Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: stalk

31 Evaluation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Genotypes, in modern method of Agriculture, using correlation and path coefficient Analyses

Authors: T. S. Bubuche, L. Abubakar, N.D. Ibrahim, A. A. Aliero, H. M. Sama, B. S. Haliru


A two-year study was conducted at the Fadama farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. Correlations and path coefficients analysis were used to determine the interrelationship and importance of various characters as components of yield in sugarcane during 20011-012 and 2012-013 growing seasons. Fourteen sugarcane hybrids and a local check were evaluated. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Significant and positive correlation were recorded between total cane weight/ha and single stalk weight, between single stalk weight and final brix and between stalk girth and stalk length while final brix and number of milliable cane/ha recorded no significant correlation. Traits that had high direct contribution to the final yield were number of stalk/stool, number of milliable cane/ha, single stalk weight and brix content while high indirect positive contributions were observed in growth habit, number of internode per stalk and stalk length..

Keywords: correlation, path analysis, sugarcane, yield components

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
30 Oil Palm Leaf and Corn Stalk, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characterization

Authors: Zawawi Daud


Agro waste can be defined as waste from agricultural plant. Oil palm leaf and corn stalk can be categorized as ago waste material. At first, the comparison between oil palm leaf and corn stalk by mechanical properties from soda pulping process. After that, focusing on surface characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both material have a potential due to mechanical properties (tensile, tear, burst and fold) and surface characterization but corn stalk shows more in strength and compactness due to fiber characterization compared to oil palm leaf. This study promoting the green technology in develop a friendly product and suitable to be used as an alternative pulp in paper making industry.

Keywords: fiber, oil palm leaf, corn stalk, green technology

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29 Development of Corn (Zea mays L.) Stalk Geotextile Net for Soil Erosion Mitigation

Authors: Cristina S. Decano, Vitaliana U. Malamug, Melissa E. Agulto, Helen F. Gavino


This study aimed to introduce new natural fiber to be used in the production of geotextile net for mitigation of soil erosion. Fiber extraction from the stalks was the main challenge faced during the processing of stalks to ropes. Thus, an investigation on the extraction procedures of corn (Zea mays L.) stalk under biological and chemical retting was undertaken. Results indicated significant differences among percent fiber yield as affected by the retting methods used with values of 15.07%, 12.97%, 11.60%, and 9.01%, for dew, water, chemical (1 day after harvest and15 days after harvest), respectively, with the corresponding average extracting duration of 70, 82, 89, and 94 minutes. Physical characterization of the developed corn stalk geotextile net resulted to average mass per unit area of 806.25 g/m2 and 241% water absorbing capacity. The effect of corn stalk geotextile net in mitigating soil erosion was evaluated in a laboratory experiment for 30o and 60o inclinations with three treatments: bare soil (A1), corn stalk geotextile net (A2) and combined cornstalk geotextile net and vegetation cover (A3). Results revealed that treatment A2 and A3 significantly decreased sediment yield and an increase in terms of soil loss reduction efficiency. The cost of corn stalk geotextile net is Php 62.41 per square meter.

Keywords: corn stalk, natural geotextile, retting, soil erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
28 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos


Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, bran, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, stalk

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27 Decoloriation of Rhodamine-B Dye by Pseudomonas putida on Activated Carbon

Authors: U. K. Ghosh, A. Ullhyan


Activated carbon prepared from mustard stalk was applied to decolorize Rhodamine-B dye bearing synthetic wastewater by simple adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Results showed that percentage of Rhodamine-B dye removal was 82% for adsorption and 99.3% for SAB at pH 6.5, adsorbent dose 10 g/L and temperature 32ºC.

Keywords: activated carbon, mustard stalk, Rhodamine-B, adsorption, SAB, Pseudomonas putida

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26 An Efficient Approach for Shear Behavior Definition of Plant Stalk

Authors: M. R. Kamandar, J. Massah


The information of the impact cutting behavior of plants stalk plays an important role in the design and fabrication of plants cutting equipment. It is difficult to investigate a theoretical method for defining cutting properties of plants stalks because the cutting process is complex. Thus, it is necessary to set up an experimental approach to determine cutting parameters for a single stalk. To measure the shear force, shear energy and shear strength of plant stalk, a special impact cutting tester was fabricated. It was similar to an Izod impact cutting tester for metals but a cutting blade and data acquisition system were attached to the end of pendulum's arm. The apparatus was included four strain gages and a digital indicator to show the real-time cutting force of plant stalk. To measure the shear force and also testing the apparatus, two plants’ stalks, like buxus and privet, were selected. The samples (buxus and privet stalks) were cut under impact cutting process at four loading rates 1, 2, 3 and 4 m.s-1 and three internodes fifth, tenth and fifteenth by the apparatus. At buxus cutting analysis: the minimum value of cutting energy was obtained at fifth internode and loading rate 4 m.s-1 and the maximum value of shear energy was obtained at fifteenth internode and loading rate 1 m.s-1. At privet cutting analysis: the minimum value of shear consumption energy was obtained at fifth internode and loading rate: 4 m.s-1 and the maximum value of shear energy was obtained at fifteenth internode and loading rate: 1 m.s-1. The statistical analysis at both plants showed that the increase of impact cutting speed would decrease the shear consumption energy and shear strength. In two scenarios, the results showed that with increase the cutting speed, shear force would decrease.

