Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: Quebec

47 The Nature and the Structure of Scientific and Innovative Collaboration Networks

Authors: Afshin Moazami, Andrea Schiffauerova


The objective of this work is to investigate the development and the role of collaboration networks in the creation of knowledge and innovations in the US and Canada, with a special focus on Quebec. In order to create scientific networks, the data on journal articles were extracted from SCOPUS, and the networks were built based on the co-authorship of the journal papers. For innovation networks, the USPTO database was used, and the networks were built on the patent co-inventorship. Various indicators characterizing the evolution of the network structure and the positions of the researchers and inventors in the networks were calculated. The comparison between the United States, Canada, and Quebec was then carried out. The preliminary results show that the nature of scientific collaboration networks differs from the one seen in innovation networks. Scientists work in bigger teams and are mostly interconnected within one giant network component, whereas the innovation network is much more clustered and fragmented, the inventors work more repetitively with the same partners, often in smaller isolated groups. In both Canada and the US, an increasing tendency towards collaboration was observed, and it was found that networks are getting bigger and more centralized with time. Moreover, a declining share of knowledge transfers per scientist was detected, suggesting an increasing specialization of science. The US collaboration networks tend to be more centralized than the Canadian ones. Quebec shares a lot of features with the Canadian network, but some differences were observed, for example, Quebec inventors rely more on the knowledge transmission through intermediaries.

Keywords: Canada, collaboration, innovation network, scientific network, Quebec, United States

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46 Perception of Discrimination Amongst Minorites in Canada Following the Inception of Bill 21

Authors: Ayman Mohammed, Abdul Raffay Ilyas, Syeda Rohma Sadia, Zuha Durrani, Fareeha Kamal, Shaheryar Syed, Arshiya Shareef, Mukarram Zaidi


On June 16, 2019, Coalition Avenir de Québec (CAQ) passed Bill 21, a controversial bill impacting many Canadians. The Bill prohibits workers in the Quebec provincial sector from wearing any form of religious articles. While the Bill claims to treat all religious symbols equally, those with distinctive items of dress such as hijabs, kippahs, and turbans become targets of the discriminatory nature of the Bill. With the rise in xenophobic behaviour across Canada and the West, Think For Actions conducted a study of Bill 21. The study included responses from Indigenous, Muslims, Sikhs and Jewish people residing in Calgary. The focus was on the recent passing of Bill 21, their opinions on the perceived attitudes of intolerance, and the perceptions of common stereotypes. The data collection and analysis happened over 9 weeks. The method of data collection was semi-structured interviews held in focus groups in different religious institutions and cultural/community centres in Calgary. The focus groups generated unanimously negative responses to the Bill. Participants described the Bill as “hateful” and one which “targets minority religions”. The participants had hopes that the Bill would be defeated and Quebec residents would be protected by their basic rights to practice their religion.

Keywords: Bill 21, Islamophobia, Quebec, minorities, discrimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
45 Teaching Religious Education: The Ethics and Religious Culture Program as Case Study for Social Change

Authors: Sabrina N. Jafralie, Arzina Zaver


Responding to religious diversity and the need for social change, the Ethics and Religious Culture (ERC) Program was introduced as a mandatory subject for all students in Quebec, Canada. Now that the Quebec provincial government has announced the end of the ERC program, it time to discuss and assess both challenges and successes in it's implementation especially its impact on social change. Though many studies have been written around the wider concepts of religious education and religious literacy in the public system, few studies have included voices from educators. Jafralie and Zaver's qualitative research study examines the potentials and struggles of the ERC Program, and by doing so, raise important considerations around the effective teaching of.  The findings point to several consistent themes that teachers grapple with in regards to curriculum and pedagogy and highlights that in-service teachers are not thoroughly prepared to teach about ethics and religion, nor are teacher education programs effectively preparing pre-service teachers entering the field to deal with the complexities of teaching about religion or social change in their classrooms. The authors suggest avenues in which teacher education for teachers can look like in order for students and teachers to engage meaningfully with religious diversity and be agents of social change. 

Keywords: Pedagogy, Professional Development, Quebec, Teaching

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44 Usefulness of Web Sites in Starting Up Wineries: A Comparative study of Canadian, Moroccan and American Small Firms

Authors: Jocelyn D. Perreault


An exploratory study has been launched in 2013-2014 in the province of Quebec, the state of Vermont (USA) and the region of Zaer in Morocco. We have realized three first case studies in order to better understand the marketing strategies of starting up vineries, which are defined as having a maximum of five years of operations. The methodology used consisted of visiting the vineyards; conducting semi-directed interviews with owner-managers; visiting points-of-sale of the wines and analysing the web sites using an assessment grid. The results indicate many differences between the three firms in their use of their web sites. More precisely, we have noticed that: -The Quebec vineyard uses its web site in collaboration with the touristic actors of its region and the association of the wine makers of the province of Quebec.Positioning is as a touristic attraction. -In comparison,the Moroccan firm limits the content of the web site to itself and its activities and somehow to the wine industry.Positioning is as a wine specialist. -The american firm associated its web site more to farm markets actors and activities of the region.Positioning is as an agricultural actor. -The positionings of the three vineyards are very different from each others and will be discussed more thoroughly during the presentation to better understand the use of web sites, thus contributing to the «brand image». -Improvements to the three web sites have been identified and suggested by more than a hundred of persons using the same grid and comprising students of bachelor and MBA degrees from our university. In general, the web sites have been considered satisfying but requiring several improvements at different levels. Changes or updates have been observed for the Quebec winery web site but practically no changes have been made to the others in the last months. The assessment grid will be presented in more details as well as the global and the partial scores given by the respondents. In conclusion, we have noticed that only one winery is considered as a «heavy and strategic user» of its web site and of Facebook and Twitter.

