Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: Prima Luna

61 An Inverse Docking Approach for Identifying New Potential Anticancer Targets

Authors: Soujanya Pasumarthi

Abstract:

Inverse docking is a relatively new technique that has been used to identify potential receptor targets of small molecules. Our docking software package MDock is well suited for such an application as it is both computationally efficient, yet simultaneously shows adequate results in binding affinity predictions and enrichment tests. As a validation study, we present the first stage results of an inverse-docking study which seeks to identify potential direct targets of PRIMA-1. PRIMA-1 is well known for its ability to restore mutant p53's tumor suppressor function, leading to apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. For this reason, we believe that potential direct targets of PRIMA-1 identified in silico should be experimentally screened for their ability to inhibitcancer cell growth. The highest-ranked human protein of our PRIMA-1 docking results is oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), which is part of the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The results of two followup experiments which treat OSC as a possible anti-cancer target are promising. We show that both PRIMA-1 and Ro 48-8071, a known potent OSC inhibitor, significantly reduce theviability of BT-474 breast cancer cells relative to normal mammary cells. In addition, like PRIMA-1, we find that Ro 48-8071 results in increased binding of mutant p53 to DNA in BT- 474cells (which highly express p53). For the first time, Ro 48-8071 is shown as a potent agent in killing human breast cancer cells. The potential of OSC as a new target for developing anticancer therapies is worth further investigation.

Keywords: inverse docking, in silico screening, protein-ligand interactions, molecular docking

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60 The Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility to Contribute the Isolated District and the Drop behind District to Overcome the Poverty, Study Cases: PT. Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC) Sanggata, East Borneo, Indonesia

Authors: Sri Suryaningsum

Abstract:

The achievement ‘Best Practice Model’ holds by the government on behalf of the success implementation corporate social responsibility program that held on PT. Kaltim Prima Coal which had operation located in the isolated district in Sanggata, it could be the reference for the other companies to improve the social welfare in surrounding area, especially for the companies that have operated in the isolated area in Indonesia. The rule of Kaltim Prima Coal as the catalyst in the development progress to push up the independence of district especially for the district which has located in surrounding mining operation from village level to the regency level, those programs had written in the 7 field program in Corporate Social Responsibility, it was doing by stakeholders. The stakeholders are village government, sub-district government, Regency and citizen. One of the best programs that implement at PT. Kaltim Prima Coal is Regarding Resettlement that was completed based on Asian Development Bank Resettlement Best Practice and International Financial Corporation Resettlement Action Plan. This program contributed on the resettlement residences to develop the isolated and the neglected district.

Keywords: CSR, isolated, neglected, poverty, mining industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
59 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos

Abstract:

Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, bran, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, stalk

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58 Improving Library Service Quality in Local City of Indonesia

Authors: Prima Fithri, Afri Adnan, Verra Syahmer

Abstract:

Library as a public service should be able to provide excellent and quality service. The criteria that should be available in the library is having the collection which relevant, actual and reliable, qualified and professional employee, delivery system that prompt and appropriate as well as supported by proper infrastructure. The aim of this study is to show the performance as an effort to provide quality of services that appropriate with the needs and desires of user. Then, in this research has been carried out the calculation of the gap between the perceptions and expectations of user about the services of the library. The Sevqual and QFD methods are used in this study. Servqual method for measuring the value of the gap that occurs in the dimensions of service quality and QFD method for determine priority repairment that need to be done to improve the quality of services that occur in the dimensions of service quality. From 97 questionaires, shows that value of the gap that occurs in the dimensions of service quality using by Servqual is 27.7% dimensions of responsiveness. It show how much user expectations are not met by the quality of existing services. Construction of the library and standard library becomes priority improvements that need to be done to improve the quality of service that occurs in the dimensions of service quality using the QFD.

Keywords: library, service quality, service quality, QFD

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57 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Vegetable Oils and Their Oxidative Stability

Authors: Expedito J. S. Parente Jr., Italo C. Rios, Joao Paulo C. Marques, Rosana M. A. Saboya, F. Murilo T. Luna, Célio L. Cavalcante Jr.