Keywords: Buxus, Privet, impact cutting, shear energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
25 Computational Modelling of pH-Responsive Nanovalves in Controlled-Release System

Authors: Tomilola J. Ajayi


A category of nanovalves system containing the α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) ring on a stalk tethered to the pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) is theoretically and computationally modelled. This functions to control opening and blocking of the MSN pores for efficient targeted drug release system. Modeling of the nanovalves is based on the interaction between α-CD and the stalk (p-anisidine) in relation to pH variation. Conformational analysis was carried out prior to the formation of the inclusion complex, to find the global minimum of both neutral and protonated stalk. B3LYP/6-311G**(d, p) basis set was employed to attain all theoretically possible conformers of the stalk. Six conformers were taken into considerations, and the dihedral angle (θ) around the reference atom (N17) of the p-anisidine stalk was scanned from 0° to 360° at 5° intervals. The most stable conformer was obtained at a dihedral angle of 85.3° and was fully optimized at B3LYP/6-311G**(d, p) level of theory. The most stable conformer obtained from conformational analysis was used as the starting structure to create the inclusion complexes. 9 complexes were formed by moving the neutral guest into the α-CD cavity along the Z-axis in 1 Å stepwise while keeping the distance between dummy atom and OMe oxygen atom on the stalk restricted. The dummy atom and the carbon atoms on α-CD structure were equally restricted for orientation A (see Scheme 1). The generated structures at each step were optimized with B3LYP/6-311G**(d, p) methods to determine their energy minima. Protonation of the nitrogen atom on the stalk occurs at acidic pH, leading to unsatisfactory host-guest interaction in the nanogate; hence there is dethreading. High required interaction energy and conformational change are theoretically established to drive the release of α-CD at a certain pH. The release was found to occur between pH 5-7 which agreed with reported experimental results. In this study, we applied the theoretical model for the prediction of the experimentally observed pH-responsive nanovalves which enables blocking, and opening of mesoporous silica nanoparticles pores for targeted drug release system. Our results show that two major factors are responsible for the cargo release at acidic pH. The higher interaction energy needed for the complex/nanovalve formation to exist after protonation as well as conformational change upon protonation are driving the release due to slight pH change from 5 to 7.

Keywords: nanovalves, nanogate, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, cargo

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24 Correlation between Resistance to Non-Specific Inhibitor and Mammalian Pathogenicity of an Egg Adapted H9N2 Virus

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Hyuk-Joon Kwon, Jae-Hong Kim


A/chicken/Korea/01310/2001 (H9N2) (01310) was passaged through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) by 20 times (01310-E20), and it has been used for an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine in Korea. After sequential passages, 01310-E20 showed higher pathogenicity in ECEs and acquired multiple mutations including a potential N-glycosylation at position 133 (H3 numbering) in HA and 18aa-deletion in NA stalk. To evaluate the effect of these mutations on the mammalian pathogenicity and resistance to non-specific inhibitors, we generated four PR8-derived recombinant viruses with different combinations of HA and NA from 01310-E2 and 01310-E20 (rH2N2, rH2N20, rH20N2, and rH20N20). According to our results, recombinant viruses containing 01310 E20 HA showed higher growth property in MDCK cells and higher virulence on mice than those containing 01310 E2 HA regardless of NA. The hemagglutination activity of rH20N20 was less inhibited by egg white and mouse lung extract than that of other recombinant viruses. Thus, the increased pathogenicity of 01310-E20 may be related to both higher replication efficiency and resistance to non-specific inhibitors in mice.

Keywords: avian influenza virus, egg adaptation, H9N2, N-glycosylation, stalk deletion of neuraminidase

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23 The Preliminary Exposition of Soil Biological Activity, Microbial Diversity and Morpho-Physiological Indexes of Cucumber under Interactive Effect of Allelopathic Garlic Stalk: A Short-Term Dynamic Response in Replanted Alkaline Soil

Authors: Ahmad Ali, Muhammad Imran Ghani, Haiyan Ding, Zhihui Cheng, Muhammad Iqbal


Background and Aims: In recent years, protected cultivation trend, especially in the northern parts of China, spread dynamically where production area, structure, and crops diversity have expanded gradually under plastic greenhouse vegetable cropping (PGVC) system. Under this growing system, continuous monoculture with excessive synthetic fertilizers inputs are common cultivation practices frequently adopted by commercial producers. Such long-term cumulative wild exercise year after year sponsor the continuous cropping obstacles in PGVC soil, which have greatly threatened the regional soil eco-sustainability and further impose the continuous assault on soil ecological diversity leading to the exhaustion of agriculture productivity. The aim of this study was to develop new allelopathic insights by exploiting available biological resources in the favor of sustainable PGVC to illuminate the continuous obstacle factors in plastic greenhouse. Method: A greenhouse study was executed under plastic tunnel located at the Horticulture Experimental Station of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, one of the prominent regions for intensive commercial PGVC in China. Post-harvest garlic residues (stalk, leaves) mechanically smashed, homogenized into powder size and incorporated at the ratio of 1:100; 3:100; 5:100 as a soil amendment in a replanted soil that have been used for continuous cucumber monoculture for 7 years (annually double cropping system in a greenhouse). Results: Incorporated C-rich garlic stalk significantly influenced the soil condition through various ways; organic matter decomposition and mineralization, moderately adjusted the soil pH, enhanced the soil nutrient availability, increased enzymatic activities, and promoted 20% more cucumber yield in short-time. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rDNA genes, the current study revealed that addition of garlic stalk/residue could also improve the microbial abundance and community composition in extensively exploited soil, and contributed in soil functionality, caused prosper changes in soil characteristics, reinforced to good crop yield. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that addition of garlic stalk as soil fertility amendment is a feasible, cost-effective and efficient resource utilization way for renovation of degraded soil health, ameliorate soil quality components and improve ecological environment in short duration. Our study may provide a better scientific understanding for efficient crop residue management typically from allelopathic source.

Keywords: garlic stalk, microbial community dynamics, plant growth, soil amendment, soil-plant system

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22 Micromorphological Traits and Essential Oil Contents of Valeriana tuberosa L.