Keywords: web site, wineries, marketing, positioning, starting up strategies

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43 Does Clinical Guidelines Affect Healthcare Quality and Populational Health: Quebec Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

Authors: Nizar Ghali, Bernard Fortin, Guy Lacroix


In Quebec, colonoscopies volumes have continued to rise in recent years in the absence of effective monitoring mechanism for the appropriateness and the quality of these exams. In 2010, November, Quebec Government introduced the colorectal cancer-screening program in the objective to control for volume and cost imperfection. This program is based on clinical standards and was initiated for first group of institutions. One year later, Government adds financial incentives for participants institutions. In this analysis, we want to assess for the causal effect of the two components of this program: clinical pathways and financial incentives. Especially we assess for the reform effect on healthcare quality and population health in the context that medical remuneration is not directly dependent on this additional funding offered by the program. We have data on admissions episodes and deaths for 8 years. We use multistate model analog to difference in difference approach to estimate reform effect on the transition probability between different states for each patient. Our results show that the reform reduced length of stay without deterioration in hospital mortality or readmission rate. In the other hand, the program contributed to decrease the hospitalization rate and a less invasive treatment approach for colorectal surgeries. This is a sign of healthcare quality and population health improvement. We demonstrate in this analysis that physicians’ behavior can be affected by both clinical standards and financial incentives even if offered to facilities.

Keywords: multi-state and multi-episode transition model, healthcare quality, length of stay, transition probability, difference in difference

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42 Restraint and Seclusion: Individual and Environmental Characteristics of the Educators Super Users

Authors: Caroline A. Mathieu, Steve Geoffrion, Alexandre Dumais, Denis Lafortune


In Quebec, troubled youths stay in a rehabilitation Center (RC), and educators in RC’S are particularly at risk of exposure to workplace violence. In order to manage youth violence and protect youth safety or their own, educators can resort to restraint and seclusion (R&S) strategies. To our best knowledge, in the literature, no study was found on the topic of R&S super users either in psychiatry or in a rehabilitation center. The objective of this study is to explore the differences between R&S super users and normal users among educators in terms of individual and environmental characteristics, over an eight weeks period. The 278 participants were volunteers recruited from 36 units that foster around 8 to 12 youths per unit, in a suburb of Montreal; Quebec, Canada. The results indicate that among the variables that were studied, only fear of violence and past exposure to violence at work characterized the R&S super users. These results suggest that exposure to violence in the workplace might increase the anticipation and fear of violence from a youth; this is concordant with the results indicating that these variables are the ones separating normal users from super users.

Keywords: seclusion and restraint, violence, youth, educators

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41 Biomass Availability Matrix: Methodology to Define High Level Biomass Availability for Bioenergy Purposes, a Quebec Case Study

Authors: Camilo Perez Lee, Mark Lefsrud, Edris Madadian, Yves Roy


Biomass availability is one of the most important aspects to consider when determining the proper location of potential bioenergy plants. Since this aspect has a direct impact on biomass transportation and storage, biomass availability greatly influences the operational cost. Biomass availability is more than the quantity available on a specific region; other elements such as biomass accessibility and potential play an important role. Accessibility establishes if the biomass could be extracted and conveyed easily considering factors such as biomass availability, infrastructure condition and other operational issues. On the other hand, biomass potential is defined as the capacity of a specific region to scale the usage of biomass as an energy source, move from another energy source or to switch the type of biomass to increase their biomass availability in the future. This paper defines methodologies and parameters in order to determine the biomass availability within the administrative regions of the province of Quebec; firstly by defining the forestry, agricultural, municipal solid waste and energy crop biomass availability per administrative region, next its infrastructure accessibility and lastly defining the region potential. Thus, these data are processed to create a biomass availability matrix allowing to define the overall biomass availability per region and to determine the most optional candidates for bioenergy plant location.

Keywords: biomass, availability, bioenergy, accessibility, biomass potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
40 Frailty Models for Modeling Heterogeneity: Simulation Study and Application to Quebec Pension Plan

Authors: Souad Romdhane, Lotfi Belkacem


When referring to actuarial analysis of lifetime, only models accounting for observable risk factors have been developed. Within this context, Cox proportional hazards model (CPH model) is commonly used to assess the effects of observable covariates as gender, age, smoking habits, on the hazard rates. These covariates may fail to fully account for the true lifetime interval. This may be due to the existence of another random variable (frailty) that is still being ignored. The aim of this paper is to examine the shared frailty issue in the Cox proportional hazard model by including two different parametric forms of frailty into the hazard function. Four estimated methods are used to fit them. The performance of the parameter estimates is assessed and compared between the classical Cox model and these frailty models through a real-life data set from the Quebec Pension Plan and then using a more general simulation study. This performance is investigated in terms of the bias of point estimates and their empirical standard errors in both fixed and random effect parts. Both the simulation and the real dataset studies showed differences between classical Cox model and shared frailty model.

Keywords: life insurance-pension plan, survival analysis, risk factors, cox proportional hazards model, multivariate failure-time data, shared frailty, simulations study

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39 Development of a Coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological Model to Simulate Impacts of Temperature on Waste Stabilization at a Landfill in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Simran Kaur, Paul J. Van Geel


A coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological (TMB) model was developed for the analysis of impacts of temperatures on waste stabilization at a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill in Quebec, Canada using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element-based software. For waste placed in landfills in Northern climates during winter months, it can take months or even years before the waste approaches ideal temperatures for biodegradation to occur. Therefore, the proposed model links biodegradation induced strain in MSW to waste temperatures and corresponding heat generation rates as a result of anaerobic degradation. This provides a link between the thermal-biological and mechanical behavior of MSW. The thermal properties of MSW are further linked to density which is tracked and updated in the mechanical component of the model, providing a mechanical-thermal link. The settlement of MSW is modelled based on the concept of viscoelasticity. The specific viscoelastic model used is a single Kelvin – Voight viscoelastic body in which the finite element response is controlled by the elastic material parameters – Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The numerical model was validated with 10 years of temperature and settlement data collected from a landfill in Ste. Sophie, Quebec. The coupled TMB modelling framework, which simulates placement of waste lifts as they are placed progressively in the landfill, allows for optimization of several thermal and mechanical parameters throughout the depth of the waste profile and helps in better understanding of temperature dependence of MSW stabilization. The model is able to illustrate how waste placed in the winter months can delay biodegradation-induced settlement and generation of landfill gas. A delay in waste stabilization will impact the utilization of the approved airspace prior to the placement of a final cover and impact post-closure maintenance. The model provides a valuable tool to assess different waste placement strategies in order to increase airspace utilization within landfills operating under different climates, in addition to understanding conditions for increased gas generation for recovery as a green and renewable energy source.