Abstract:

Increasing constraints of environmental regulation around the world have led to higher demand for biodegradable products. Vegetable oils present some properties that may favor their use as biolubricants; however, there are others, such as resistance to oxidation and pour point, which affect possible commercial applications. In this study, the physicochemical properties of biolubricants synthesized from different vegetable oils were evaluated and compared with petroleum-based lubricant and pure vegetable oil. Chemical modifications applied to the original vegetable oil improved their oxidative stability and pour point significantly. The addition of commercial antioxidants to the bio-based lubricants was evaluated, yielding values of oxidative stability close to those of mineral basestock oil.

Keywords: biolubricant, vegetable oil, oxidative stability, pour point, antioxidants

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56 Preschool Story Retelling: Actions and Verb Use

Authors: Eva Nwokah, Casey Taliancich-Klinger, Lauren Luna, Sarah Rodriguez

Abstract:

Story-retelling is a technique frequently used to assess children’s language skills and support their development of narratives. Fourteen preschool children listened to one of two stories from the wordless, illustrated Frog book series and then retold the story using the pictures. A comparison of three verb types (action, mental and other) in the original story model, and children's verb use in their retold stories revealed the salience of action events. The children's stories contained a similar proportion of verb types to the original story. However, the action verbs they used were rarely those they had heard in the original. The implications for the process of lexical encoding and narrative recall are discussed, as well as suggestions for the use of wordless picture books and the language teaching of new verbs.

Keywords: story re-telling, verb use, preschool language, wordless picture books

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55 Data Gathering and Analysis for Arabic Historical Documents

Authors: Ali Dulla

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new dataset (and the methodology used to generate it) based on a wide range of historical Arabic documents containing clean data simple and homogeneous-page layouts. The experiments are implemented on printed and handwritten documents obtained respectively from some important libraries such as Qatar Digital Library, the British Library and the Library of Congress. We have gathered and commented on 150 archival document images from different locations and time periods. It is based on different documents from the 17th-19th century. The dataset comprises differing page layouts and degradations that challenge text line segmentation methods. Ground truth is produced using the Aletheia tool by PRImA and stored in an XML representation, in the PAGE (Page Analysis and Ground truth Elements) format. The dataset presented will be easily available to researchers world-wide for research into the obstacles facing various historical Arabic documents such as geometric correction of historical Arabic documents.

Keywords: dataset production, ground truth production, historical documents, arbitrary warping, geometric correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
54 Discovering the Real Psyche of Human Beings

Authors: Sheetla Prasad

Abstract:

The objective of this study is ‘discovering the real psyche of human beings for prediction of mode, direction and strength of the potential of actions of the individual. The human face was taken as a source of central point to search for the route of real psyche. Analysis of the face architecture (shape and salient features of face) was done by three directional photographs ( 600 left and right and camera facing) of human beings. The shapes and features of the human face were scaled in 177 units on the basis of face–features locations (FFL). The mathematical analysis was done of FFLs by self developed and standardized formula. At this phase, 800 samples were taken from the population of students, teachers, advocates, administrative officers, and common persons. The finding shows that real psyche has two external rings (ER). These ER are itself generator of two independent psyches (manifested and manipulated). Prima-facie, it was proved that micro differences in FFLs have potential to predict the state of art of the human psyche. The potential of psyches was determined by the saving and distribution of mental energy. It was also mathematically proved.

Keywords: face architecture, psyche, potential, face functional ratio, external rings

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53 Human Security Providers in Fragile State under Asymmetric War Conditions

Authors: Luna Shamieh

Abstract:

Various players are part of the game in an asymmetric war, all making efforts to provide human security to their own adherents. Although a fragile state is not able to provide sufficient and comprehensive services, it still provides special services and security to the elite; the insurgents as well provide services and security to their associates. The humanitarian organisations, on the other hand, provide some fundamental elements of human security, but only in the regions, they are able to access when possible (if possible). The counterinsurgents (security forces of the state and intervention forces) operate within a narrow band defined by the vision of the responsibility to protect and the perspective of the resolution of the conflict through combat; hence, the possibility to provide human security is shaken at this end. This article examines how each player provides human security from the perspective of freedom from want in order to secure basic and strategic needs, freedom from fear through providing protection against all kinds of violence, and the freedom to live in dignity. It identifies a vicious cycle caused by the intervention of the different players causing a centrifugal force that may lead to disintegration of the nation under war.