Authors: Nada Bezić, Valerija Dunkić, Antonija Markovina, Mirko Rušćić


Valeriana is a genus of the well-known medicinal plant of Valerianacea family and growing wild in the sub-Mediterranean area. This abstract reports the types and distribution of trichomes and phyto-active composition of the essential oil of the Valeriana tuberosa from mountain Kozjak, near Split, Croatia. Two types of glandular trichomes: peltate (one basal epidermal cell, one short stalk cell and a small head) and capitate trichomes (one basal epidermal cell, one elongated stalk cell) were observed on leaf, using light microscopy. We analyzed the composition of the essential oil of stems and leaves of V. tuberosa species. Water distilled essential oils from aerial parts of investigation plant have been analysed by GC and GC/MS using VF-5ms capillary column. The total yield of oil was 0.2%, based on dry weight of samples. Forty compounds representing 94.1% of the total oil of V. tuberosa. This essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of isovaleric acid (17.2%), geranyl isovalerate (12.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The present study gives additional knowledge about micromorphological traits and secondary metabolites contents on the genus Valeriana.

Keywords: essential oil, isovaleric acid, Valeriana tuberosa, Croatia

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21 Performance of Growing Rahaji Bulls Fed Diets Containing Similar Concentrates and Different Crop Residues in a Semi-Arid Environment

Authors: Husaini Sama


The study was conducted, in a 120 - day’s trial, to monitor the performance of growing Rahaji bulls fed different crop residues. There were four experimental treatments, each containing three (3) bull-calves. The first three (experimental) diets were prepared with rice straw, millet stalks and a combination of the two in equal proportions. These 3 diets were supplemented with concentrates. Treatments 1, 2 and 3 consisted of rice straw, millet stalk and combination of rice straw and millet stalk in equal ratio, respectively as basal feeds, while, Treatment 4 (containing standard diet of cow pea haulms, rice straw and wheat offal) served as control to compare with the other treatments. Data on feed intake and livability was collected on daily basis and that of live weight gain and feed conversion ratio were collected fortnightly, but data on apparent nutrient retention trial was collected towards the end of the experiment. Water was offered ad libitum. Records obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS (1988) software package in accordance with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results obtained indicated that feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) for calves on treatments 3 and 4 compared to those on treatments 1and 2. The study observed that it was cheaper to formulate diets 2 and 3 than the other 2 diets. The control diet (T4) was observed to be relatively more expensive than the other 3 formulated diets. It was concluded from the findings that, concentrate containing combination of rice straw and cereal stalks was economical and satisfactory for feeding growing Rahaji bulls in this ecological zone (Semi-arid environment).

Keywords: rahaji bulls, crop residues, concentrates, semi-arid environment

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20 Engineering Study on the Handling of Date Palm Fronds to Reduce Waste and Used as Energy Environmentally Friendly Fuel

Authors: Ayman H. Amer Eissa, Abdul Rahman O. Alghannam


The agricultural crop residuals are considered one of the most important problems faced by the environmental life and farmers in the world. A study was carried out to evaluate the physical characteristics of chopped date palm stalks (fronds and leaflets). These properties are necessary to apply normal design procedures such as pneumatic conveying, fluidization, drying, and combustion. The mechanical treatment by cutting, crushing or chopping and briquetting processes are the primary step and the suitable solution for solving this problem and recycling these residuals to be transformed into useful products. So the aim of the present work to get a high quality for agriculture residues such as date palm stalks (fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes. The results obtained from measuring the mechanical properties (average shear and compressive strength) for date palm stalks at different moisture content (12.63, 33.21 and 60.54%) was (6.4, 4.7 and 3.21MPa) and (3.8, 3.18 and 2.86MPa) respectively. The modulus of elasticity and toughness were evaluated as a function of moisture content. As the moisture content of the stalk regions increased the modulus of elasticity and toughness decreased indicating a reduction in the brittleness of the stalk regions. Chopped date palm stalks (palm fronds), date palm leaflets having moisture content of 8, 10 and 12% and 8, 10 and 12.8% w.b. were dandified into briquettes without binder and with binder (urea-formaldehyde) using a screw press machine. Quality properties for briquettes were durability, compression ratio hardness, bulk density, compression ratio, resiliency, water resistance and gases emission. The optimum quality properties found for briquettes at 8 % moisture content and without binder. Where the highest compression stress and durability were 8.95, 10.39 MPa and 97.06 %, 93.64 % for date palm stalks (palm fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes, respectively. The CO and CO2 emissions for date palm stalks (fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes were less than these for loose residuals.

Keywords: residues, date palm stalks, chopper, briquetting, quality properties

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19 Social Data Aggregator and Locator of Knowledge (STALK)

Authors: Rashmi Raghunandan, Sanjana Shankar, Rakshitha K. Bhat


Social media contributes a vast amount of data and information about individuals to the internet. This project will greatly reduce the need for unnecessary manual analysis of large and diverse social media profiles by filtering out and combining the useful information from various social media profiles, eliminating irrelevant data. It differs from the existing social media aggregators in that it does not provide a consolidated view of various profiles. Instead, it provides consolidated INFORMATION derived from the subject’s posts and other activities. It also allows analysis over multiple profiles and analytics based on several profiles. We strive to provide a query system to provide a natural language answer to questions when a user does not wish to go through the entire profile. The information provided can be filtered according to the different use cases it is used for.

Keywords: social network, analysis, Facebook, Linkedin, git, big data

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18 The Environmental Impact of Wireless Technologies in Nigeria: An Overview of the IoT and 5G Network

Authors: Powei Happiness Kerry


Introducing wireless technologies in Nigeria have improved the quality of lives of Nigerians, however, not everyone sees it in that light. The paper on the environmental impact of wireless technologies in Nigeria summarizes the scholarly views on the impact of wireless technologies on the environment, beaming its searchlight on 5G and internet of things in Nigeria while also exploring the theory of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The study used a qualitative research method to gather important data from relevant sources and contextually draws inference from the derived data. The study concludes that the Federal Government of Nigeria, before agreeing to any latest development in the world of wireless technologies, should weigh the implications and deliberate extensively with all stalk holders putting into consideration the confirmation it will receive from the National Assembly.  