Keywords: coupled model, finite element modeling, landfill, municipal solid waste, waste stabilization

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38 A Case Study in Montreal: Strategies Implemented by Immigrant Parents to Support Their Child's Educational and Academic Success: Managing Distance between School in the Country of Origin and School in the Host Society

Authors: Josée Charette


The academic and educational success of immigrant students is a current issue in education, especially in western societies such in the province of Quebec, in Canada. For people who immigrate with school-age children, the success of the family’s migratory project is often measured by the benefits drawn by children from the educational institutions of their host society. In order to support the academic achievement of their children, immigrant parents try to develop practices that derive from their representations of school and related challenges inspired by the socio-cultural context of their country of origin. These findings lead us to the following question: How does strategies implemented by immigrant parents to manage the representational distance between school of their country of origin and school of the host society support or not the academic and educational success of their child? In the context of a qualitative exploratory approach, we have made interviews in the French-, English- and Spanish-languages with 32 newly immigrated parents and 10 of their children. Parents were invited to complete a network of free associations about «School in Quebec» as a premise for the interview. The objective of this communication is to present strategies implemented by immigrant parents to manage the distance between their representations of schools in their country of origin and in the host society, and to explore the influence of this management on their child’s academic and educational trajectories. Data analysis led us to develop various types of strategies, such as continuity, adaptation, resources mobilization, compensation and "return to basics" strategies. These strategies seem to be part of a continuum from oppositional-conflict scenario, in which parental strategies act as a risk factor, to conciliator-integrator scenario, in which parental strategies act as a protective factor for immigrant students’ academic and educational success. In conclusion, we believe that our research helps in providing a more efficient support to immigrant parents and contributes to develop a wider portrait of immigrant students’ academic achievement. In addition, we think that by improving the experience of immigrant families in Quebec schools, a greater number of migratory projects will be effective.

Keywords: immigrant students, family’s migratory project, school of origin and school of host society, immigrants parental strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
37 Teachers’ Practices during Group Conversation at Prekindergartens in Quebec

Authors: Élizabelle Ouellet, Angélique Laurent, Constance Lavoie


Group conversation, also known as circle time, is a learning context frequently used in preschool education in Quebec. This context is an ideal opportunity for teachers to support the development of children’s language and thinking development. Moreover, circle time encourages interactive conversations between the teacher and the children in a group setting. However, the research done on this topic was conducted mostly in the last decade and concerned kindergarten teachers’ practices. In addition, the literature suggests some issues about teachers’ practices to enhance children’s language and thinking. For example, teachers use basic language strategies such as repeating, asking closed-ended questions or talking more than the children during this activity. In Quebec, before 2019, prekindergartens were only available for children from 4 to 5 and coming from low socioeconomic backgrounds and are now accessible for all children across the province regardless of their socioeconomic backgrounds. Therefore, the objective of this research is to describe the practices used by prekindergarten teachers to lead conversational groups. Based on the conceptual framework of Doyon and Fischer (2010) for five years old kindergarten, this study allows a scientific update and adaptation of their grid for analyzing teachers’ practices during group conversation for four years old prekindergarten. In the sample, the participants were 13 full-time female prekindergarten teachers. They were all trained and experienced in preschool education. For the method, more than 6 hours of circle times were filmed and analyzed by one researcher with Nvivo. Two other researchers conducted 20% of blind coding throughout the process. The analysis grid included three types of practices: 1) management practices, 2) communication orientation practices, and 3) feedback practices. Management practices refer to the management of children's behaviors and of their turns to talk. Communication orientation concerns the combination of a topic (or theme) and a communicative intention. Feedback practices is about the use of open-ended questions, extension related to the children’s statement, and positive comments. Preliminary results showed that, regarding management practices, teachers and children are seating in circle, and the management is mostly done by the teachers. Concerning communication intention practices, the main theme is chosen by the teachers and is mainly about personal experiences. In terms of feedback practices, most of them are related to the ideas and the concepts children state, and few are about phonology, syntax, or vocabulary. The practical contributions will be used for initial and continuing training in the fields of preschool education and oral language teaching.

Keywords: education, prekindergarten, group conversation, teachers' pedagogical practices, language development

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36 Factors Affecting Slot Machine Performance in an Electronic Gaming Machine Facility

Authors: Etienne Provencal, David L. St-Pierre


A facility exploiting only electronic gambling machines (EGMs) opened in 2007 in Quebec City, Canada under the name of Salons de Jeux du Québec (SdjQ). This facility is one of the first worldwide to rely on that business model. This paper models the performance of such EGMs. The interest from a managerial point of view is to identify the variables that can be controlled or influenced so that a comprehensive model can help improve the overall performance of the business. The EGM individual performance model contains eight different variables under study (Game Title, Progressive jackpot, Bonus Round, Minimum Coin-in, Maximum Coin-in, Denomination, Slant Top and Position). Using data from Quebec City’s SdjQ, a linear regression analysis explains 90.80% of the EGM performance. Moreover, results show a behavior slightly different than that of a casino. The addition of GameTitle as a factor to predict the EGM performance is one of the main contributions of this paper. The choice of the game (GameTitle) is very important. Games having better position do not have significantly better performance than games located elsewhere on the gaming floor. Progressive jackpots have a positive and significant effect on the individual performance of EGMs. The impact of BonusRound on the dependent variable is significant but negative. The effect of Denomination is significant but weakly negative. As expected, the Language of an EGMS does not impact its individual performance. This paper highlights some possible improvements by indicating which features are performing well. Recommendations are given to increase the performance of the EGMs performance.

