Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Latha Chathurvedula

15 A Descriptive Study on Comparison of Maternal and Perinatal Outcome of Twin Pregnancies Conceived Spontaneously and by Assisted Conception Methods

Authors: Aishvarya Gupta, Keerthana Anand, Sasirekha Rengaraj, Latha Chathurvedula

Abstract:

Introduction: Advances in assisted reproductive technology and increase in the proportion of infertile couples have both contributed to the steep increase in the incidence of twin pregnancies in past decades. Maternal and perinatal complications are higher in twins than in singleton pregnancies. Studies comparing the maternal and perinatal outcomes of ART twin pregnancies versus spontaneously conceived twin pregnancies report heterogeneous results making it unclear whether the complications are due to twin gestation per se or because of assisted reproductive techniques. The present study aims to compare both maternal and perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies which are spontaneously conceived and after assisted conception methods, so that targeted steps can be undertaken in order to improve maternal and perinatal outcome of twins. Objectives: To study perinatal and maternal outcome in twin pregnancies conceived spontaneously as well as with assisted methods and compare the outcomes between the two groups. Setting: Women delivering at JIPMER (tertiary care institute), Pondicherry. Population: 380 women with twin pregnancies who delivered in JIPMER between June 2015 and March 2017 were included in the study. Methods: The study population was divided into two cohorts – one conceived by spontaneous conception and other by assisted reproductive methods. Association of various maternal and perinatal outcomes with the method of conception was assessed using chi square test or Student's t test as appropriate. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to assess the independent association of assisted conception with maternal outcomes after adjusting for age, parity and BMI. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to assess the independent association of assisted conception with perinatal outcomes after adjusting for age, parity, BMI, chorionicity, gestational age at delivery and presence of hypertension or gestational diabetes in the mother. A p value of < 0.05 was considered as significant. Result: There was increased proportion of women with GDM (21% v/s 4.29%) and premature rupture of membranes (35% v/s 22.85%) in the assisted conception group and more anemic women in the spontaneous group (71.27% v/s 55.1%). However assisted conception per se increased the incidence of GDM among twin gestations (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.34 – 8.61) and did not influence any of the other maternal outcomes. Among the perinatal outcomes, assisted conception per se increased the risk of having very preterm (<32 weeks) neonates (OR 3.013, 95% CI 1.432 – 6.337). The mean birth weight did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.429). Though there were higher proportion of babies admitted to NICU in the assisted conception group (48.48% v/s 36.43%), assisted conception per se did not increase the risk of admission to NICU (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.76 – 1.98). There was no significant difference in perinatal mortality rates between the two groups (p = 0.829). Conclusion: Assisted conception per se increases the risk of developing GDM in women with twin gestation and increases the risk of delivering very preterm babies. Hence measures should be taken to ensure appropriate screening methods for GDM and suitable neonatal care in such pregnancies.

Keywords: assisted conception, maternal outcomes, perinatal outcomes, twin gestation

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14 Texture Analysis of Grayscale Co-Occurrence Matrix on Mammographic Indexed Image

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha

Abstract:

The mammographic image of breast cancer compressed and synthesized to get co-efficient values which will be converted (5x5) matrix to get ROI image where we get the highest value of effected region and with the same ideology the technique has been extended to differentiate between Calcification and normal cell image using mean value derived from 5x5 matrix values

Keywords: texture analysis, mammographic image, partitioned gray scale co-oocurance matrix, co-efficient

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13 Lacunarity measures on Mammographic Image Applying Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity Measures

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha, R. Sridhar

Abstract:

Structural texture measures are used to address the aspect of breast cancer risk assessment in screening mammograms. The current study investigates whether texture properties characterized by local Fractal Dimension (FD) and lacunarity contribute to assess breast cancer risk. Fractal Dimension represents the complexity while the lacunarity characterize the gap of a fractal dimension. In this paper, we present our result confirming that the lacunarity value resulted in algorithm using mammogram images states that level of lacunarity will be low when the Fractal Dimension value will be high.