Keywords: asymmetric war, counterinsurgency, fragile state, human security, insurgency

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52 Simultaneous Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil Using Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Arief Budiman

Abstract:

Reactive Distillation (RD) is a multifunctional reactor which integrates chemical reaction with in situ separation to shift the equilibrium towards the product formation. Thus, it is suitable for equilibrium limited reaction such as esterification and transesterification to enhance the reaction conversion. In this work, the application of RD for high FFA oil esterification-transterification for biodiesel production using sulphuric acid catalyst has been studied. Crude Jatropha Oil with FFA content of 30.57% was utilized as the feedstock. Effects of the catalyst concentration and molar ratio of the alcohol to oils were also investigated. It was revealed that best result was obtained with sulphuric acid catalyst (reaction conversion of 94.71% and FFA content of 1.62%) at 60C, molar ratio of methanol to FFA of 30:1, and catalyst loading of 3%. After undergoing esterification reaction, jatropha oil was then transesterified to produce biodiesel. Transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of NaOH catalyst in RD column at 60C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1, and catalyst concentration of 1%. It demonstrated that biodiesel produced in this work agreed with the Indonesian National and ASTM standard of fuel.

Keywords: reactive distillation, biodiesel, esterification, transesterification

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51 Material Failure Process Simulation by Improved Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities

Authors: Gelacio Juárez-Luna, Gustavo Ayala, Jaime Retama-Velasco

Abstract:

This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface. To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.

Keywords: variational formulation, strong discontinuity, embedded discontinuities, strain localization

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50 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu

Abstract:

A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania, phosphotungstic acid

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49 Health Portals for Specific Populations: A Design for Pregnant Women

Authors: Janine Sommer, Mariana Daus, Mariana Simon, Maria Smith, Daniel Luna

Abstract:

The technologies and communication advances contributed to new tools development which allows patients to have an active role in their own health. In the light of information needs and paradigms changes about health, the patient self-manages their care. This line of care focuses on patients; specific portals come up to people with particular requirements like pregnant women. Thinking of a portal design to this sector of the population, in September 2016 a survey was made to users with the objective to knowing and understanding information’s needs at the moment to use an application for pregnant. Also, prototypes of the portal´s features were designed to try and validate with users, using the methodology of human-centered design. Investigations have made possible the identification of needs of this population and develop a tool who try to satisfy, providing timely information for each part of pregnancy and allowing the patients to make a physical check and the follow up of pregnancy seeking advice from our obstetricians.

Keywords: electronic health record, health personal record, mobile applications, pregnant women

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48 Chitin Crystalline Phase Transition Promoted by Deep Eutectic Solvent

Authors: Diana G. Ramirez-Wong, Marius Ramirez, Regina Sanchez-Leija, Adriana Rugerio, R. Araceli Mauricio-Sanchez, Martin A. Hernandez-Landaverde, Arturo Carranza, John A. Pojman, Josue D. Mota-Morales, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas

Abstract:

Chitin films were prepared using alpha-chitin from shrimp shells as raw material and a simple method of precipitation-evaporation. Choline chloride: urea Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) was used to disperse chitin and compared against hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). A careful analysis of the chemical and crystalline structure was followed along the synthesis of the films, revealing crystalline-phase transitions. The full conversion of alpha- to beta-, or alpha- to gamma-chitin structure were detected by XRD and NMR on the films. The synthesis of highly crystalline monophasic gamma-chitin films was achieved using a DES; whereas HFIP helps to promote the beta-phase. These results are encouraging to continue in the study of DES as good processing media to control the final properties of chitin based materials.