Keywords: Internet of Things, radiofrequency, electromagnetic radiation, information and communications technology, ICT, 5G

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17 Sequential Pulsed Electric Field and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Enriched Fractions from Button Mushroom Stalks

Authors: Bibha Kumari, Nigel P. Brunton, Dilip K. Rai, Brijesh K. Tiwari


Edible mushrooms possess numerous functional components like homo- and hetero- β-glucans [β(1→3), β(1→4) and β(1→6) glucosidic linkages], chitins, ergosterols, bioactive polysaccharides and peptides imparting health beneficial properties to mushrooms. Some of the proven biological activities of mushroom extracts are antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, cholesterol lowering activity by inhibiting a key cholesterol metabolism enzyme i.e. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Application of novel extraction technologies like pulsed electric field (PEF) and high power ultrasound offers clean, green, faster and efficient extraction alternatives with enhanced and good quality extracts. Sequential PEF followed by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) were applied to recover bioactive enriched fractions from industrial white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk waste using environmentally friendly and GRAS solvents i.e. water and water/ethanol combinations. The PEF treatment was carried out at 60% output voltage, 2 Hz frequency for 500 pulses of 20 microseconds pulse width, using KCl salt solution of 0.6 mS/cm conductivity by the placing 35g of chopped fresh mushroom stalks and 25g of salt solution in the 4x4x4cm3 treatment chamber. Sequential UAE was carried out on the PEF pre-treated samples using ultrasonic-water-bath (USB) of three frequencies (25 KHz, 35 KHz and 45 KHz) for various treatment times (15-120 min) at 80°C. Individual treatment using either PEF or UAE were also investigation to compare the effect of each treatment along with the combined effect on the recovery and bioactivity of the crude extracts. The freeze dried mushroom stalk powder was characterised for proximate compositional parameters (dry weight basis) showing 64.11% total carbohydrate, 19.12% total protein, 7.21% total fat, 31.2% total dietary fiber, 7.9% chitin (as glucosamine equivalent) and 1.02% β-glucan content. The total phenolic contents (TPC) were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as gallic-acid-equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant properties were ascertained using DPPH and FRAP assays and expressed as trolox-equivalents (TE). HMGCR activity and molecular mass of β-glucans will be measured using the commercial HMG-CoA Reductase Assay kit (Sigma-Aldrich) and size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), respectively. Effects of PEF, UAE and their combination on the antioxidant capacity, HMGCR inhibition and β-glucans content will be presented.

Keywords: β-glucan, mushroom stalks, pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE)

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16 Improving Utilization of Sugarcane by Replacing Ordinary Propagation Material with Small Chips of Sugarcane Planted in Paper Pots

Authors: C. Garcia, C. Andreasen


Sugarcane is an important resource for bioenergy. Fields are usually established by using 15-20 cm pieces of sugarcane stalks as propagation material. An alternative method is to use small chips with nodes from sugarcane stalks. Plants from nodes are often established in plastic pots, but plastic pots could be replaced with biodegradable paper pots. This would be a more sustainable solution, reducing labor costs and avoiding pollution with plastic. We compared the establishment of plants from nodes taken from three different part of the sugarcane plant. The nodes were planted in plastic and paper pots. There was no significant difference between plants established in the two pot types. Nodes from different part of the stalk had different sprouting capacity. Nodes from the top parts sprouted significantly better than nodes taken from the middle or nodes taken closed to the ground in two experiments. Nodes with a length of 3 cm performed better than nodes with a length of 2 cm.

Keywords: nodes, paper pots, propagation material, sugarcane

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15 Analysis of the Potential of Biomass Residues for Energy Production and Applications in New Materials

Authors: Sibele A. F. Leite, Bernno S. Leite, José Vicente H. D´Angelo, Ana Teresa P. Dell’Isola, Julio CéSar Souza


The generation of bioenergy is one of the oldest and simplest biomass applications and is one of the safest options for minimizing emissions of greenhouse gasses and replace the use of fossil fuels. In addition, the increasing development of technologies for energy biomass conversion parallel to the advancement of research in biotechnology and engineering has enabled new opportunities for exploitation of biomass. Agricultural residues offer great potential for energy use, and Brazil is in a prominent position in the production and export of agricultural products such as banana and rice. Despite the economic importance of the growth prospects of these activities and the increasing of the agricultural waste, they are rarely explored for energy and production of new materials. Brazil products almost 10.5 million tons/year of rice husk and 26.8 million tons/year of banana stem. Thereby, the aim of this study was to analysis the potential of biomass residues for energy production and applications in new materials. Rice husk (specify the type) and banana stem (specify the type) were characterized by physicochemical analyses using the following parameters: organic carbon, nitrogen (NTK), proximate analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses (TG), calorific values and silica content. Rice husk and banana stem presented attractive superior calorific (from 11.5 to 13.7MJ/kg), and they may be compared to vegetal coal (21.25 MJ/kg). These results are due to the high organic matter content. According to the proximate analysis, biomass has high carbon content (fixed and volatile) and low moisture and ash content. In addition, data obtained by Walkley–Black method point out that most of the carbon present in the rice husk (50.5 wt%) and in banana stalk (35.5 wt%) should be understood as organic carbon (readily oxidizable). Organic matter was also detected by Kjeldahl method which gives the values of nitrogen (especially on the organic form) for both residues: 3.8 and 4.7 g/kg of rice husk and banana stem respectively. TG and DSC analyses support the previous results, as they can provide information about the thermal stability of the samples allowing a correlation between thermal behavior and chemical composition. According to the thermogravimetric curves, there were two main stages of mass-losses. The first and smaller one occurred below 100 °C, which was suitable for water losses and the second event occurred between 200 and 500 °C which indicates decomposition of the organic matter. At this broad peak, the main loss was between 250-350 °C, and it is because of sugar decomposition (components readily oxidizable). Above 350 °C, mass loss of the biomass may be associated with lignin decomposition. Spectroscopic characterization just provided qualitative information about the organic matter, but spectra have shown absorption bands around 1030 cm-1 which may be identified as species containing silicon. This result is expected for the rice husk and deserves further investigation to the stalk of banana, as it can bring a different perspective for this biomass residue.