Keywords: breast cancer, fractal dimension, image analysis, lacunarity, mammogram

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12 Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector

Authors: Vishant Gahlaut, A Mercy Latha, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: multi-stage depressed collector, TWTs, thermal contact resistance, thermal management

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11 Automated Ultrasound Carotid Artery Image Segmentation Using Curvelet Threshold Decomposition

Authors: Latha Subbiah, Dhanalakshmi Samiappan

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose denoising Common Carotid Artery (CCA) B mode ultrasound images by a decomposition approach to curvelet thresholding and automatic segmentation of the intima media thickness and adventitia boundary. By decomposition, the local geometry of the image, its direction of gradients are well preserved. The components are combined into a single vector valued function, thus removes noise patches. Double threshold is applied to inherently remove speckle noise in the image. The denoised image is segmented by active contour without specifying seed points. Combined with level set theory, they provide sub regions with continuous boundaries. The deformable contours match to the shapes and motion of objects in the images. A curve or a surface under constraints is developed from the image with the goal that it is pulled into the necessary features of the image. Region based and boundary based information are integrated to achieve the contour. The method treats the multiplicative speckle noise in objective and subjective quality measurements and thus leads to better-segmented results. The proposed denoising method gives better performance metrics compared with other state of art denoising algorithms.

Keywords: curvelet, decomposition, levelset, ultrasound

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10 Experimental Investigation to Find Transition Temperature of VG 30 Binder

Authors: D. Latha, V. Sunitha, Samson Mathew

Abstract:

In India, most of the pavement is laid by bituminous road and the consumption of binder is high for pavement construction and also modified binders are used to satisfy any specific pavement requirement. Since the binders are visco-elastic material which is having the mechanical properties of binder transition from visco-elastic solid to visco-elastic fluid. In this paper, two different protocols were used to measure the viscosity property of binder using a Brookfield Viscometer and there is a need to find the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures of various types of binders which can result in complete aggregate coating and adequate field density of HMA mixtures. The aim of this work is to find the transition temperature from Non-Newtonian behavior to Newtonian behavior of the binder by adopting a steady shear protocol and the shear rate ramp protocol. The transition from non-Newtonian to Newtonian can occur through an increase of temperature and shear of the material. The test has been conducted for unmodified binder VG 30. The transition temperature was found in the unmodified binder VG is 120oC. So the application of both modified binder and unmodified binder in the pavement construction needs to be studied properly by considering temperature and traffic loading factors of the respective project site.

Keywords: unmodified and modified binders, Brookfield viscometer, transition temperature, steady shear and shear rate protocol

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9 Isolation and Chemical Characterization of Residual Lignin from Areca Nut Shells

Authors: Dipti Yadav, Latha Rangan, Pinakeswar Mahanta

Abstract:

Recent fuel-development strategies to reduce oil dependency, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and utilize domestic resources have generated interest in the search for alternative sources of fuel supplies. Bioenergy production from lignocellulosic biomass has a great potential. Cellulose, hemicellulose and Lignin are main constituent of woods or agrowaste. In all the industries there are always left over or waste products mainly lignin, due to the heterogeneous nature of wood and pulp fibers and the heterogeneity that exists between individual fibers, no method is currently available for the quantitative isolation of native or residual lignin without the risk of structural changes during the isolation. The potential benefits from finding alternative uses of lignin are extensive, and with a double effect. Lignin can be used to replace fossil-based raw materials in a wide range of products, from plastics to individual chemical products, activated carbon, motor fuels and carbon fibers. Furthermore, if there is a market for lignin for such value-added products, the mills will also have an additional economic incentive to take measures for higher energy efficiency. In this study residual lignin were isolated from areca nut shells by acid hydrolysis and were analyzed and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), LCMS and complexity of its structure investigated by NMR.