Keywords: chitin, deep eutectic solvent, polymorph, phase transformation

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47 An Investigation of Anticancer Fluorinated Aza-Heterocycles

Authors: Darya O. Prima, Elena V. Vorontsova, Yuri G. Slizhov, Andrey V. Zibarev

Abstract:

A broad family of carbocycle-fluorinated aza-heterocycles including 1,3-benzodiazoles (benzimidazoles), 1,2,3-benzotriazoles, 2,1,3-benzothia/selenadiazoles and 1,4-benzodiazines (quinoxalines) was synthesized in the unified way and assessed for cytotoxicity towards the Hep2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, a kind of oral cancer) cells. The diazoles, triazoles and selenadiazoles revealed low medium inhibitory concentrations IC50 = 2.2-26.4 µМ and induced the cells’ apoptosis at low concentrations C = 1-25 µМ. For selenadiazoles, cell death dynamics was observed already in the first hours after the treatment. Replacement of one atom F by group Me2N in some cases enlarged apoptotic activity of the compounds towards the Hep2 cells. In contrast, the archetypal (i.e. non-fluorinated) 1,3-benzodiazole, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole were low toxic (IC50 > 100 µM) and induced apoptosis only at high concentrations. The chlorinated congeners of the heterocycles under discussion were highly toxic towards the Hep2 cells but revealed insignificant ability to induce their apoptosis. Overall, the findings above suggest that fluorinated 1,3-benzodiazole, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole derivatives can be considered as potential anticancer drugs. For the laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (for which, according to available statistics, the five-year survival rate remained ~50% during the past 30 years), it is especially important since surgical treatment is seriously complicated here thus encouraging medicament one.

Keywords: Apoptosis, aza-heterocycles, cytotoxicity, fluorinated, Hep2 cells, synthesis

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46 Analysis of Coal Tar Compositions Produced from Sub-Bituminous Kalimantan Coal Tar

Authors: Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Astrilia Damayanti

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kind of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. Nitrogen gas has been used to obtain the inert condition and to carry the gaseous pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis transformed organic materials into gaseous components, small quantities of liquid, and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed amount of carbon and ash. The composition of gas which is produced from the pyrolysis is carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbon compounds. The gas was condensed and the liquid containing oil/tar and water was obtained. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar is 33.25% (PT KPC) and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan). The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC) and 17.13% (Arutmin-Kalimantan).

Keywords: coal tar, pyrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

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45 Methodology for Diagnosing Architecture Improvements in a Cancer Hospital in Brasilia

Authors: Mariana Sabino, Janes Cleiton de Oliveira, Carlos Luna de Melo

Abstract:

This paper presents a discussion about the importance and influence of the environment in the patient’s recovery process. Some users (employees and patients) were submitted to a questionnaire that helps to diagnoses the major problems of the hospital, specially related to comfort (aesthetic, thermal, acoustic, light, ergonomic), well-being, how does the flow of patients and employees works in the hospital and wayfinding as well. After a short literature review presenting the topic, the hospital will be characterized, showing photos, the projects available and describing the hospital as well (how many rooms, functions of each one, receptions, waiting rooms, between other things.), than the questionnaire will be applied to patients and to the employees. Lastly the results of the answers given will be analyzed in graphics, and it will help to identify which are the major improvements needed immediately. This paper has the intention to propose a methodology to diagnose architecture problems in a cancer hospital in Brasilia, Brazil, besides to open a space to hear the people that use the building to tell about their discomforts and perceptions of the environment, it also will give an opportunity to apply the possible improvements. It is important to tell that it will be considered if the hospital has a healing environment, and it will also be considered the ergonomic issues about comfort and the way the system of this particular hospital works in general.

Keywords: cancer hospital, comfort, diagnose, healing environment

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44 PhilSHORE: Development of a WebGIS-Based Marine Spatial Planning Tool for Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment and Site Suitability Analysis

Authors: Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang, Luis Caezar Ian K. Panganiban, Charmyne B. Mamador, Oliver Dan G. De Luna, Michael D. Bausas, Joselito P. Cruz

Abstract:

PhilSHORE is a multi-site, multi-device and multi-criteria decision support tool designed to support the development of tidal current energy in the Philippines. Its platform is based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which allows for the collection, storage, processing, analyses and display of geospatial data. Combining GIS tools with open source web development applications, PhilSHORE becomes a webGIS-based marine spatial planning tool. To date, PhilSHORE displays output maps and graphs of power and energy density, site suitability and site-device analysis. It enables stakeholders and the public easy access to the results of tidal current energy resource assessments and site suitability analyses. Results of the initial development shows PhilSHORE is a promising decision support tool for ORE project developments.