Keywords: rice husk, banana stem, bioenergy, renewable feedstock

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14 Effect of Nitrogen and Gibberellic Acid at Different Level and their Interaction on Calendula

Authors: Pragnyashree Mishra, Shradhanjali Mohapatra


The present investigation is carried out to know the effect of foliar feeding of nitrogen and gibberellic acid on vegetative growth, flowering behaviour and yield of calendula variety ‘Golden Emporer’. The experiment was laid out in RBD in rabi season of 2013-14. There are 16 treatments are taken at different level such as nitrogen (at 0%,1%,2%,3%) and GA3 (at 50 ppm,100ppm,150 ppm). Among them maximum height at bud initiation stage was obtained at 3% nitrogen (27.00 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (26.5 cm), fist flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(60.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (63.75 days), maximum flower stalk length was obtained at 3% nitrogen(3.50 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (5.42 cm),maximum duration of flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(46.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (46.50days), maximum number of flower was obtained at 3% nitrogen (89.00per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (83.50 per plant), maximum flower weight was obtained at 3% nitrogen(1.25 gm per flower) and at 150 ppm GA3 (1.50 gm per flower), maximum yield was was obtained at 3% nitrogen (110.00 gm per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (105.00gm per plant) and minimum of all character was obtained when 0% nitrogen0 ppm GA3. All interaction between nitrogen and GA3 was found in significant except the yield .

Keywords: calendula, golden emporer, GA3, nitrogen and gibberellic acid

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13 Effect of Band Application of Organic Manures on Growth and Yield of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)

Authors: S. B. Kalaghatagi, A. K. Guggari, Pallavi S. Manikashetti


A field experiment to study the effect of band application of organic manures on growth and yield of pigeon pea was conducted during 2016-17 at Kharif Seed Farm, College of Agriculture, Vijayapura. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with thirteen treatments viz., T1 to T6 were band application of vermicompost at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 t ha⁻¹, respectively. The treatments T7 to T12 include band application of sieved FYM at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 t ha⁻¹, respectively and were compared with already recommended practice of broadcasting of FYM at 6 t ha⁻¹ (T13); and recommended dose of fertilizer (25:50:0 NPK kg ha⁻¹) was applied commonly to all the treatments. The results revealed that band application of vermicompost (VC) at 3 t ha⁻¹ recorded significantly higher number of pods plant⁻¹ (116), grain weight plant⁻¹ (37.35 g), grain yield (1,647 kg ha⁻¹), stalk yield (2,920 kg ha⁻¹) and harvest index (0.36) and was on par with the band application of VC at 2.0 and 2.5 t ha⁻¹ and sieved FYM at 4.0 and 5.0 t ha⁻¹ as compared to broadcasting of FYM at 6 t ha-1 (99.33, 24.07 g, 1,061 kg ha⁻¹, 2,920 kg ha⁻¹ and 0.36, respectively). Significantly higher net return (Rupees 59,410 ha⁻¹) and benefit cost ratio of 2.92 recorded with band application of VC at 3 t ha⁻¹ over broadcasting of FYM at 6 tonnes per ha (Rupees 25,401 ha⁻¹ and 1.78, respectively). It indicates from the above results that, growing of pigeon pea with band application of VC at 2, 2.5 and 3 t ha⁻¹ and sieved FYM at 4 and 5 t ha⁻¹ leads to saving of 1 tonne of VC and 2 tonnes of FYM per ha.

Keywords: organic manures, rainfed pigeonpea, sieved FYM, vermicompost

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12 Improved Production, Purification and Characterization of Invertase from Penicillium lilacinum by Shaken Flask Technique of Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Kashif Ahmed


Recent years researchers have been motivated towards extensive exploring of living organism, which could be utilized effectively in intense industrial conditions. The present study shows enhanced production, purification and characterization of industrial enzyme, invertase (Beta-D-fructofuranosidase) from Penicillium lilacinum. Various agricultural based by-products (cotton stalk, sunflower waste, rice husk, molasses and date syrup) were used as energy source. The highest amount of enzyme (13.05 Units/mL) was produced when the strain was cultured on growth medium containing date syrup as energy source. Yeast extract was used as nitrogen source after 96 h of incubation at incubation temperature of 40º C. Initial pH of medium was 8.0, inoculum size 6x10⁶ conidia and 200 rev/min agitation rate. The enzyme was also purified (7 folds than crude) and characterized. Molecular mass of purified enzyme (65 kDa) was determined by 10 % SDS-PAGE. Lineweaver-Burk Plot was used to determine Kinetic constants (Vmax 178.6 U/mL/min and Km 2.76 mM). Temperature and pH optima were 55º C and 5.5 respectively. MnCl₂ (52.9 %), MgSO₄ (48.9 %), BaCl₂ (24.6 %), MgCl₂ (9.6 %), CoCl₂ (5.7 %) and NaCl (4.2 %) enhanced the relative activity of enzyme and HgCl₂ (-92.8 %), CuSO₄ (-80.2 %) and CuCl₂ (-76.6 %) were proved inhibitors. The strain was showing enzyme activity even at extreme conditions of temperature (up to 60º C) and pH (up to 9), so it can be used in industries.