Keywords: Areca nut, Lignin, wood, bioenergy

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8 Nutrient Foramina of the Lunate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: P.J. Jiji, B.V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: The lunate bone dislocation can lead to the compression of the median nerve and subsequent carpal tunnel syndrome. The dislocation can interrupt the vasculature and would cause avascular necrosis. The objective of the present study was to study the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried lunate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 28 lunate bones (13 right sided and 15 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the lunate bones. The foramen ranged between 2 and 10. The foramina were more in number over the dorsal surface (average number 3.3) in comparison to the palmar surface (average number 2.4). Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided important data about the nutrient foramina of the lunate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the lunatomalacia and Kienbock’s disease.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, foramen, lunate, nutrient

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7 The Nutrient Foramen of the Scaphoid Bone – A Morphological Study

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, P. J. Jiji, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured bone of the wrist. The fracture may disrupt the vessels and end up as the avascular necrosis of the bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried scaphoid bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 46 scaphoid bones (26 right sided and 20 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the scaphoid bones. The foramina were observed both proximal and distal to the mid waist of the scaphoid bone. The foramen ranged between 9 and 54 in each scaphoid bone. The foramina over the palmar surface ranged between, 2-24 in number. The foramina over the dorsal surface ranged between, 7-36 in number. The foramina proximal to the waist ranged between 2 and 24 in number and distal to the waist ranged between 3 and 39. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the scaphoid bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the proximal scaphoid and non-union of the fracture at the waist of the scaphoid.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, nutrient, scaphoid, vascular

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6 Vascular Foramina of the Capitate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: Latha V. Prabhu, B.V. Murlimanju, P.J. Jiji, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: The capitate is the largest among the carpal bones. There exists no literature about the vascular foramina of the capitate bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried capitate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 59 capitate bones (25 right sided and 34 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular and articular surfaces. The foramina were observed at the medial, lateral, palmar and dorsal surfaces of the capitate bones. The foramina were ranged from 6 to 23 in each capitate bone. In the medial surface, the foramina ranged from 1 to 6, lateral surface from 0 to 7, the foramina ranged between 0 and 5 in the palmar surface. However most of the foramina were located at the dorsal surface which ranged from 3 to 11. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the capitate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The knowledge about the foramina is also important to the radiologists to prevent the misinterpretation of the findings in the x ray and computed tomogram scan films. The foramina may mimick like erosions and ossicles. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the capitate.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, capitate, morphology, nutrient foramen

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
5 MXene-Based Self-Sensing of Damage in Fiber Composites

Authors: Latha Nataraj, Todd Henry, Micheal Wallock, Asha Hall, Christine Hatter, Babak Anasori, Yury Gogotsi

Abstract:

Multifunctional composites with enhanced strength and toughness for superior damage tolerance are essential for advanced aerospace and military applications. Detection of structural changes prior to visible damage may be achieved by incorporating fillers with tunable properties such as two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with high aspect ratios and more surface-active sites. While 2D graphene with large surface areas, good mechanical properties, and high electrical conductivity seems ideal as a filler, the single-atomic thickness can lead to bending and rolling during processing, requiring post-processing to bond to polymer matrices. Lately, an emerging family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, MXenes, has attracted much attention since their discovery in 2011. Metallic electronic conductivity and good mechanical properties, even with increased polymer content, coupled with hydrophilicity make MXenes a good candidate as a filler material in polymer composites and exceptional as multifunctional damage indicators in composites. Here, we systematically study MXene-based (Ti₃C₂) coated on glass fibers for fiber reinforced polymer composite for self-sensing using microscopy and micromechanical testing. Further testing is in progress through the investigation of local variations in optical, acoustic, and thermal properties within the damage sites in response to strain caused by mechanical loading.

