Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: oxytocin

15 A Case of Postpartum Pulmonary Edema Induced by Oxytocin

Authors: May Zaw, Amber Latif, William Lim

Abstract:

Postpartum dyspnea can be due to many causes, such as pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, and peripartum cardiomyopathy, but less frequently due to acute pulmonary edema. The incidence of acute pulmonary edema during pregnancy and in the postpartum period has been estimated to be around 0.08%. About half of the cases are attributed to tocolytic therapy. Herein, we present a case of a young woman presenting with acute hypoxia after induction of labor with oxytocin and found to have acute pulmonary edema. This case aims to illustrate and add to a growing body of literature regarding oxytocin-induced acute pulmonary edema and highlights the importance of recognizing the rare complication of oxytocin and necessary interventions to avoid complications. Oxytocin-induced pulmonary edema is a relatively uncommon condition, but physicians should have a high index of suspicion to initiate timely intervention and avoid fetal complications.

Keywords: pulmonary, pregnancy, oxytocin, postpartum

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
14 Effect of Oxytocin on Cytosolic Calcium Concentration of Alpha and Beta Cells in Pancreas

Authors: Rauza Sukma Rita, Katsuya Dezaki, Yuko Maejima, Toshihiko Yada

Abstract:

Oxytocin is a nine-amino acid peptide synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. Oxytocin promotes contraction of the uterus during birth and milk ejection during breast feeding. Although oxytocin receptors are found predominantly in the breasts and uterus of females, many tissues and organs express oxytocin receptors, including the pituitary, heart, kidney, thymus, vascular endothelium, adipocytes, osteoblasts, adrenal gland, pancreatic islets, and many cell lines. On the other hand, in pancreatic islets, oxytocin receptors are expressed in both α-cells and β-cells with stronger expression in α- cells. However, to our knowledge there are no reports yet about the effect of oxytocin on cytosolic calcium reaction on α and β-cell. This study aims to investigate the effect of oxytocin on α-cells and β-cells and its oscillation pattern. Islet of Langerhans from wild type mice were isolated by collagenase digestion. Isolated and dissociated single cells either α-cells or β-cells on coverslips were mounted in an open chamber and superfused in HKRB. Cytosolic concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single cells were measured by fura-2 microfluorimetry. After measurement of [Ca2+]i, α-cells were identified by subsequent immunocytochemical staining using an anti-glucagon antiserum. In β-cells, the [Ca2+]i increase in response to oxytocin was observed only under 8.3 mM glucose condition, whereas in α-cells, [Ca2+]i an increase induced by oxytocin was observed in both 2.8 mM and 8.3 mM glucose. The oscillation incidence was induced more frequently in β-cells compared to α-cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that oxytocin directly interacts with both α-cells and β-cells and induces increase of [Ca2+]i and its specific patterns.

Keywords: α-cells, β-cells, cytosolic calcium concentration, oscillation, oxytocin

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
13 Effect of Prophylactic Oxytocin Therapy on Duration of Retained Fetal Membrane (RFM) in Periparturient Dairy Cows

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh- Nava, Maziar Kaveh Baghbadorani, Amin Tamadon

Abstract:

Considering response of uterus to ecbolic effect of oxytocin near the time of parturition, this study was done for investigating the effect of prophylactic administration of this hormone on duration of fetal membrane retention, time interval to first detectable estrus, time interval to first service, and conception rate at first service in cases of both normal parturition and dystocia. For this reason cows with (n=18) and without (n=18) dystocia assigned randomly to treatment (n=12) or control (n=6) groups and received intramuscular injection of 100 IU of oxytocin or 10 mL of normal saline respectively. Further observations and investigations indicate that duration of fetal retention is significantly shorter in treatment group cows compared to control groups, regardless of having dystocia (P=0.002) or normal spontaneous calving (P=0.001). The same trend exists for conception rate at first service in which cows in treatment groups had significantly higher conception rate (CR) in comparison to cows in control groups with (P=0.0003) or without dystocia (P=0.017). The time interval to first detected heat and first service didn’t show any difference between groups.