Keywords: invertase, Penicillium lilacinum, submerged fermentation, industrial enzyme

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11 Effect of Compost Application on Uptake and Allocation of Heavy Metals and Plant Nutrients and Quality of Oriental Tobacco Krumovgrad 90

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Venelina T. Popova, Radka V. Ivanova, Givko T. Ivanov, Krasimir I. Ivanov


A comparative research on the impact of compost on uptake and allocation of nutrients and heavy metals and quality of Oriental tobacco Krumovgrad 90 has been carried out. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the lead zinc smelter near the town of Kardzali, Bulgaria, after closing the lead production. The compost treatments had significant effects on the uptake and allocation of plant nutrients and heavy metals. The incorporation of compost leads to decrease in the amount of heavy metals present in the tobacco leaves, with Cd, Pb and Zn having values of 36%, 12% and 6%, respectively. Application of the compost leads to increased content of potassium, calcium and magnesium in the leaves of tobacco, and therefore, may favorably affect the burning properties of tobacco. The incorporation of compost in the soil has a negative impact on the quality and typicality of the oriental tobacco variety of Krumovgrad 90. The incorporation of compost leads to an increase in the size of the tobacco plant leaves, the leaves become darker in colour, less fleshy and undergo a change in form, becoming (much) broader in the second, third and fourth stalk position. This is accompanied by a decrease in the quality of the tobacco. The incorporation of compost also results in an increase in the mineral substances (pure ash), total nicotine and nitrogen, and a reduction in the amount of reducing sugars, which causes the quality of the tobacco leaves to deteriorate (particularly in the third and fourth harvests).

Keywords: chemical composition, compost, heavy metals, oriental tobacco, quality

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10 Estimation of Maize Yield by Using a Process-Based Model and Remote Sensing Data in the Northeast China Plain

Authors: Jia Zhang, Fengmei Yao, Yanjing Tan


The accurate estimation of crop yield is of great importance for the food security. In this study, a process-based mechanism model was modified to estimate yield of C4 crop by modifying the carbon metabolic pathway in the photosynthesis sub-module of the RS-P-YEC (Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield estimation for Crops) model. The yield was calculated by multiplying net primary productivity (NPP) and the harvest index (HI) derived from the ratio of grain to stalk yield. The modified RS-P-YEC model was used to simulate maize yield in the Northeast China Plain during the period 2002-2011. The statistical data of maize yield from study area was used to validate the simulated results at county-level. The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.827 (P < 0.01) between the simulated yield and the statistical data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was 712 kg/ha with a relative error (RE) of 9.3%. From 2002-2011, the yield of maize planting zone in the Northeast China Plain was increasing with smaller coefficient of variation (CV). The spatial pattern of simulated maize yield was consistent with the actual distribution in the Northeast China Plain, with an increasing trend from the northeast to the southwest. Hence the results demonstrated that the modified process-based model coupled with remote sensing data was suitable for yield prediction of maize in the Northeast China Plain at the spatial scale.

Keywords: process-based model, C4 crop, maize yield, remote sensing, Northeast China Plain

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9 Response of Summer Sesame to Irrigation Regimes and Nitrogen Levels

Authors: Kalpana Jamdhade, Anita Chorey, Bharti Tijare, V. M. Bhale


A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2011 at Agronomy research farm, Dr. PDKV, Akola, to study the effect of irrigation regime and nitrogen levels on growth and productivity of summer sesame. The experiment was laid out in split plot Design in which three irrigation scheduling on the basis of IW/CPE ratio viz., irrigation at 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 IW/CPE ratios (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) and one irrigation scheduling based on critical growth stages of sesame (I4), in main plot and three nitrogen levels 0, 30 and 60 kg N ha-1 (N0, N1 and N2, respectively) in subplot. The result showed that plant height, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area and dry matter accumulation were maximum in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio, which significantly superior over 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and irrigation at critical growth stages but were statistically at par with irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio. Nitrogen levels, application of 60 kg N ha-1 was recorded significantly superior all growth parameters over treatment 30 kg N ha-1 and 0 kg N ha-1. In case of yield attributes viz., No. of capsules plant-1, Test wt., grain yield and Stalk yield (qha-1) were maximum in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio and were significantly superior over 0.8 IW/CPE ratio, 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and irrigation at critical growth stages. Application of 60 kg N ha-1 increased all yield attributing characters over application of 30 and 0 kg N ha-1. In case of economics of crop same trend was found and the highest B:C ration was obtained in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio. Whereas, application of 30 kg N ha-1 was recorded highest B:C ration over application of 60 and 0 kg N ha-1. Interaction effect of irrigation and nitrogen levels were found to be non significant in summer season.

Keywords: irrigation regimes, nitrogen levels, summer sesame, agricultural technology

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8 Determination of Performances of Some Mulberry (Morus spp.) Species Selected from Different Places of Turkey under Kahramanmaras Conditions

Authors: Muruvvet Ilgin, Ilknur Agca


Common mulberry (Morus levigate Wall.) and purple mulberry (Morus rubra L.) species which were selected from different regions of Turkey were used as material in order to determine their performance. Therefore, phenological observations, pomological analysis (fruit size, fruit weight, fruit stalk length, acidity and TSS (Total Soluble Solids) and phytochemical properties organic acids (oxalic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) total phenolics and antioxidant capacity values of mulberries) were determined. Phenological observations of seven different periods were also identified. Fruit weight values varied between 3.48 to 4.26 g. TSS contents value were from 14.36 to 21.30%, and fruit acidity was determined between 0.29 to 2.02%. The amount of ascorbic acid of Finger mulberry (Morus levigate Wall.) and purple mulberry (Morus rubra L.) species were identified as 35.60% and 363.28%. The highest value of total phenolic contents belonged to with a finger mulberry genotypes P1 934.80 mg/100g whereas the lowest one was of purple mulberry genotypes 278.70 mg/100g. FRAP and TEAC methods were used for determination of antioxidant capacity of the values of 0.58-22.65 micromol TE/kg and 20.34-31.6 micromol TE/kg. Total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity strongly depends on fruit color intensity with a positive correlation. The obtained results have been found to be important as a source of future pharmacological studies and pomological and breeding programs.