Keywords: gis, site suitability analysis, tidal current energy resource assessment, webgis

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43 Channel Dynamics along the Northern Bank of the Upper Brahmaputra River and Formation of a Larger Island with the Loss of the Majuli Island

Authors: Luna Moni Das

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to study the channel dynamics in the area bounded by the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in the north, the Brahmaputra in the south and southeast and eastern side and the Subansiri River in the west. There are many streams in this region and only a few are perennial. There are two major anabranches of the Brahmaputra called Kharkutia Xuti and Charikoria. All of these makes it a very dynamic area. The analysis done in this paper is based on the remote sensing data and mapping of the channel planforms in GIS environment. The temporal trend of the change in channel planform has been produced. This study shows that, during the period from 1973 to 2013, the streams/rivers originating in the north have experienced a reduction in the total length. The other most important result is that even though the western edge of Majuli Island is eroding faster there is a formation of a larger island in between Charikoria and Brahmaputra, that comprises of Majuli island and parts of Dhakuakhana subdivision of Lakhimpur District along the south of Charikoria river. The field study shows that the Kharkutia Xuti, that divides Majuli from Dhakuakhana, do not experience any flow from the Brahmaputra for the major portion of the year and Charikoria has developed as a major anabranch of the Brahmaputra.

Keywords: channel dynamics, Brahmaputra river, Majuli Island, sinuosity

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42 The Analysis of Priority Flood Control Management Using Analysis Hierarchy Process

Authors: Pravira Rizki Suwarno, Fanny Aliza Savitri, Priseyola Ayunda Prima, Pipin Surahman, Mahelga Levina Amran, Khoirunisa Ulya Nur Utari, Nora Permatasari

Abstract:

The Bogowonto River or commonly called the Bhagawanta River, is one of the rivers on Java Island. It is located in Central Java, Indonesia. Its watershed area is 35 km² with 57 km long. This river covers three regencies, namely Wonosobo Regency and Magelang Regency in the upstream and Purworejo Regency in the south and downstream. The Bogowonto River experiences channel narrowing and silting. It is caused by garbage along the river that comes from livestock and household waste. The narrowing channel and siltation cause a capacity reduction of the river to drain flood discharge. Comprehensive and sustainable actions are needed in dealing with current and future floods. Based on these current conditions, a priority scale is required. Therefore, this study aims to determine the priority scale of flood management in Purworejo Regency using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. This method will determine the appropriate actions based on the rating. In addition, there will be field observations through distributing questionnaires to several parties, including the stakeholders and the community. The results of this study will be in 2 (two) forms of actions, both structurally covering water structures and non-structural, including social, environmental, and law enforcement.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, bogowonto, flood control, management

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41 The Impact of the Economic Crisis in the European Identity

Authors: Sofía Luna, Carla González Salamanca

Abstract:

The 2008 economic crisis had huge implications in Europe. In this continent, the repercussions of the crisis were not only economic but also political and institutional. The economic stress has generated changes in the perception of the citizens, their attitude and the confidence placed in the political organizations. The lost of confidence is not only present in the debtor countries but it is also present in the European economic powers like Germany and France. This research explains how the economic crisis had an impact in the identity, population’s attitude and how this generated the rise of extreme right parties. In addition, it defines the different types of attitudes and support that exist towards these political and economic institutions. The results of this investigation show that the depression beside of its economic implications, it caused institutional, social and political difficulties for the Union. Moreover, the support and attitudes of the population were severely strained because the confidence in the political organization decreased. Furthermore, a rise in the otherness sentiment was shown. In other words, the distinction between “us” and “them” increased causing repercussions in the collective European identity. Additionally, there was a spread in national identities that caused the rise of the extreme right wing parties. In conclusion, the 2008 economic crisis caused not only economic stress but also it generated a political, social and institutional crisis in Europe.

