals should be considered.

Keywords: phytochemicals, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, Rubus rosifolius

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2812 Cardioprotective Effect of Oleanolic Acid and Urosolic Acid against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Sameer N. Goyal, Chandragauda R. Patil


Oleanolic acid (3/3-hydroxy-olea-12-en-28-oic acid) and its isomer, Ursolic acid (38-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are triterpenoids compounds which exist widely in plant kingdom in the free acid form or as glycosidic triterpenoids saponins. The aim of the study is to evaluate intravenously administered oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was induced in albino wistar rat with single intravenous injection of doxorubicin at dose of 67.75mg/kg i.v for 48 hrs at 12 hrs interval following doxorubicin administration in the same model cardioprotective effect of amifostine (90 mg/kg i.v, single dose prior 30 min before doxorubicin administration) was evaluated as standard treatment. Induction of cardiotoxicity was confirmed by rise in cardiac markers in serum such as CK–MB, LDH and also by electrocardiographically. The doxorubicin treated group significantly increased in QT interval, serum CK-MB, serum LDH, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant parameter. Both the treatment group showed significant protective effect on Hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters. The oleanolic acid showed slight protective effect in histological lesions in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Hence, the results indicate that Oleanolic acid has more cardioprotective potential than ursolic acid against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: cardioprotection, doxorubicin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid

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2811 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying


Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.

Keywords: acetic acid, hydrogenation, operating condition, PtSn

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2810 Fatty Acid Composition and Therapeutic Effects of Beebread

Authors: Sibel Silici


Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acids composition of eight beebread samples obtained from different geographical origins were determined. Beebread moisture contents varied between 11.4-15.9 %, ash 1.9-2.54 %, fat 5.9-11.5 %, and protein between 14.8-24.3 %. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating fatty acids (FAs) composition of the selected monofloral beebreads. A total of thirty-seven FAs were identified. Of these (9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadeca-9, 12, 15-trienoic acid, (9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, (Z)-icos-11-enoic acid and octadecanoic acid were the most abundant in all the samples. Cotton beebread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, 41.3 %. Unsaturated/saturated FAs ratios ranged between 1.38 and 2.39 indicating that beebread is a good source of unsaturated FAs. The pollen, proximate and FAs composition of beebread samples of different botanical and geographical origins varied significantly.

Keywords: bee bread, fatty acid composition, proximate composition, pollen analysis

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2809 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn


Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

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2808 Physico-Chemical, GC-MS Analysis and Cold Saponification of Onion (Allium cepa L) Seed Oil

Authors: A. A Warra, S. Fatima


The experimental investigation revealed that the hexane extract of onion seed oil has acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, relative density and refractive index of 0.03±0.01 mgKOH/g, 129.80±0.21 gI2/100g, 3.00± 0.00 meq H2O2 203.00±0.71 mgKOH/g, 0.82±0.01and 1.44±0.00 respectively. The percentage yield was 50.28±0.01%. The colour of the oil was light green. We restricted our GC-MS spectra interpretation to compounds identification, particularly fatty acids and they are identified as palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid, linolenic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid. The pH , foam ability (cm³), total fatty matter, total alkali and percentage chloride of the onion oil soap were 11.03± 0.02, 75.13±0.15 (cm³), 36.66 ± 0.02 %, 0.92 ± 0.02% and 0.53 ± 0.15 % respectively. The texture was soft and the colour was lighter green. The results indicated that the hexane extract of the onion seed oil has potential for cosmetic industries.

Keywords: onion seeds, soxhlet extraction, physicochemical, GC-MS, cold saponification

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2807 Spectrophotometric Determination of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid in Pharmaceutical Samples

Authors: Chand Pasha


A Simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for the quantitative analysis of determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid is described. This method is based on the reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid with nitrite in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with acetylacetone in basic medium to form azo dyes, which shows absorption maxima at 470 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 0.5-11.2 gml-1 of 5-aminosalicylic acid with acetylacetone. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of 5-aminosalicylic acid -acetylacetone azo dye is 2.672 ×104 lmol-1cm-1, 5.731 × 10-3 gcm-2 respectively. The dye formed is stable for 10 hrs. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters are evaluated. Interference due to foreign organic compounds have been investigated. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid in pharmaceutical samples.

Keywords: spectrophotometry, diazotization, mesalazine, nitrite, acetylacetone

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2806 Lipase-Mediated Formation of Peroxyoctanoic Acid Used in Catalytic Epoxidation of α-Pinene

Authors: N. Wijayati, Kusoro Siadi, Hanny Wijaya, Maggy Thenawijjaja Suhartono


This work describes the lipase-mediated synthesis of α-pinene oxide at ambient temperature. The immobilized lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used to generate peroxyoctanoic acid directly from octanoic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxy acid formed is then applied for in situ oxidation of α-pinene. High conversion of α-pinene to α-pinene oxide (approximately 78%) was achieved when using 0,1 g enzim lipase, 6 mmol H2O2, dan 5 mmol octanoic acid. Various parameters affecting the conversion of α-pinene to α pinene oxide were studied.

Keywords: α-Pinene; P. aeruginosa; Octanoic acid

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2805 Morphology and Mineralogy of Acid Treated Soil

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad, G. Kalyan Kumar


This paper presents the morphological and mineralogical changes occurring in the soil due to immediate and prolonged interaction with different concentrations of phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid. In order to assess the effect of acid contamination, a series of sediment volume, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis tests were carried out on soil samples were exposed to different concentrations (1N, 4N and 8N) of phosphoric and sulphuric acid. Experimental results show that both acids showed severe morphological and mineralogical changes with synthesis of neogenic formations mainly at higher concentrations (4N and 8N) and at prolonged duration of interaction (28 and 80 days).