Keywords: conception rate, oxytocin, RFM, time to first service

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
12 Computational Analysis and Daily Application of the Key Neurotransmitters Involved in Happiness: Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, and Endorphins

Authors: Hee Soo Kim, Ha Young Kyung

Abstract:

Happiness and pleasure are a result of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, and endorphin levels in the body. In order to increase the four neurochemical levels, it is important to associate daily activities with its corresponding neurochemical releases. This includes setting goals, maintaining social relationships, laughing frequently, and exercising regularly. The likelihood of experiencing happiness increases when all four neurochemicals are released at the optimal level. The achievement of happiness is important because it increases healthiness, productivity, and the ability to overcome adversity. To process emotions, electrical brain waves, brain structure, and neurochemicals must be analyzed. This research uses Chemcraft and Avogadro to determine the theoretical and chemical properties of the four neurochemical molecules. Each neurochemical molecule’s thermodynamic stability is calculated to observe the efficiency of the molecules. The study found that among dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin, beta-endorphin has the lowest optimized energy of 388.510 kJ/mol. Beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter involved in mitigating pain and stress, is the most thermodynamically stable and efficient molecule that is involved in the process of happiness. Through examining such properties of happiness neurotransmitters, the science of happiness is better understood.

Keywords: happiness, neurotransmitters, positive psychology, dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, endorphins

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
11 Effects of Oxytocin on Neural Response to Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Avyarthana Dey, Naren P. Rao, Arpitha Jacob, Chaitra V. Hiremath, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Rose Dawn Bharath, Bangalore N. Gangadhar

Abstract:

Objective: Impaired facial emotion recognition is widely reported in schizophrenia. Neuropeptide oxytocin is known to modulate brain regions involved in facial emotion recognition, namely amygdala, in healthy volunteers. However, its effect on facial emotion recognition deficits seen in schizophrenia is not well explored. In this study, we examined the effect of intranasal OXT on processing facial emotions and its neural correlates in patients with schizophrenia. Method: 12 male patients (age= 31.08±7.61 years, education= 14.50±2.20 years) participated in this single-blind, counterbalanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. All participants underwent three fMRI scans; one at baseline, one each after single dose 24IU intranasal OXT and intranasal placebo. The order of administration of OXT and placebo were counterbalanced and subject was blind to the drug administered. Participants performed a facial emotion recognition task presented in a block design with six alternating blocks of faces and shapes. The faces depicted happy, angry or fearful emotions. The images were preprocessed and analyzed using SPM 12. First level contrasts comparing recognition of emotions and shapes were modelled at individual subject level. A group level analysis was performed using the contrasts generated at the first level to compare the effects of intranasal OXT and placebo. The results were thresholded at uncorrected p < 0.001 with a cluster size of 6 voxels. Neuropeptide oxytocin is known to modulate brain regions involved in facial emotion recognition, namely amygdala, in healthy volunteers. Results: Compared to placebo, intranasal OXT attenuated activity in inferior temporal, fusiform and parahippocampal gyri (BA 20), premotor cortex (BA 6), middle frontal gyrus (BA 10) and anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24) and enhanced activity in the middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), inferior occipital gyrus (BA 19), and superior temporal gyrus (BA 22). There were no significant differences between the conditions on the accuracy scores of emotion recognition between baseline (77.3±18.38), oxytocin (82.63 ± 10.92) or Placebo (76.62 ± 22.67). Conclusion: Our results provide further evidence to the modulatory effect of oxytocin in patients with schizophrenia. Single dose oxytocin resulted in significant changes in activity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of long-term treatment with OXT for emotion recognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

Keywords: recognition, functional connectivity, oxytocin, schizophrenia, social cognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
10 Increased Envy and Schadenfreude in Parents of Newborns

Authors: Ana-María Gómez-Carvajal, Hernando Santamaría-García, Mateo Bernal, Mario Valderrama, Daniela Lizarazo, Juliana Restrepo, María Fernanda Barreto, Angélica Parra, Paula Torres, Diana Matallana, Jaime Silva, José Santamaría-García, Sandra Baez