Keywords: Europe, identity, economic crisis, otherness sentiment

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40 NaOH/Pumice and LiOH/Pumice as Heterogeneous Solid Base Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil: An Optimization Study

Authors: Joy Marie Mora, Mark Daniel De Luna, Tsair-Wang Chung

Abstract:

Transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol was carried out to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using calcined alkali metal (Na and Li) supported by pumice silica as the solid base catalyst. Pumice silica catalyst was activated by loading alkali metal ions to its surface via an ion-exchange method. Response surface methodology (RSM) in combination with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the operating parameters in biodiesel production, namely: reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, and catalyst concentration. Using the optimized sets of parameters, FAME yields using sodium and lithium silicate catalysts were 98.80% and 98.77%, respectively. A pseudo-first order kinetic equation was applied to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The prepared catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) sorptometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the reusability of the catalysts was successfully tested in two subsequent cycles.

Keywords: alkali metal, biodiesel, Box-Behnken design, heterogeneous catalyst, kinetics, optimization, pumice, transesterification

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39 Social Entrepreneurship against Depopulation: Network Analysis within the Theoretical Framework of the Quadruple Helix

Authors: Esperanza Garcia-Uceda, Josefina L. Murillo-Luna, M. Pilar Latorre-Martinez, Marta Ferrer-Serrano

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship represents an innovation of traditional business models. During the last decade, its important role in contributing to rural and regional development has been widely recognized, due to its capacity to combat the problem of depopulation through the creation of employment. However, the success of this type of innovative business initiatives depends to a large extent on the existence of an adequate ecosystem of support resources. Based on the theoretical framework of the quadruple helix (QH), which highlights the need for collaboration between different interest groups -university, industry, government and civil society- for the development of regional innovations, in this work the network analysis is applied to study the ecosystem of resources to support social entrepreneurship in the rural area of the province of Zaragoza (Spain). It is a quantitative analysis that can be used to measure the interactions between the different actors that make up the quadruple helix, as well as the networks created between the different institutions and support organizations, through the study of the complex networks they form. The results show the importance of the involvement of local governments and the university, as key elements in the development process, but also allow identifying other issues that are susceptible to improvement.

Keywords: ecosystem of support resources, network analysis, quadruple helix, social entrepreneurship

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38 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol in Joint Pain Relief Gel Containing Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Authors: Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Saowalux Rotamporn, Sirinat Limbunruang, Sirinan Thubthimthed.

Abstract:

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of 6-Gingerol(6G) and 6-Shogaol(6S) in joint pain relief gel containing ginger extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Luna, mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (gradient elution). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the absorbance was monitored at 282 nm. The proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and determined based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The linearity ranges of 6G and 6S were obtained over 20-60 and 6-18 µg/ml respectively. Good linearity was observed over the above-mentioned range with linear regression equation Y= 11016x- 23778 for 6G and Y = 19276x-19604 for 6S (x is concentration of analytes in μg/ml and Y is peak area). The value of correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for both markers. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 6G were 0.8567 and 2.8555 µg/ml and for 6S were 0.3672 and 1.2238 µg/ml respectively. The recovery range for 6G and 6S were found to be 91.57 to 102.36 % and 84.73 to 92.85 % for all three spiked levels. The RSD values from repeated extractions for 6G and 6S were 3.43 and 3.09% respectively. The validation of developed method on precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and range were also performed with well-accepted results.

Keywords: ginger, 6-gingerol, HPLC, 6-shogaol

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37 Effect of Hypertension Exercise and Slow Deep Breathing Combination to Blood Pressure: A Mini Research in Elderly Community