Keywords: damage sensing, fiber composites, MXene, self-sensing

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4 Exploring the Strategy to Identify Seed-Specific Acyl-Hydrolases from Arabidopsis thaliana by Activity-Based Protein Profiling

Authors: M. Latha, Achintya K. Dolui, P. Vijayaraj

Abstract:

Vegetable oils mainly triacylglycerol (TAG) are an essential nutrient in the human diet as well as one of the major global commodity. There is a pressing need to enhance the yield of oil production to meet the world’s growing demand. Oil content is controlled by the balance between synthesis and breakdown in the cells. Several studies have established to increase the oil content by the overexpression of oil biosynthetic enzymes. Interestingly the significant oil accumulation was observed with impaired TAG hydrolysis. Unfortunately, the structural, as well as the biochemical properties of the lipase enzymes, is widely unknown, and so far, no candidate gene was identified in seeds except sugar-dependent1 (SDP1). Evidence has shown that SDP1directly responsible for initiation of oil breakdown in the seeds during germination. The present study is the identification of seed-specific acyl-hydrolases by activity based proteome profiling (ABPP) using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. The ABPP reveals that around 8 to 10 proteins having the serine hydrolase domain and are expressed during germination of Arabidopsis seed. The N-term sequencing, as well as LC-MS/MS analysis, was performed for the differentially expressed protein during germination. The coding region of the identified proteins was cloned, and lipases activity was assessed with purified recombinant protein. The enzyme assay was performed against various lipid substrates, and we have observed the acylhydrolase activity towards lysophosphatidylcholine and monoacylglycerol. Further, the functional characteristic of the identified protein will reveal the physiological significance the enzyme in oil accumulation.

Keywords: lipase, lipids, vegetable oil, triacylglycerol

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3 Morphological Anatomical Study of the Axis Vertebra and Its Clinical Orientation

Authors: Mangala M. Pai, B. V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, P. J. Jiji , Vandana Blossom

Abstract:

Background:To study the morphological parameters of the axis vertebra in anatomical specimens. Methods: The present study was designed to obtain the morphometric data of axis vertebra. The superior and inferior articular facets of the axis were macroscopically observed for their shapes and the different parameters were measured using the digital Vernier caliper. It included 20 dried axis bones, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory. Results: The morphometric data obtained in the present study are represented in the tables. The side wise comparison of the length and width of the articular facets of the axis vertebra were done. The present study observed that, there is no statistically significant difference observed among the parameters of right and left side articular facets (p>0.05). The superior and inferior articular facets were observed to have variable shapes. The frequencies of different shapes of superior and inferior articular facets are represented in figures. All the shapes of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Among the superior articular facets, the constrictions were absent in 13 cases (65%), 2 (10%) exhibited a single constriction, 3 (15%) had 2 constrictions and 2 (10%) were having 3 constrictions. The constrictions were absent in 11 (55%) of the inferior articular facets, 3 (15%) of them had 1 constriction, 3 (15%) were having 2 constrictions, 2 (10%) exhibited 3 constrictions and 1 (5%) of them had 4 constrictions. The constrictions of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional information on the morphometric data of the axis vertebra. The data are important to the neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. The preoperative assessment of the axis vertebra may prevent dangerous complications like spinal cord and nerve root compression during the surgical intervention.

Keywords: axis, articular facet, morphology, morphometry

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2 The Effect of Mixing and Degassing Conditions on the Properties of Epoxy/Anhydride Resin System

Authors: Latha Krishnan, Andrew Cobley

Abstract:

Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Also, the changes in the mechanical properties of the cured resin were studied by three-point bending test. It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.

Keywords: anhydride epoxy, curing behaviour, degassing, void occurrence

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1 Influence of Degassing on the Curing Behaviour and Void Occurrence Properties of Epoxy / Anhydride Resin System

Authors: Latha Krishnan, Andrew Cobley

Abstract:

Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the amount of void, void geometry and void fraction were also investigated using an optical microscope and image J software (image analysis software). It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.

Keywords: anhydride epoxy, curing behaviour, degassing, void occurrence

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