Abstract:

Higher levels of oxytocin are associated with better performance on social cognition tasks. However, higher levels of oxytocin have also been associated with increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. Considering these antecedents, this study aims to explore social emotions (i.e., envy and schadenfreude) and other components of social cognition (i.e. ToM and empathy), in women in the puerperal period and their respective partners, compared to a control group of men and women without children or partners. Control women should be in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or taking oral contraceptives as they allow oxytocin levels to remain stable. We selected this population since increased levels of oxytocin are present in both mothers and fathers of newborn babies. Both groups were matched by age, sex, and education level. Twenty-two parents of newborns (11 women, 11 men) and 15 controls (8 women, 7 men) performed an experimental task designed to trigger schadenfreude and envy. In this task, each participant was shown a real-life photograph and a description of two target characters matched in age and gender with the participant. The task comprised two experimental blocks. In the first block, participants read 15 sentences describing fortunate events involving either character. After reading each sentence, participants rated the event in terms of how much envy they felt for the character (1=no envy, 9=extreme envy). In the second block, participants read and reported the intensity of their pleasure (schadenfreude, 1=no pleasure, 9=extreme pleasure) in response to 15 unfortunate events happening to the characters. Five neutral events were included in each block. Moreover, participants were assessed with ToM and empathy tests. Potential confounding variables such as general cognitive functioning, stress levels, hours of sleep and depression symptoms were also measured. Results showed that parents of newborns showed increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. These effects are not explained by any confounding factor. Moreover, no significant differences were found in ToM or empathy tests. Our results offer unprecedented evidence of specific differences in envy and schadenfreude levels in parents of newborns. Our findings support previous studies showing a negative relationship between oxytocin levels and negative social emotions. Further studies should assess the direct relationship between oxytocin levels in parents of newborns and the performance in social emotions tasks.

Keywords: envy, empathy, oxytocin, schadenfreude, social emotions, theory of mind

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
9 The Effect of Visfatin on Pregnant Mouse Myometrial Contractility in vitro

Authors: Seham Alsaif, Susan Wray

Abstract:

Obesity is a worldwide disorder influencing women’s health and childbearing. There is a close relation between obesity and pregnancy related complications. Dyslipidemia and adipokine dysregulation are core environmental changes that may mechanistically link these complications with obesity in pregnant women. We have previously found that visfatin has a relaxant effect on mouse, rat and human myometrial contractility. We hypothesised that visfatin inhibits mouse myometrial contractility through the NAD+ pathway. This study was designed to examine the mechanism of action of visfatin on myometrial contractility. To examine the NAD+ pathway, FK866 which is a potent inhibitor of NAD+ biosynthesis was used. Methods: Myometrial strips from term pregnant mice were dissected, superfused with physiological saline and the effects of visfatin (10nM) on oxytocin-induced contractions (0.5nM) alone and after the infusion of FK866 (10uM) were studied. After regular contractions were established, contractility was examined for control (100%) and test response at 37 °C for 10 min each. Results: FK866 was found to inhibit the effect of visfatin on myometrial contractility (the AUC increased from 89±2% of control, P=0.0009 for visfatin alone to 97±4% of control, P>0.05 for visfatin combined with FK866, n=8). In conclusion, NAD+ pathway appears to be involved in the mechanism of action of visfatin on mouse myometrium. This could have a role in making new targets to prevent obesity-related complications.