Authors: Prima Khairunisa, Febriana Tri Kusumawati, Endah Luthfiana

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension in elderly, caused by cardiovascular system cannot work normally, because the valves thickened and inelastic blood vessels. It causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Hypertension exercise, increase cardiovascular function and the elasticity of the blood vessels. While slow deep breathing helps the body and mind feel relax. Combination both of them will decrease the blood pressure. Objective: To know the effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to blood pressure in elderly. Method: The study conducted with one group pre-post test experimental design. The samples were 10 elderly both male and female in a Village in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The tool was manual sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Result: Based on paired t-test between hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with systole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0.045, while paired t-test between hypertension exercise hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with diastole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0,343. The changes of systole blood pressure were 127.5 mmHg, and diastole blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Systole blood pressure decreases significantly because the average of systole blood pressure before implementation was 135-160 mmHg. While diastole blood pressure was not decreased significantly. It was influenced by the average of diastole blood pressure before implementation of hypertension exercise was not too high. It was between 80- 90 mmHg. Conclusion: There was an effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to the blood pressure in elderly after 6 times implementations.

Keywords: hypertension exercise, slow deep breathing, elderly, blood pressure

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36 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Mark Daniel G. De Luna, Peerasak Paoprasert

Abstract:

The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

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35 Performance of the Kindergarten Teachers and Its Relation to Pupils Achievement in Different Learning Areas

Authors: Mary Luna Mancao Ninal

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the performance of the kindergarten teachers and its relation to pupils’ achievement in different learning areas in the Division of Kabankalan City. Using the standardized assessment and evaluation of the Department of Education secondary data, 100 kinder teachers and 2901 kinder pupils were investigated to determine the performance of the kindergarten teachers based on their Competency–Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers and the periodic assessment of kinder pupils collected as secondary data. Weighted mean, Pearson–r, chi-square, Analysis of Variance were used in the study. Findings revealed that the kindergarten teacher respondents were 26-31 years old and most of them were female and married; they spent teaching for two years and less and passed the Licensure Examination for Teachers. They were very satisfactory as to instructional competences, school, and home and community involvement, personal, social, and professional characteristics. It also revealed that performance of the kindergarten pupils on their period of assessment shows that they were slightly advanced in their development. It also shows that domain as to performance of the kindergarten pupils were average overall development. Based on the results, it is recommended that Kindergarten teacher must augment their educational qualification and pursue their graduate studies and must develop the total personality of the children for them to achieve high advanced development to become productive individual.

Keywords: performance, kindergarten teacher, learning areas, professional, pupil

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34 The Position of Space weather in Africa-Education and Outreach

Authors: Babagana Abubakar, Alhaji Kuya

Abstract:

Although the field of Space weather science is a young field among the space sciences, but yet history has it that activities related to this science began since the year 1859 when the great solar storm happened which resulted in the disruptions of telegraphs operations around the World at that particular time subsequently making it possible for the scientist Richard Carrington to be able to connect the Solar flare observed a day earlier before the great storm and the great deflection of the Earth’s Magnetic field (geometric storm) simultaneous with the telegraph disruption. However years later as at today with the advent of and the coming into existence of the Explorer 1, the Luna 1 and the establishments of the United States International Space Weather Program, International Geophysical Year (IGY) as well as the International Center for Space Weather Sciences and Education (ICSWSE) have made us understand the Space weather better and enable us well define the field of Space weather science. Despite the successes recorded in the development of Space sciences as a whole over the last century and the coming onboard of specialized bodies/programs on space weather like the International Space Weather Program and the ICSWSE, the majority of Africans including institutions, research organizations and even some governments are still ignorant about the existence of theSpace weather science,because apart from some very few countries like South Africa, Nigeria and Egypt among some few others the majority of the African nations and their academic institutions have no knowledge or idea about the existence of this field of Space science (Space weather).

Keywords: Africa, space, weather, education, science

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33 Lessons Learned from Covid19 - Related ERT in Universities

Authors: Sean Gay, Cristina Tat

Abstract:

This presentation will detail how a university in Western Japan has implemented its English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program during the onset of CoViD-19 in the spring semester of 2020. In the spring semester of 2020, after a 2 week delay, all courses within the School of Policy Studies EAP Program at Kwansei Gakuin University were offered in an online asynchronous format. The rationale for this decision was not to disadvantage students who might not have access to devices necessary for taking part in synchronous online lessons. The course coordinators were tasked with consolidating the materials originally designed for face-to-face14 week courses for a 12 week asynchronous online semester and with uploading the modified course materials to Luna, the university’s network, which is a modified version of Blackboard. Based on research to determine the social and academic impacts of this CoViD-19 ERT approach on the students who took part in this EAP program, this presentation explains how future curriculum design and implementation can be managed in a post-CoViD world. There are a wide variety of lessons that were salient. The role of the classroom as a social institution was very prominent; however, awareness of cognitive burdens and strategies to mitigate that burden may be more valuable for teachers. The lessons learned during this period of ERT can help teachers moving forward.