Keywords: EGM, linear regression, model prediction, slot operations

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35 High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Lidar Data for Object-Based Tree Species Classification in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Bilel Chalghaf, Mathieu Varin


Forest characterization in Quebec, Canada, is usually assessed based on photo-interpretation at the stand level. For species identification, this often results in a lack of precision. Very high spatial resolution imagery, such as DigitalGlobe, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), have the potential to overcome the limitations of aerial imagery. To date, few studies have used that data to map a large number of species at the tree level using machine learning techniques. The main objective of this study is to map 11 individual high tree species ( > 17m) at the tree level using an object-based approach in the broadleaf forest of Kenauk Nature, Quebec. For the individual tree crown segmentation, three canopy-height models (CHMs) from LiDAR data were assessed: 1) the original, 2) a filtered, and 3) a corrected model. The corrected CHM gave the best accuracy and was then coupled with imagery to refine tree species crown identification. When compared with photo-interpretation, 90% of the objects represented a single species. For modeling, 313 variables were derived from 16-band WorldView-3 imagery and LiDAR data, using radiance, reflectance, pixel, and object-based calculation techniques. Variable selection procedures were employed to reduce their number from 313 to 16, using only 11 bands to aid reproducibility. For classification, a global approach using all 11 species was compared to a semi-hierarchical hybrid classification approach at two levels: (1) tree type (broadleaf/conifer) and (2) individual broadleaf (five) and conifer (six) species. Five different model techniques were used: (1) support vector machine (SVM), (2) classification and regression tree (CART), (3) random forest (RF), (4) k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and (5) linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Each model was tuned separately for all approaches and levels. For the global approach, the best model was the SVM using eight variables (overall accuracy (OA): 80%, Kappa: 0.77). With the semi-hierarchical hybrid approach, at the tree type level, the best model was the k-NN using six variables (OA: 100% and Kappa: 1.00). At the level of identifying broadleaf and conifer species, the best model was the SVM, with OA of 80% and 97% and Kappa values of 0.74 and 0.97, respectively, using seven variables for both models. This paper demonstrates that a hybrid classification approach gives better results and that using 16-band WorldView-3 with LiDAR data leads to more precise predictions for tree segmentation and classification, especially when the number of tree species is large.

Keywords: tree species, object-based, classification, multispectral, machine learning, WorldView-3, LiDAR

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34 Intercultural Initiatives and Canadian Bilingualism

Authors: Muna Shafiq


Growth in international immigration is a reflection of increased migration patterns in Canada and in other parts of the world. Canada continues to promote itself as a bilingual country, yet the bilingual French and English population numbers do not reflect this platform. Each province’s integration policies focus only on second language learning of either English or French. Moreover, since English Canadians outnumber French Canadians, maintaining, much less increasing, English-French bilingualism appears unrealistic. One solution to increasing Canadian bilingualism requires creating intercultural communication initiatives between youth in Quebec and the rest of Canada. Specifically, the focus is on active, experiential learning, where intercultural competencies develop outside traditional classroom settings. The target groups are Generation Y Millennials and Generation Z Linksters, the next generations in the career and parenthood lines. Today, Canada’s education system, like many others, must continually renegotiate lines between programs it offers its immigrant and native communities. While some purists or right-wing nationalists would disagree, the survival of bilingualism in Canada has little to do with reducing immigration. Children and youth immigrants play a valuable role in increasing Canada’s French and English speaking communities. For instance, a focus on more immersion, over core French education programs for immigrant children and youth would not only increase bilingual rates; it would develop meaningful intercultural attachments between Canadians. Moreover, a vigilant increase of funding in French immersion programs is critical, as are new initiatives that focus on experiential language learning for students in French and English language programs. A favorable argument supports the premise that other than French-speaking students in Québec and elsewhere in Canada, second and third generation immigrant students are excellent ambassadors to promote bilingualism in Canada. Most already speak another language at home and understand the value of speaking more than one language in their adopted communities. Their dialogue and participation in experiential language exchange workshops are necessary. If the proposed exchanges take place inter-provincially, the momentum to increase collective regional voices increases. This regional collectivity can unite Canadians differently than nation-targeted initiatives. The results from an experiential youth exchange organized in 2017 between students at the crossroads of Generation Y and Generation Z in Vancouver and Quebec City respectively offer a promising starting point in assessing the strength of bringing together different regional voices to promote bilingualism. Code-switching between standard, international French Vancouver students, learn in the classroom versus more regional forms of Quebec French spoken locally created regional connectivity between students. The exchange was equally rewarding for both groups. Increasing their appreciation for each other’s regional differences allowed them to contribute actively to their social and emotional development. Within a sociolinguistic frame, this proposed model of experiential learning does not focus on hands-on work experience. However, the benefits of such exchanges are as valuable as work experience initiatives developed in experiential education. Students who actively code switch between French and English in real, not simulated contexts appreciate bilingualism more meaningfully and experience its value in concrete terms.

Keywords: experiential learning, intercultural communication, social and emotional learning, sociolinguistic code-switching

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33 The Interactions between Phosphorus Leaching and Lime Application in Undisturbed Soil Columns with Different Soil Textures

Authors: Faezeh Eslamian, Zhiming Qi, Michael J. Tate


Phosphorus losses from agricultural fields through leaching is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of lakes in Quebec as well as North America. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the application of high calcium hydrated lime as a soil amendment in reducing the subsurface transport of phosphorus to water bodies by studying the interactions between phosphorus leaching and lime application in three common agricultural soil textures (sandy loam, loam and clay loam) in Quebec. For this purpose, 6 intact soil columns of 10 cm diameter and 20 cm deep were taken from each of the three different soil textured agricultural fields. Lime (high calcium hydrated lime) was applied to the top 5 cm of half of the intact soil columns while the rest were left as controls. The columns were leached with artificial rainwater in-consecutively at a rate of 3 mm h-1 over a 90-day period. The total amount of water added was equal to the average total rainfall of the region in fall. The leachate samples were collected daily and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. The results showed that lime was able to significantly reduce dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations in the leachates by 70 and 40 percent in sandy loam and loam soil columns, respectively, while phosphorus concentration in the clay loam soil leachates were increased by 40 percent. The calcium in lime has P-binding capabilities. Soil chemical properties in sandy and loamy soils can affect phosphorus leaching, whereas, transport mechanisms in clay soils with macropores dominate phosphorus leaching behaviors. The presence of preferential pathways and cracks in the clay soil columns has led to a quick transport of phosphorus through the soil and the less contact time with the soil matrix, therefore, causing less opportunity for P sorption and larger P release. Application of lime to agricultural fields can be considered as a promising measure in mitigating phosphorus loss from sandy loam and loam soils.