Keywords: myometrium, obesity, oxytocin, pregnancy, visfatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
8 Management of Third Stage Labour in a Rural Ugandan Hospital

Authors: Brid Dinnee, Jessica Taylor, Joseph Hartland, Michael Natarajan

Abstract:

Background:The third stage of labour (TSL) can be complicated by Post-Partum Haemorrhage (PPH), which can have a significant impact on maternal mortality and morbidity. In Africa, 33.9% of maternal deaths are attributable to PPH1. In order to minimise this figure, current recommendations for the developing world are that all women have active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL). The aim of this project was to examine TSL practice in a rural Ugandan Hospital, highlight any deviation from best practice and identify barriers to change in resource limited settings as part of a 4th year medical student External Student Selected Component field trip. Method: Five key elements from the current World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines on AMTSL were used to develop an audit tool. All daytime vaginal deliveries over a two week period in July 2016 were audited. In addition to this, a retrospective comparison of PPH rates, between 2006 (when ubiquitous use of intramuscular oxytocin for management of TSL was introduced) and 2015 was performed. Results: Eight vaginal deliveries were observed; at all of which intramuscular oxytocin was administered and controlled cord traction used. Against WHO recommendation, all umbilical cords were clamped within one minute, and no infants received early skin-to-skin contact. In only one case was uterine massage performed after placental delivery. A retrospective comparison of data rates identified a 40% reduction in total number of PPHs from November 2006 to November 2015. Maternal deaths per delivery reduced from 2% to 0.5%. Discussion: Maternal mortality and PPH are still major issues in developing countries. Maternal mortality due to PPH can be reduced by good practices regarding TSL, but not all of these are used in low-resource settings. There is a notable difference in outcomes between the developed and developing world. At Kitovu Hospital, there has been a reduction in maternal mortality and number of PPHs following introduction of IM Oxytocin administration. In order to further improve these rates, staff education and further government funding is key.

Keywords: post-partum haemorrhage, PPH, third stage labour, Uganda

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
7 Effects of Injection of eCG and Oxytocin on Semen Characteristics of Zel Rams in Nonbreeding Season

Authors: Khosro Ghazvinian, Reza Narenji Sani, Touba Khodaiean, Melika Moezifar

Abstract:

Many previous studies have reported that eCG was effective for completing spermatogenesis. In mice, eCG increased testes weight. In addition, Oxytocin (OT) was important in sperm transition and sperm motility in domestic animals. Peripheral circulation of OT also, was increased during sex incitement and ejaculation The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IM injection of eCG and OT on semen characteristics in Zel rams in out of breeding season. Eighteen 3-year-old Zel adult rams were randomly divided into five equal groups (control and four treatment groups). 0.9% NaCl (1 ml) was injected IM into each ram in the control group, whereas eCG was administered IM at a single dose of 400 IU and 600 IU to each ram in the two eCG treatment groups and OT was administered IM at a single dose of 5 IU and 10 IU to each ram in the other two OT treatment groups. Semen samples were taken by an electroejaculator from all rams 10 min after the IM injection of 0.9% NaCl, eCG, or OT. eCG did not alter semen volume, and OT did not alter sperm motility or abnormal sperm, in comparison to the control values. Mass activity, sperm motility and total sperm number increased significantly in eCG group compared to the control group; and semen volume, mass activity, total sperm number of the OT treatment groups increased significantly compared to the control group. Exogenous 600 IU eCG and 10 IU OT increase mass activity, total sperm number, lived sperm and sperm concentration in Zel rams.

Keywords: eCG, oxytocine, semen characteristics, Zel Ram, nonbreeding season

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
6 Induction of Labor Using Misoprostol with or without Mifepristone in Intrauterine Death: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Ajay Agrawal, Pritha Basnet, Achala Thakur, Pappu Rizal, Rubina Rai

Abstract:

Context: Rapid expulsion of fetus in intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) is usually requested without any medical grounds for it. So; an efficient, safe method for induction of labor (IOL) is required. Objective: To determine if pre-treatment with mifepristone followed by IOL with misoprostol in late IUFD is more efficacious. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 100 patients. Group-A women received single oral dose of 200 mg mifepristone, followed by induction with vaginal misoprostol after 24-hour. Group-B women were induced only with vaginal misoprostol. In each group 5 dose of misoprostol was used 4 hourly. If first cycle was unsuccessful, after break of 12 hour, second course of misoprostol was started. The primary outcome was a measure of induction to delivery time and vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcome was to measure need of oxytocin and complications. Results: Maternal age, parity and period of gestation were comparable between groups. Number of misoprostol dose needed in group A was significantly less than group B. Mann Whitney U test showed, women in group A had significantly earlier onset of labor, however total induction to delivery interval was not significant. In group-A, 85.7% delivered within 24 hours of first dose of misoprostol while in group-B 70% delivered within 24 hour (p=0.07). More women in Group B required oxytocin. Conclusion: Pretreatment with mifepristone before IOL following late IUFD is an effective and safe regimen. It appears to shorten the duration of induction to onset of labor.