Keywords: mulberry, phenology, phytochemical property, pomology

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7 Productivity and Nutrient Uptake of Cotton as Influenced by Application of Organic Nitrification Inhibitors and Fertilizer Level

Authors: Hemlata Chitte, Anita Chorey, V. M. Bhale, Bharti Tijare


A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2013-14 at Agronomy research farm, Dr. PDKV, Akola, to study the productivity and nitrogen use efficiency in cotton using organic nitrification inhibitors. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications each having nine treatment combinations comprising three fertilizer levels viz., 75% RDF (F1), 100% RDF (F2) and 125% RDF (F3) and three nitrification inhibitors viz., neem cake @ 300 kgha-1 (N1), karanj cake @ 300 kgha-1 (N2) and control (N3). The result showed that various growth attributes viz., plant height, number of functional leaves plant-1, monopodial and sympodial branches and leaf area plant-1(dm2) were maximum in fertilizer level 125% RDF over fertilizer level 75% RDF and which at par with 100% RDF. In case of yield attributes and yield, number of bolls per plant, Seed cotton yield and stalk yield kg ha-1 significantly higher in fertilizer level 125% RDF over 100% RDF and 75% RDF. Uptake of NPK kg ha-1 after harvest of cotton crop was significantly higher in fertilizer level 125% RDF over 100% RDF and 75% RDF. Significantly highest nitrogen use efficiency was recorded with fertilizer level 75 % RDF as compared to 100 % RDF and lowest nitrogen use efficiency was recorded with 125% RDF level. Amongst nitrification inhibitors, karanj cake @ 300 kg ha-1 increases potentiality of growth characters, yield attributes, uptake of NPK and NUE as compared to control and at par with neem cake @ 300 kgha-1. Interaction effect between fertilizer level and nitrification inhibitors were found to be non significant at all growth attributes and uptake of nutrient but was significant in respect of seed cotton yield.

Keywords: cotton, fertilizer level, nitrification inhibitor and nitrogen use efficiency, nutrient uptake

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6 Biological Treatment of Corn Stover with Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinula edudes to Improve Digestibility

Authors: Aydan Atalar, Nurcan Cetinkaya


Corn stover is leftover of the leaves, stalk, husks and tassels in the field after harvesting the grain combined. Corn stover is a low-quality roughage but has mostly been used as roughage source for feeding ruminant animals in developing countries including Turkey; however, it can also be used to make biofuels as in developed countries. The objectives of the present study were to improve the digestibility of corn stover by the treatment of white rod fungus mainly Pleurotus osteritus (PO), Pleurotus eryingii (PE) and Lantinula edudes (LE) at different incubation times and also to determine the most effective fungus and incubation time to prepare fermeted corn stover for ruminant nutrition. The choped corn stover was treated with PO, PE and LE and incubated for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days in incubator at 26 0C. After each incubation time dry matter(DM), organic matter(OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent lignin (ADL), in-vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD) and organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) were determined. The mean IVTDMD and IVTOMD levels were increased by PO, PE and LE treatments in increasing order of incubation times. The obtained IVTDM values were 59.45, 60.51, 60.82 and 60.18 %; 59.45, 70.55, 67.18 and 66.96 %; 59.45, 70.55, 67.18 and 66,96 %; 59.45, 74.90, 69.18 % ; 59.45, 76.50, 71.24 and 73.04 for control, PO, PE and LE treatments at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days incubation times respectively. The obtained IVTOMD values were 56.45,60.26,60.82and 60.18 %; 56.45, 68.70, 67.18 and 66.96 %; 56.45, 71.26, 69.18 and 69.28 %; 56.45, 73.23, 71.24 and 73.04 % for control, PO, PE and LE treatments at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days incubation times respectively. The most effective fungus was PO and the incubation time was 30 days. In conclusion, PO treatment of corn stover with 30 days incubation may be used to prepare fermented corn stover for ruminant nutrition.

Keywords: biological treatment, corn stover, digestibility, Lantinula edudes, Pleurotus eryingii, Pleurotus osteritus

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5 Use of RAPD and ISSR Markers in Detection of Genetic Variation among Colletotrichum falcatum Went Isolates from South Gujarat India

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Rushabh Shah, Krishnamurthy Ramar, Vakulbhushan Bhaskar


The present research work aims at finding genetic differences in the genomes of sugarcane red rot isolates Colletotrichum falcatum Went using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and interspersed simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Ten isolates of C. falcatum isolated from different red rot infected sugarcane cultivars stalk were used in present study. The amplified bands were scored across the lanes obtained in 15 RAPD primes and 21 ISSR primes successfully. The data were analysed using NTSYSpc 2.2 software. The results showed 80.6% and 68.07% polymorphism in RPAD and ISSR analysis respectively. Based on the RAPD analysis, ten genotypes were grouped into two major clusters at a cut-off value of 0.75. Geographically distant C. falcatum isolate cfGAN from south Gujarat had a level of similarity with Coimbatore isolate cf8436 presented on separate clade of bootstrapped dendrograms. First and second cluster consisted of five and three isolates respectively, indicating the close relation among them. The 21 ISSR primers produced 119 distinct and scorable loci in that 38 were monomorphic. The number of scorable loci for each primer varied from 2 (ISSR822) to 8 (ISSR807, ISSR823 and ISSR15) with an average of 5.66 loci per primer. Primer ISSR835 amplified the highest number of bands (57), while only 16 bands were obtained by primers ISSR822. Four primers namely ISSR830, ISSR845, ISSR4 and ISSR15 showed the highest value of percentage of polymorphism (100%). The results indicated that both of the marker systems RAPD and ISSR, individually can be effectively used in determination of genetic relationship among C falcatum accessions collected from different parts of south Gujarat.