Keywords: leaching, lime, phosphorus, soil texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
32 Requirements for the Development of Competencies to Mentor Trainee Teachers: A Case Study of Vocational Education Cooperating Teachers in Quebec

Authors: Nathalie Gagnon, Andréanne Gagné, Julie Courcy


Quebec's vocational education teachers experience an atypical induction process into the workplace and thus face unique challenges. In contrast to elementary and high school teachers, who must undergo initial teacher training in order to access the profession, vocational education teachers, in most cases, are hired based on their professional expertise in the trade they are teaching, without prior pedagogical training. In addition to creating significant stress, which does not foster the acquisition of teaching roles and skills, this approach also forces recruits into a particular posture during their practical training: that of juggling their dual identities as teacher and trainee simultaneously. Recruits are supported by Cooperating Teachers (CPs) who, as experienced educators, take a critical and constructive look at their practices, observe them in the classroom, give them constructive feedback, and encourage them in their reflective practice. Thus, the vocational setting CP also assumes a distinctive posture and role due to the characteristics of the trainees they support. Although it is recognized that preparation, training, and supervision of CPs are essential factors in improving the support provided to trainees, there is little research about how CPs develop their support skills, and very little research focuses on the distinct posture they occupy. However, in order for them to be properly equipped for the important role they play in recruits’ practical training, it is vital to know more about their experience. An individual’s competencies cannot be studied without first examining what characterizes their experience, how they experience any given situation on cognitive, emotional, and motivational levels, in addition to how they act and react in situ. Depending on its nature, the experience will or will not promote the development of a specific competency. The research from which this communication originates focuses on describing the overall experience of vocational education CP in an effort to better understand the mechanisms linked to the development of their mentoring competencies. Experience and competence were, therefore, the two main theoretical concepts leading the research. As per methodology choices, case study methods were used since it proves to be adequate to describe in a rich and detailed way contemporary phenomena within contexts of life. The set of data used was collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with 15 vocational education CP in Quebec (Canada), followed by the use of a data-driven semi-inductive analysis approach to let the categories emerge organically. Focusing on the development needs of vocational education CP to improve their mentoring skills, this paper presents the results of our research, namely the importance of adequate training, better support offered by university supervisors, greater recognition of their role, and specific time slots dedicated to trainee support. The knowledge resulting from this research could improve the quality of support for trainee teachers in vocational education settings and to a more successful induction into the workplace. This communication also presents recommendations regarding the development of training systems that meet the specific needs of vocational education CP.

Keywords: development of competencies, cooperating teacher, mentoring trainee teacher, practical training, vocational education

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31 Highlighting Strategies Implemented by Migrant Parents to Support Their Child's Educational and Academic Success in the Host Society

Authors: Josee Charette


The academic and educational success of migrant students is a current issue in education, especially in western societies such in the province of Quebec, in Canada. For people who immigrate with school-age children, the success of the family’s migratory project is often measured by the benefits drawn by children from the educational institutions of their host society. In order to support the academic achievement of their children, migrant parents try to develop practices that derive from their representations of school and related challenges inspired by the socio-cultural context of their country of origin. These findings lead us to the following question: How does strategies implemented by migrant parents to manage the representational distance between school of their country of origin and school of their host society support or not the academic and educational success of their child? In the context of a qualitative exploratory approach, we have made interviews in the French , English and Spanish languages with 32 newly immigrated parents and 10 of their children. Parents were invited to complete a network of free associations about «School in Quebec» as a premise for the interview. The objective of this paper is to present strategies implemented by migrant parents to manage the distance between their representations of schools in their country of origin and in the host society, and to explore the influence of this management on their child’s academic and educational trajectories. Data analysis led us to develop various types of strategies, such as continuity, adaptation, resources mobilization, compensation and "return to basics" strategies. These strategies seem to be part of a continuum from oppositional-conflict scenario, in which parental strategies act as a risk factor, to conciliator-integrator scenario, in which parental strategies act as a protective factor for migrant students’ academic and educational success. In conclusion, we believe that our research helps in highlighting strategies implemented by migrant parents to support their child’s academic and educational success in the host society and also helps in providing a more efficient support to migrant parents and contributes to develop a wider portrait of migrant students’ academic achievement.

Keywords: academic and educational achievement of immigrant students, family’s migratory project, immigrants parental strategies, representational distance between school of origin and school of host society

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
30 Zinc Sorption by Six Agricultural Soils Amended with Municipal Biosolids

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Bruno Breton, Alfred Jaouich


Anthropogenic sources of zinc (Zn), including industrial emissions and effluents, Zn–rich fertilizer materials and pesticides containing Zn, can contribute to increasing the concentration of soluble Zn at levels toxic to plants in acid sandy soils. The application of municipal sewage sludge or biosolids (MBS) which contain metal immobilizing agents on coarse-textured soils could improve the metal sorption capacity of the low-CEC soils. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the sorption of Zn in surface samples (0-15 cm) of six Quebec (Canada) soils amended with MBS (pH 6.9) from Val d’Or (Quebec, Canada). Soil samples amended with increasing amounts (0 to 20%) of MBS were equilibrated with various amounts of Zn as ZnCl2 in 0.01 M CaCl2 for 48 hours at room temperature. Sorbed Zn was calculated from the difference between the initial and final Zn concentration in solution. Zn sorption data conformed to the linear form of Freundlich equation. The amount of sorbed Zn increased considerably with increasing MBS rate. Analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) of soil texture and MBS rate on the amount of sorbed Zn. The average values of the Zn-sorption capacity of MBS-amended coarse-textured soils were lower than those of MBS-amended fine textured soils. The two sandy soils (86-99% sand) amended with MBS retained 2- to 5-fold Zn than those without MBS (control). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between the Zn sorption isotherm parameter, i.e. the Freundlich sorption isotherm (KF), and commonly measured physical and chemical entities were obtained. Among all the soil properties measured, soil pH gave the best significant correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.001) for soils receiving 0, 5 and 10% MBS. Furthermore, KF values were positively correlated with soil clay content, exchangeable basic cations (Ca, Mg or K), CEC and clay content to CEC ratio. From these results, it can be concluded that (i) municipal biosolids provide sorption sites that have a strong affinity for Zn, (ii) both soil texture, especially clay content, and soil pH are the main factors controlling anthropogenic Zn sorption in the municipal biosolids-amended soils, and (iii) the effect of municipal biosolids on Zn sorption will be more pronounced for a sandy soil than for a clay soil.