Keywords: induction of labor, intrauterine fetal death, mifepristone, misoprostol

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
5 Adoption of Electronic Logistics Management Information System for Life-Saving Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Medicines: A Bangladesh Perspective

Authors: Mohammad Julhas Sujan, Md. Ferdous Alam

Abstract:

Maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) holds one of the prime focuses in Bangladesh’s national healthcare system. To save the lives of mothers and children, knowing the stock of MNCH medicines in different healthcare facilities and when to replenish them are essential. A robust information system not only facilitates efficient management of the essential MNCH medicines but also helps effective allocation of scarce resources. In Bangladesh, Supply chain management of the 25-essential life-saving medicines are currently tracked and monitored via an electronic logistics management information system (eLMIS). Our aim was to conduct a cross-sectional study with a year (2020) worth of data from 24 districts of Bangladesh to evaluate how eLMIS is helping the Government and other stakeholders in efficient supply chain management. Data were collected from 4711 healthcare facilities ranging from primary to secondary levels within a district. About 90% (4143) are community clinics which are considered primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. After eLMIS implementation, the average reporting rate across the districts has been increased (> 97%). The month of stock (MOS) of zinc is an average 6 months compared to Inj. Magnesium Sulphate which will take 2.5 years to consume according to the current average monthly consumption (AMC). Due to first approaching expiry, Tab. Misoprostol, 7.1% Chlorhexidine and Inj. Oxytocin may become unusable. Moreover, Inj. Oxytocin is temperature sensitive and may reduce its efficacy if it is stocked for a longer period. In contrast, Zinc should be sufficiently stocked to prevent sporadic stockouts. To understand how data are collected, transmitted, processed, and aggregated for MNCH medicines in a faster and timely manner, an electronic logistics management information system (eLMIS) is necessary. We recommend the use of such a system in developing countries like Bangladesh for efficient supply chain management of essential MNCH medicines.

Keywords: adaption, eLMIS, MNCH, live-saving medicines

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
4 Mentoring of Health Professionals to Ensure Better Child-Birth and Newborn Care in Bihar, India: An Intervention Study

Authors: Aboli Gore, Aritra Das, Sunil Sonthalia, Tanmay Mahapatra, Sridhar Srikantiah, Hemant Shah

Abstract:

AMANAT is an initiative, taken in collaboration with the Government of Bihar, aimed at improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal care services at Bihar’s public health facilities – those offering either the Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care (BEmONC) or Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care (CEmONC) services. The effectiveness of this program is evaluated by conducting cross-sectional assessments at the concerned facilities prior to (baseline) and following completion (endline) of intervention. Direct Observation of Delivery (DOD) methodology is employed for carrying out the baseline and endline assessments – through which key obstetric and neonatal care practices among the Health Care Providers (especially the nurses) are assessed quantitatively by specially trained nursing professionals. Assessment of vitals prior to delivery improved during all three phases of BEmONC and all four phases of CEmONC training with statistically significant improvement noted in: i) pulse measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (9% to 68%), 3 (4% to 57%) & 4 (14% to 59%) and CEmONC phase 2 (7% to 72%) and 3 (0% to 64%); ii) blood pressure measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (27% to 84%), 3 (21% to 76%) & 4 (36% to 71%) and CEmONC phase 2 (23% to 76%) and 3 (2% to 70%); iii) fetal heart rate measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (10% to 72%), 3 (11% to 77%) & 4 (13% to 64%) and CEmONC phase 1 (24% to 38%), 2 (14% to 82%) and 3 (1% to 73%); and iv) abdominal examination in BEmONC phase 2 (14% to 59%), 3 (3% to 59%) & 4 (6% to 56%) and CEmONC phase 1 (0% to 24%), 2 (7% to 62%) & 3 (0% to 62%). Regarding infection control, wearing of apron, mask and cap by the delivery conductors improved significantly in all BEmONC phases. Similarly, the practice of handwashing improved in all BEmONC and CEmONC phases. Even on disaggregation, the handwashing showed significant improvement in all phases but CEmONC phase-4. Not only the positive practices related to handwashing improved but also negative practices such as turning off the tap with bare hands declined significantly in the aforementioned phases. Significant decline was also noted in negative maternal care practices such as application of fundal pressure for hastening the delivery process and administration of oxytocin prior to delivery. One of the notable achievement of AMANAT is an improvement in active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL). The overall AMTSL (including administration of oxytocin or other uterotonics uterotonic in proper dose, route and time along with controlled cord traction and uterine massage) improved in all phases of BEmONC and CEmONC mentoring. Another key area of improvement, across phases, was in proper cutting/clamping of the umbilical cord. AMANAT mentoring also led to improvement in important immediate newborn care practices such as initiation of skin-to-skin care and timely initiation of breastfeeding. The next phase of the mentoring program seeks to institutionalize mentoring across the state that could potentially perpetuate improvement with minimal external intervention.