Keywords: Colletotrichum falcatum, ISSR, RAPD, Red Rot

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4 In-Depth Analysis on Sequence Evolution and Molecular Interaction of Influenza Receptors (Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase)

Authors: Dong Tran, Thanh Dac Van, Ly Le


Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) play an important role in host immune evasion across influenza virus evolution process. The correlation between HA and NA evolution in respect to epitopic evolution and drug interaction has yet to be investigated. In this study, combining of sequence to structure evolution and statistical analysis on epitopic/binding site specificity, we identified potential therapeutic features of HA and NA that show specific antibody binding site of HA and specific binding distribution within NA active site of current inhibitors. Our approach introduces the use of sequence variation and molecular interaction to provide an effective strategy in establishing experimental based distributed representations of protein-protein/ligand complexes. The most important advantage of our method is that it does not require complete dataset of complexes but rather directly inferring feature interaction from sequence variation and molecular interaction. Using correlated sequence analysis, we additionally identified co-evolved mutations associated with maintaining HA/NA structural and functional variability toward immunity and therapeutic treatment. Our investigation on the HA binding specificity revealed unique conserved stalk domain interacts with unique loop domain of universal antibodies (CR9114, CT149, CR8043, CR8020, F16v3, CR6261, F10). On the other hand, NA inhibitors (Oseltamivir, Zaninamivir, Laninamivir) showed specific conserved residue contribution and similar to that of NA substrate (sialic acid) which can be exploited for drug design. Our study provides an important insight into rational design and identification of novel therapeutics targeting universally recognized feature of influenza HA/NA.

Keywords: influenza virus, hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), sequence evolution

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3 Representations of Wolves (Canis lupus) in Feature Films: The Detailed Analysis of the Text and Picture in the Chosen Movies

Authors: Barbara Klimek


Wolves are one of the most misrepresented species in literature and the media. They’re often portrayed as vicious, man-eating beasts whose main life goal is to hunt and kill people. Many movie directors use wolves as their main characters in different types of films, especially horror, thriller and science fiction movies to create gore and fear. This, in turn, results in people being afraid of wolves and wanting to destroy them. Such cultural creations caused wolves being stalked, abused and killed by people and in many areas they were completely destroyed. This paper analyzes the representations of wolves in the chosen films in the four main portrayed aspects: 1. the overall picture – true versus false, positive versus negative, based on stereotypes or realistic, displaying wolf behavior typical of the species or fake 2. subjectivity – how humans treat and talk about the animals – as subjects or as objects 3. animal welfare – how humans treat wolves and nature, are the human – animal relations positive and appropriate or negative and abusive 4. empathy – are human characters shown to co-feel the suffering with the wolves, do they display signs of empathy towards the animals, do the animals empathize with humans? The detailed analysis of the text and pictures presented in the chosen films concludes that wolves are especially misrepresented in the movies. Their behavior is shown as fake and negative, based on stereotypes and myths, the human – animal relations are shown mainly as negative where people fear the animals and hunt them and wolves stalk, follow, attack and kill humans. It shows that people do not understand the needs of these animals and are unable to show empathy towards them. The article will discuss the above-mentioned study results in detail and will present many examples. Animal representations in cultural creations, including film have a great impact on how people treat particular species of animals. The media shape people’s attitudes, what in turn results in people either respecting and protecting the animals or fearing, disliking and destroying the particular species.

Keywords: film, movies, representations, wolves

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2 Evaluation of Potential of Crop Residues for Energy Generation in Nepal

Authors: Narayan Prasad Adhikari


In Nepal, the crop residues have often been considered as one of the potential sources of energy to cope with prevailing energy crisis. However, the lack of systematic studies about production and various other competent uses of crop production is the main obstacle to evaluate net potential of the residues for energy production. Under this background, this study aims to assess the net annual availability of crop residues for energy production by undertaking three different districts with the representation of country’s three major regions of lowland, hill, and mountain. The five major cereal crops of paddy, wheat, maize, millet, and barley are considered for the analysis. The analysis is based upon two modes of household surveys. The first mode of survey is conducted to total of 240 households to obtain key information about crop harvesting and livestock management throughout a year. Similarly, the quantification of main crops along with the respective residues on fixed land is carried out to 45 households during second mode. The range of area of such fixed land is varied from 50 to 100 m2. The measurements have been done in air dry basis. The quantity for competitive uses of respective crop residues is measured on the basis of respondents’ feedback. There are four major competitive uses of crop residues at household which are building material, burning, selling, and livestock fodder. The results reveal that the net annual available crop residues per household are 4663 kg, 2513 kg, and 1731 kg in lowland, hill, and mountain respectively. Of total production of crop residues, the shares of dedicated fodder crop residues (except maize stalk and maize cob) are 94 %, 62 %, and 89 % in lowland, hill, and mountain respectively and of which the corresponding shares of fodder are 87 %, 91 %, and 82 %. The annual percapita energy equivalent from net available crop residues in lowland, hill, and mountain are 2.49 GJ, 3.42 GJ, and 0.44 GJ which represent 30 %, 33 %, and 3 % of total annual energy consumption respectively whereas the corresponding current shares of crop residues are only 23 %, 8 %, and 1 %. Hence, even utmost exploitation of available crop residues can hardly contribute to one third of energy consumption at household level in lowland, and hill whereas this is limited to particularly negligible in mountain. Moreover, further analysis has also been done to evaluate district wise supply-demand context of dedicated fodder crop residues on the basis of presence of livestock. The high deficit of fodder crop residues in hill and mountain is observed where the issue of energy generation from these residues will be ludicrous. As a contrary, the annual production of such residues for livestock fodder in lowland meets annual demand with modest surplus even if entire fodder to be derived from the residues throughout a year and thus there seems to be further potential to utilize the surplus residues for energy generation.

Keywords: crop residues, hill, lowland, mountain

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