Keywords: metal, recycling, sewage sludge, trace element

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29 A Semi-Markov Chain-Based Model for the Prediction of Deterioration of Concrete Bridges in Quebec

Authors: Eslam Mohammed Abdelkader, Mohamed Marzouk, Tarek Zayed


Infrastructure systems are crucial to every aspect of life on Earth. Existing Infrastructure is subjected to degradation while the demands are growing for a better infrastructure system in response to the high standards of safety, health, population growth, and environmental protection. Bridges play a crucial role in urban transportation networks. Moreover, they are subjected to high level of deterioration because of the variable traffic loading, extreme weather conditions, cycles of freeze and thaw, etc. The development of Bridge Management Systems (BMSs) has become a fundamental imperative nowadays especially in the large transportation networks due to the huge variance between the need for maintenance actions, and the available funds to perform such actions. Deterioration models represent a very important aspect for the effective use of BMSs. This paper presents a probabilistic time-based model that is capable of predicting the condition ratings of the concrete bridge decks along its service life. The deterioration process of the concrete bridge decks is modeled using semi-Markov process. One of the main challenges of the Markov Chain Decision Process (MCDP) is the construction of the transition probability matrix. Yet, the proposed model overcomes this issue by modeling the sojourn times based on some probability density functions. The sojourn times of each condition state are fitted to probability density functions based on some goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson Darling, and chi-squared test. The parameters of the probability density functions are obtained using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The condition ratings obtained from the Ministry of Transportation in Quebec (MTQ) are utilized as a database to construct the deterioration model. Finally, a comparison is conducted between the Markov Chain and semi-Markov chain to select the most feasible prediction model.

Keywords: bridge management system, bridge decks, deterioration model, Semi-Markov chain, sojourn times, maximum likelihood estimation

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28 Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Difficulties about Gravitational Force: The Case of the Free Fall Bodies

Authors: A. Metioui


Research related to the student’s conceptual difficulties in sciences, particularly in the field of physics, are relatively numerous. In this work, we will analyze the results of qualitative research conducted with 80 elementary preservice teachers from Quebec in Canada on their understandings after studying the free fall bodies. First, we will illustrate the paper-pencil questionnaire built for this purpose. Then we will give the analysis of the experimental data. The results show that, even though there is a continuing physics education, many misconceptions persist despite the teaching provided.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, elementary school, conceptual difficulties, free fall bodies

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27 The Implementation of the Human Right of Self-Determination: the Example of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

Authors: S. Vlasyan


The article deals with the implementation of the right to self-determination of peoples on the example of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The problem of correlation of two fundamental principles of international law i. e. territorial integrity and the right to self-determination of peoples is considered to be one of the vital issues in the field of international law for several decades. So, in this article, the author analyzes the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada regarding specific issues of secession of Quebec from Canada, as well as the decision of the International Court of Justice in the case concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), and in the case of Western Sahara. The author formulates legal conditions of Nagorno-Karabakh secession.

Keywords: right of self-determination, territorial integrity, the principles of International Law, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

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26 Methylphenidate Use by Canadian Children and Adolescents and the Associated Adverse Reactions

Authors: Ming-Dong Wang, Abigail F. Ruby, Michelle E. Ross


Methylphenidate is a first-line treatment drug for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common mental health disorder in children and adolescents. Over the last several decades, the rate of children and adolescents using ADHD medication has been increasing in many countries. A recent study found that the prevalence of ADHD medication use among children aged 3-18 years increased in 13 different world regions between 2001 and 2015, where the absolute increase ranged from 0.02 to 0.26% per year. The goal of this study was to examine the use of methylphenidate in Canadian children and its associated adverse reactions. Methylphenidate use information among young Canadians aged 0-14 years was extracted from IQVIA data on prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies between April 2014 and June 2020. The adverse reaction information associated with methylphenidate use was extracted from the Canada Vigilance database for the same time period. Methylphenidate use trends were analyzed based on sex, age group (0-4 years, 5-9 years, and 10-14 years), and geographical location (province). The common classes of adverse reactions associated with methylphenidate use were sorted, and the relative risks associated with methylphenidate use as compared with two second-line amphetamine medications for ADHD were estimated. This study revealed that among Canadians aged 0-14 years, every 100 people used about 25 prescriptions (or 23,000 mg) of methylphenidate per year during the study period, and the use increased with time. Boys used almost three times more methylphenidate than girls. The amount of drug used was inversely associated with age: Canadians aged 10-14 years used nearly three times as many drugs compared to those aged 5-9 years. Seasonal methylphenidate use patterns were apparent among young Canadians, but the seasonal trends differed among the three age groups. Methylphenidate use varied from region to region, and the highest methylphenidate use was observed in Quebec, where the use of methylphenidate was at least double that of any other province. During the study period, Health Canada received 304 adverse reaction reports associated with the use of methylphenidate for Canadians aged 0-14 years. The number of adverse reaction reports received for boys was 3.5 times higher than that for girls. The three most common adverse reaction classes were psychiatric disorders, nervous system disorders and injury, poisoning procedural complications. The number one commonly reported adverse reaction for boys was aggression (11.2%), while for girls, it was a tremor (9.6%). The safety profile in terms of adverse reaction classes associated with methylphenidate use was similar to that of the selected control products. Methylphenidate is a commonly used pharmaceutical product in young Canadians, particularly in the province of Quebec. Boys used approximately three times more of this product as compared to girls. Future investigation is needed to determine what factors are associated with the observed geographic variations in Canada.

Keywords: adverse reaction risk, methylphenidate, prescription trend, use variation

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25 Constructing a Two-Tier Test about Source Current to Diagnose Pre-Service Elementary School Teacher’ Misconceptions

Authors: Abdeljalil Metioui


The purpose of this article is to present the results of two-stage qualitative research. The first involved the identification of the alternative conceptions of 80 elementary pre-service teachers from Quebec in Canada about the operation of simple electrical circuits. To do this, they completed a two-choice questionnaire (true or false) with justification. Data analysis identifies many conceptual difficulties. For example, for their majority, whatever the electrical device that composes an electrical circuit, the current source (power supply), and the generated electrical power is constant. The second step was to develop a double multiple-choice questionnaire based on the identified designs. It allows teachers to quickly diagnose their students' conceptions and take them into account in their teaching.