Keywords: capacity building, nurse-mentoring, quality of care, pregnancy, newborn care

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
3 The Effects of Sideritis Raeseri Extract on Uterus

Authors: Berat Krasniqi, Shpëtim Thaçi, Miribane Dërmaku-Sopjani, Sokol Abazi, Mentor Sopjani

Abstract:

The Mediterranean native plant, Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae), also known as "mountain tea," has a long history of use in traditional medicine. The effects of an ethanol extract of Sideritis raeseri (SR) on uterus smooth muscle activity are evaluated in this study, and the underlying mechanism is identified. S. raeseri extract (SRE) was made from air-dried components of the SR shoot system. At 37°C, the SRE (0.5-2 mg/mL) was tested on isolated rabbit tracheal rings that were suspended in a Krebs solution-filled organ bath and bubbled with a mixture of 95% O2 and 5% CO2. The SRE alone relaxed the muscle contraction in a concentration-dependent manner in uterine rings in vitro tests. SRE also decreased Ca2+-induced contractions in the uterus by a large amount when the uterus was depolarized with carbachol (CCh, 1µM), K+ (80 mM), or contracted by oxytocin (5 nM). The potential involvement of NO dependent or independent of cGMP mechanisms in the uterine actions of SR was investigated. For this purpose, L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor, 100 M) or bradykinin (NO synthase stimulator, 100 nM) or indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 10µM) decreased the impact of SRE. These results suggest that NO-dependent signaling is involved in SRE's mediated uterine relaxant effect. Data suggests that SRE could be a powerful tocolytic agent that reduces uterine activity and could be used to treat a number of uterine conditions.

Keywords: Sideritis raeseri, uterus, alternative medicine, intracellular mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
2 Anaesthetic Management of Congenitally Corrected Transposition of Great Arteries with Complete Heart Block in a Parturient for Emergency Caesarean Section

Authors: Lokvendra S. Budania, Yogesh K Gaude, Vamsidhar Chamala

Abstract:

Introduction: Congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA) is a complex congenital heart disease where there are both atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordances, usually accompanied by other cardiovascular malformations. Case Report: A 24-year-old primigravida known case of CCTGA at 37 weeks of gestation was referred to our hospital for safe delivery. Her electrocardiogram showed HR-40/pm, echocardiography showed Ejection Fraction of 65% and CCTGA. Temporary pacemaker was inserted by cardiologist in catheterization laboratory, before giving trial of labour in view of complete heart block. She was planned for normal delivery, but emergency Caesarean section was planned due to non-reassuring foetal Cardiotocography Pre-op vitals showed PR-50 bpm with temporary pacemaker, Blood pressure-110/70 mmHg, SpO2-99% on room air. Nil per oral was inadequate. Patency of two peripheral IV cannula checked and left radial arterial line secured. Epidural Anaesthesia was planned, and catheter was placed at L2-L3. Test dose was given, Anaesthesia was provided with 5ml + 5ml of 2% Lignocaine with 25 mcg Fentanyl and further 2.5Ml of 0.5% Bupivacaine was given to achieve a sensory level of T6. Cesarean section was performed and baby was delivered. Cautery was avoided during this procedure. IV Oxytocin (15U) was added to 500 mL of ringer’s lactate. Hypotension was treated with phenylephrine boluses. Patient was shifted to post-operative care unit and later to high dependency unit for monitoring. Post op vitals remained stable. Temporary pacemaker was removed after 24 hours of surgery. Her post-operative period was uneventful and discharged from hospital. Conclusion: Rare congenital cardiac disorders require detail knowledge of pathophysiology and associated comorbidities with the disease. Meticulously planned and carefully titrated neuraxial techniques will be beneficial for such cases.

Keywords: congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries, complete heart block, emergency LSCS, epidural anaesthesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1 Quality of Care for the Maternal Complications at Selected Primary and Secondary Health Facilities of Bangladesh: Lessons Learned from a Formative Research

Authors: Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Nafisa Lira Huq, Afroza Khanom, Rafiqul Islam, Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Farhana Karim, Nabila Zaka, Shams El Arifeen, Sk. Masum Billah

Abstract:

After having astounding achievements in reducing maternal mortality and achieving the target for Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5, the Government of Bangladesh has set new target to reduce Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 70 per 100,000 live births aligning with targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Aversion of deaths from maternal complication by ensuring quality health care could be an important path to accelerate the rate of reduction of MMR. This formative research was aimed at exploring the provision of quality maternal health services at different level of health facilities. The study was conducted in 1 district hospital (DH) and 4 Upazila health complexes (UHC) of Kurigram district of Bangladesh, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative research methods. We conducted 14 key informant interviews with facility managers and 20 in-depth interviews with health care providers and support staff. Besides, we observed 387 normal deliveries from which we found 17 cases of post partum haemorrhage (PPH) and 2 cases of eclampsia during the data collection period extended from July-September 2016. The quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative component underwent thematic analysis with the broad themes of facility readiness for maternal complication management, and management of complications. Inadequacy in human resources has been identified as the most important bottleneck to provide quality care to manage maternal complications. The DH had a particular paucity of human resources in medical officer cadre where about 61% posts were unfilled. On the other hand, in the UHCs the positions mostly empty were obstetricians (75%, paediatricians (75%), staff nurses (65%), and anaesthetists (100%). The workload on the existing staff is increased because of the persistence of vacant posts. Unavailability of anesthetists and consultants does not permit the health care providers (HCP) of lower cadres to perform emergency operative procedures and forces them to refer the patients although referral system is not well organized in rural Bangladesh. Insufficient bed capacity, inadequate training, shortage of emergency medicines etc. are other hindrance factors for facility readiness. Among the 387 observed delivery case, 17 (4.4%) were identified as PPH cases, and only 2 cases were found as eclampsia/pre-eclampsia. The majority of the patients were treated with uterine message (16 out of 17, 94.1%) and injectable Oxytocin (14 out of 17, 82.4%). The providers of DH mentioned that they can manage the PPH because of having provision for diagnostic and blood transfusion services, although not as 24/7 services. Regarding management of eclampsia/pre-eclampsia, HCPs provided Diazepam, MgSO4, and other anti-hypertensives. The UHCs did not have MgSO4 at stock even, and one facility manager admitted that they treat eclampsia with Diazepam only. The nurses of the UHCs were found to be afraid to handle eclampsia cases. The upcoming interventions must ensure refresher training of service providers, continuous availability of essential medicine and equipment needed for complication management, availability of skilled health workforce, availability of functioning blood transfusion unit and pairing of consultants and anaesthetists to reach the newly set targets altogether.

Keywords: Bangladesh, health facilities, maternal complications, quality of care

Procedia PDF Downloads 130