Keywords: asynchronous online learning, emergency remote teaching (ERT), online curriculum design, synchronous online learning

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32 Synthesis of Chitosan/Silver Nanocomposites: Antibacterial Properties and Tissue Regeneration for Thermal Burn Injury

Authors: B.L. España-Sánchez, E. Luna-Hernández, R.A. Mauricio-Sánchez, M.E. Cruz-Soto, F. Padilla-Vaca, R. Muñoz, L. Granados-López, L.R. Ovalle-Flores, J.L. Menchaca-Arredondo, G. Luna-Bárcenas

Abstract:

Treatment of burn injured has been considered an important clinical problem due to the fluid control and the presence of microorganisms during the healing process. Conventional treatment includes antiseptic techniques, topical medication and surgical removal of damaged skin, to avoid bacterial growth. In order to accelerate this process, different alternatives for tissue regeneration have been explored, including artificial skin, polymers, hydrogels and hybrid materials. Some requirements consider a nonreactive organic polymer with high biocompatibility and skin adherence, avoiding bacterial infections. Chitin-derivative biopolymer such as chitosan (CS) has been used in skin regeneration following third-degree burns. The biological interest of CS is associated with the improvement of tissue cell stimulation, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. In particular, antimicrobial properties of CS can be significantly increased when is blended with nanostructured materials. Silver-based nanocomposites have gained attention in medicine due to their high antibacterial properties against pathogens, related to their high surface area/volume ratio at nanomolar concentrations. Silver nanocomposites can be blended or synthesized with chitin-derivative biopolymers in order to obtain a biodegradable/antimicrobial hybrid with improved physic-mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites based on chitosan/silver nanoparticles (CS/nAg) were synthesized by the in situ chemical reduction method, improving their antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria and enhancing the healing process in thermal burn injuries produced in an animal model. CS/nAg was prepared in solution by the chemical reduction method, using AgNO₃ as precursor. CS was dissolved in acetic acid and mixed with different molar concentrations of AgNO₃: 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 M. Solutions were stirred at 95°C during 20 hours, in order to promote the nAg formation. CS/nAg solutions were placed in Petri dishes and dried, to obtain films. Structural analyses confirm the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (nAg) by means of UV-Vis and TEM, with an average size of 7.5 nm and spherical morphology. FTIR analyses showed the complex formation by the interaction of hydroxyl and amine groups with metallic nanoparticles, and surface chemical analysis (XPS) shows low concentration of Ag⁰/Ag⁺ species. Topography surface analyses by means of AFM shown that hydrated CS form a mesh with an average diameter of 10 µm. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was improved in all evaluated conditions, such as nAg loading and interaction time. CS/nAg nanocomposites films did not show Ag⁰/Ag⁺ release in saline buffer and rat serum after exposition during 7 days. Healing process was significantly enhanced by the presence of CS/nAg nanocomposites, inducing the production of myofibloblasts, collagen remodelation, blood vessels neoformation and epidermis regeneration after 7 days of injury treatment, by means of histological and immunohistochemistry assays. The present work suggests that hydrated CS/nAg nanocomposites can be formed a mesh, improving the bacterial penetration and the contact with embedded nAg, producing complete growth inhibition after 1.5 hours. Furthermore, CS/nAg nanocomposites improve the cell tissue regeneration in thermal burn injuries induced in rats. Synthesis of antibacterial, non-toxic, and biocompatible nanocomposites can be an important issue in tissue engineering and health care applications.

Keywords: antibacterial, chitosan, healing process, nanocomposites, silver

Procedia PDF Downloads 205