Keywords: development, electrical circuits, two-tier diagnostic test, secondary and high school

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24 Children's Literature with Mathematical Dialogue for Teaching Mathematics at Elementary Level: An Exploratory First Phase about Students’ Difficulties and Teachers’ Needs in Third and Fourth Grade

Authors: Goulet Marie-Pier, Voyer Dominic


In a previous research project (2011-2019) funded by the Quebec Ministry of Education, an educational approach was developed based on the teaching and learning of place value through children's literature. Subsequently, the effect of this novel approach on the conceptual understanding of the concept among first graders (6-7 years old) was studied. The current project aims to create a new series of children's literature to help older elementary school students (8-10 years old) in developing a conceptual understanding of complex mathematical concepts taught at their grade level, rather than a more typical procedural understanding. Knowing that there is no educational material or children's books that exist to achieve our goals, four stories, accompanied by mathematical activities, will be created to support students, and their teachers, in the learning and teaching of mathematical concepts that can be challenging within their mathematic curriculum. The stories will also introduce a mathematical dialogue into the characters discourse with the aim to address various mathematical foundations for which there are often erroneous statements among students, and occasionally among teachers. In other words, the stories aim to empower students seeking a real understanding of difficult mathematical concepts, as well as teachers seeking a way to teach these difficult concepts in a way that goes beyond memorizing rules and procedures. In order to choose the concepts that will be the part of the stories, it is essential to understand the current landscape regarding the main difficulties experienced by students in third and fourth grade (8-10 years old) and their teacher’s needs. From this perspective, the preliminary phase of the study, as discussed in the presentation, will provide critical insight to the mathematical concepts with which the target grade levels struggle the most. From this data, the research team will select the concepts and develop their stories in the second phase of the study. Two questions are preliminary to the implementation of our approach, namely (1) what mathematical concepts are considered the most “difficult to teach” by teachers in the third and fourth grade? and (2) according to teachers, what are the main difficulties encountered by their students in numeracy? Self-administered online questionnaires using the SimpleSondage software will be sent to all third and fourth grades teachers in nine school service centers in the Quebec region, representing approximately 300 schools. The data that will be collected in the fall of 2022, will be used to compare the difficulties identified by the teachers with those prevalent in the scientific literature. Considering that this ensures consistency between the proposed approach and the true needs of the educational community, this preliminary phase is essential to the relevance of the rest of the project. It is also an essential first step in achieving the two ultimate goals of the research project, improving the learning of elementary school students in numeracy, and contributing to the professional development of elementary school teachers.

Keywords: children’s literature, conceptual understanding, elementary school, learning and teaching, mathematics

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23 Fast Short-Term Electrical Load Forecasting under High Meteorological Variability with a Multiple Equation Time Series Approach

Authors: Charline David, Alexandre Blondin Massé, Arnaud Zinflou


In 2016, Clements, Hurn, and Li proposed a multiple equation time series approach for short-term load forecasting, reporting an average mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 1.36% on an 11-years dataset for the Queensland region in Australia. We present an adaptation of their model to the electrical power load consumption for the whole Quebec province in Canada. More precisely, we take into account two additional meteorological variables -cloudiness and wind speed- on top of temperature, as well as the use of multiple meteorological measurements taken at different locations on the territory. We also consider other minor improvements. Our final model shows an average MAPE score of 1:79% over an 8-years dataset.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, special days, time series, multiple equations, parallelization, clustering

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22 Enactments of Global Citizenship Education: Social Justice in Public Spheres of Education

Authors: Sabrina Jafralie


This proposed chapter explains how civic religious literacy is a means to promote social justice in Canada. It will first present the specific conception of global citizenship education that will undergird the discussion in the chapter. Then, it will offer a conception of civic religious literacy that explains how it promotes social justice as a form of global citizenship education. To illustrate this point, I will list specific examples of social and political inequities in Canada, such as hate crime statistics from 2013-2018 across the country and in specific provinces and cities. I will also highlight different types of discrimination, such as that towards religious minorities, Indigenous peoples, and those that conflate race and religion, and other intersections of identity that civic religious literacy can address. To conclude this initial section of the chapter, I will cite international studies that discuss religious literacy as a means to promote characteristics and aims of global citizenship education.

Keywords: Civic Literacy, Pedagogy, Quebec, Social Justice

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21 The Academic Experience of Vocational Training Teachers

Authors: Andréanne Gagné, Jo Anni Joncas, Éric Tendon


Teaching in vocational training requires an excellent mastery of the trade being taught, but also solid professional skills in pedagogy. Teachers are typically recruited on the basis of their trade expertise, and they do not necessarily have training or experience in pedagogy. In order to counter this lack, the Ministry of Education (Québec, Canada) requires them to complete a 120-credit university program to obtain their teaching certificate. They must complete this training in addition to their teaching duties. This training was rarely planned in the teacher’s life course, and each teacher approaches it differently: some are enthusiastic, but many feel reluctant discouragement and even frustration at the idea of committing to a training program lasting an average of 10 years to completion. However, Quebec is experiencing an unprecedented shortage of teachers, and the perseverance of vocational teachers in their careers requires special attention because of the conditions of their specific integration conditions. Our research examines the perceptions that vocational teachers in training have of their academic experience in pre-service teaching. It differs from previous research in that it focuses on the influence of the academic experience on the teaching employment experience. The goal is that by better understanding the university experience of teachers in vocational education, we can identify support strategies to support their school experience and their teaching. To do this, the research is based on the theoretical framework of the sociology of experience, which allows us to study the way in which these “teachers-students” give meaning to their university program in articulation with their jobs according to three logics of action. The logic of integration is based on the process of socialization, where the action is preceded by the internalization of values, norms, and cultural models associated with the training context. The logic of strategy refers to the usefulness of this experience where the individual constructs a form of rationality according to his objectives, resources, social position, and situational constraints. The logic of subjectivation refers to reflexivity activities aimed at solving problems and making choices. These logics served as a framework for the development of an online questionnaire. Three hundred respondents, newly enrolled in an undergraduate teaching program (bachelor's degree in vocational education), expressed themselves about their academic experience. This paper relates qualitative data (open-ended questions) subjected to an interpretive repertory analysis approach to descriptive data (closed-ended questions) that emerged. The results shed light on how the respondents perceive themselves as teachers and students, their perceptions of university training and the support offered, and the place that training occupies in their professional path. Indeed, their professional and academic paths are inextricably linked, and it seems essential to take them into account simultaneously to better meet their needs and foster the development of their expertise in pedagogy. The discussion focuses on the strengths and limitations of university training from the perspective of the logic of action. The results also suggest support strategies that can be implemented to better support the integration and retention of student teachers in professional education.