Keywords: phosphoric acid, scanning electron microscopy, sulphuric acid, x-ray diffraction analysis

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2804 Analysis of Kinetin Supramolecular Complex with Glytsirrizinic Acid and Based by Mass-Spectrometry Method

Authors: Bakhtishod Matmuratov, Sakhiba Madraximova, Rakhmat Esanov, Alimjan Matchanov


Studies have been performed to obtain complexes of glycyrrhizic acid and kinetins in a 2:1 ratio. The complex of glycyrrhizic acid and kinetins in a 2:1 ratio was considered evidence of the formation of a molecular complex by determining the molecular masses using chromato-mass spectroscopy and analyzing the IR spectra.

Keywords: monoammonium salt of glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, supramolecular complex, isomolar series, IR spectroscopy

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2803 The Ability of Organic Acids Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria in M17 Broth and Squid, Shrimp, Octopus, Eel Infusion Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Sezen Özçeli̇k, Yesim Özogul


Lactic, acetic, succinic, propionic, formic and butyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were monitored in M17 broth (the control) and some fish (squid, shrimp, octopus, and eel) infusion broth by using HPLC method. There were significant differences in terms of lactic, acetic, succinic, propionic, formic and butyric acid production (p < 0.005) among bacterial strains. Acetic acid production was the lowest by LAB while succinic acid followed by propionic acid was synthesized at the highest levels. Lactic acid production ranged from 0 to 938 mg/L by all LAB strains in different infusion broth. The highest acetic acid production was found by Lb. acidophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactic in octopus and shrimp infusion broth, with values of 872 and 674 mg/L, respectively while formic acid formation ranged from 1747 mg/L by Lb. acidophilus in octopus infusion broth to 69 mg/L by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis in shrimp infusion broth. Propionic acid and butyric acid productions by St. thermophilus were 9852 and 3999 mg/L in shrimp infusion broth while Leu. mes. subsp. cremoris synthesized 312 and 9 mg/L of those organic acid in European squid infusion broth, respectively. Apparently, LAB strains had a great capability to generate succinic acid followed by propionic and butyric acid. In addition, other organic acid production differed significantly depending on bacterial strains and growth medium.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria , organic acid, HPLC analysis, growth medium

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2802 Profiling the Volatile Metabolome in Pear Leaves with Different Resistance to the Pear Psylla Cacopsylla bidens (Sulc) and Characterization of Phenolic Acid Decarboxylase

Authors: Mwafaq Ibdah, Mossab, Yahyaa, Dor Rachmany, Yoram Gerchman, Doron Holland, Liora Shaltiel-Harpaz


Pear Psylla is the most important pest of pear in all pear-growing regions, in Asian, European, and the USA. Pear psylla damages pears in several ways: high-density populations of these insects can cause premature leaf and fruit drop, diminish plant growth, and reduce fruit size. In addition, their honeydew promotes sooty mold on leaves and russeting on fruit. Pear psyllas are also considered vectors of pear pathogens such as Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri causing pear decline that can lead to loss of crop and tree vigor, and sometimes loss of trees. Psylla control is a major obstacle to efficient integrated pest management. Recently we have identified two naturally resistance pear accessions (Py.760-261 and Py.701-202) in the Newe Ya’ar live collection. GC-MS volatile metabolic profiling identified several volatile compounds common in these accessions but lacking, or much less common, in a sensitive accession, the commercial Spadona variety. Among these volatiles were styrene and its derivatives. When the resistant accessions were used as inter-stock, the volatile compounds appear in commercial Spadona scion leaves, and it showed reduced susceptibility to pear psylla. Laboratory experiments and applications of some of these volatile compounds were very effective against psylla eggs, nymphs, and adults. The genes and enzymes involved in the specific reactions that lead to the biosynthesis of styrene in plant are unknown. We have identified a phenolic acid decarboxylase that catalyzes the formation of p-hydroxystyrene, which occurs as a styrene analog in resistant pear genotypes. The His-tagged and affinity chromatography purified E. coli-expressed pear PyPAD1 protein could decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid to p-hydroxystyrene and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxystyrene. In addition, PyPAD1 had the highest activity toward p-coumaric acid. Expression analysis of the PyPAD gene revealed that its expressed as expected, i.e., high when styrene levels and psylla resistance were high.

Keywords: pear Psylla, volatile, GC-MS, resistance

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2801 Encryption and Decryption of Nucleic Acid Using Deoxyribonucleic Acid Algorithm

Authors: Iftikhar A. Tayubi, Aabdulrahman Alsubhi, Abdullah Althrwi


The deoxyribonucleic acid text provides a single source of high-quality Cryptography about Deoxyribonucleic acid sequence for structural biologists. We will provide an intuitive, well-organized and user-friendly web interface that allows users to encrypt and decrypt Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence text. It includes complex, securing by using Algorithm to encrypt and decrypt Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence. The utility of this Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid Sequence Text is that, it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to Encrypt and Decrypt store the information about Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence. These interfaces created in this project will satisfy the demands of the scientific community by providing fully encrypt of Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence during this website. We have adopted a methodology by using C# and Active Server Page.NET for programming which is smart and secure. Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence text is a wonderful piece of equipment for encrypting large quantities of data, efficiently. The users can thus navigate from one encoding and store orange text, depending on the field for user’s interest. Algorithm classification allows a user to Protect the deoxy ribonucleic acid sequence from change, whether an alteration or error occurred during the Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence data transfer. It will check the integrity of the Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence data during the access.

Keywords: algorithm, ASP.NET, DNA, encrypt, decrypt

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