Keywords: teacher, vocational training, pre-service training, academic experience

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20 Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts Graduation Intentions of College and University Students with and without Learning Disabilities / Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Canada and Israel

Authors: Catherine S. Fichten, Tali Heiman, Mary Jorgensen, Mai Nhu Nguyen, Rhonda Amsel, Dorit Olenik-Shemesh


The study examined Canadian and Israeli students' perceptions related to their intention to graduate from their program of studies. Canada and Israel are dissimilar in many ways that affect education, including language and alphabet. In addition, the postsecondary education systems differ. For example, in some parts of Canada (e.g., in Quebec, Canada’s 2nd largest province), students matriculate after 11 years of high school; in Israel, this typically occurs after 12 years. In addition, Quebec students attend two compulsory years of junior college before enrolling in a three-year university Bachelor program; in Israel students enroll in a three-year Bachelor program directly after matriculation. In addition, Israeli students typically enroll in the army shortly after high school graduation; in Canada, this is not the case. What the two countries do have in common is concern about the success of postsecondary students with disabilities. The present study was based on Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); the model suggests that behavior is influenced by Intention to carry it out. This, in turn, is predicted by the following correlated variables: Perceived Behavioral Control (i.e., ease or difficulty enacting the behavior - in this case graduation), Subjective Norms (i.e., perceived social/peer pressure from individuals important in the student’s life), and Attitude (i.e., positive or negative evaluation of graduation). A questionnaire was developed to test the TPB in previous Canadian studies and administered to 845 Canadian college students (755 nondisabled, 90 with LD/ADHD) who had completed at least one semester of studies) and to 660 Israeli university students enrolled in a Bachelor’s program (537 nondisabled, 123 with LD/ADHD). Because Israeli students were older than Canadian students we covaried age in SPSS-based ANOVA comparisons and included it in regression equations. Because females typically have better academic outcomes than males, gender was included in all analyses. ANOVA results indicate only a significant gender effect for Intention to graduate, with females having higher scores. Four stepwise regressions were conducted, with Intention to graduate as the predicted variable, and Gender and the three TPB predictors as independent variables (separate analyses for Israeli and Canadian samples with and without LD/ADHD). Results show that for samples with LD/ADHD, although Gender and Age were not significant predictors, the TPB predictors were, with all three TPB predictors being significant for the Canadian sample (i.e., Perceived Behavioral Control, Subjective Norms, Attitude, R2=.595), and two of the three (i.e., Perceived Behavioral Control, Subjective Norms) for the Israeli sample (R2=.528). For nondisabled students, the results for both countries show that all three TPB predictors were significant along with Gender: R2=.443 for Canada and R2=.332 for Israel; age was not significant. Our findings show that despite vast differences between our Canadian and Israeli samples, Intention to graduate was related to the three TPB predictors. This suggests that our TPB measure is valid for diverse samples and countries that it can be used as a quick, inexpensive way to predict graduation rates, and that strengthening the three predictor variables may result in higher graduation rates.

Keywords: disability, higher education, students, theory of planned behavior

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19 Stochastic Richelieu River Flood Modeling and Comparison of Flood Propagation Models: WMS (1D) and SRH (2D)

Authors: Maryam Safrai, Tewfik Mahdi


This article presents the stochastic modeling of the Richelieu River flood in Quebec, Canada, occurred in the spring of 2011. With the aid of the one-dimensional Watershed Modeling System (WMS (v.10.1) and HEC-RAS (v.4.1) as a flood simulator, the delineation of the probabilistic flooded areas was considered. Based on the Monte Carlo method, WMS (v.10.1) delineated the probabilistic flooded areas with corresponding occurrence percentages. Furthermore, results of this one-dimensional model were compared with the results of two-dimensional model (SRH-2D) for the evaluation of efficiency and precision of each applied model. Based on this comparison, computational process in two-dimensional model is longer and more complicated versus brief one-dimensional one. Although, two-dimensional models are more accurate than one-dimensional method, but according to existing modellers, delineation of probabilistic flooded areas based on Monte Carlo method is achievable via one-dimensional modeler. The applied software in this case study greatly responded to verify the research objectives. As a result, flood risk maps of the Richelieu River with the two applied models (1d, 2d) could elucidate the flood risk factors in hydrological, hydraulic, and managerial terms.

Keywords: flood modeling, HEC-RAS, model comparison, Monte Carlo simulation, probabilistic flooded area, SRH-2D, WMS

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18 Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Representations of Heat and Temperature

Authors: Abdeljalil Métioui


The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research on the conceptual representations of 128 Quebec (Canada) pre-service teachers enrolled in their third year of university in a program to train elementary teachers about heat and temperature. To identify their conceptual representations about heat and temperature, we constructed a multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of five questions. For each question, they had to explain their choice of an answer. At the methodological level, this step is essential to be able to identify the student conceptual representations. It should be noted that the selected questions were based: (1) on the works have done worldwide on primary and secondary students’ misconceptions about heat and temperature; (2) on the notions prescribed in the curriculum related to the physical world and (3) on student’s everyday contexts. As illustrations, the following are the erroneous conceptual representations identified in our analysis of the data collected: (1) The change of state of the matter does not require a constant temperature, (2) The temperature is a measure in degrees to indicate the level of heat of an object or person, (3) The mercury contained in a thermometer expands when it is heated so that the particles which constitute it expand and (4) The sensation of cold (or warm) is related to the difference in temperature. In conclusion, we will see that it is possible to develop situations of conflict, dealing specifically with the limits of the analogy between heat and temperature. These situations must consider the conceptual representations of the pre-service teachers, as well as the relevant scientific understanding of the concept of heat and temperature.

Keywords: conceptual representation, heat, temperature, pre-service teachers

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