Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7011

Search results for: current mirror

7011 A Laser Transmitter Scheme with a Right Angled Mirror

Authors: Jaemyoung Lee


We propose a stable laser scanning leveler transmitter scheme. In the proposed scheme, the transmitter has a right angled mirror which can eliminates the mechanical up and down vibration from scanning the mirror of the transmitter. In this paper, the mathematical proof for the proposed scheme which is not disturbed by the swivel movement of the right angled mirror is derived.

Keywords: leveler, right angled mirror, sweeping, laser

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7010 Iris Detection on RGB Image for Controlling Side Mirror

Authors: Norzalina Othman, Nurul Na’imy Wan, Azliza Mohd Rusli, Wan Noor Syahirah Meor Idris


Iris detection is a process where the position of the eyes is extracted from the face images. It is a current method used for many applications such as for security purpose and drowsiness detection. This paper proposes the use of eyes detection in controlling side mirror of motor vehicles. The eyes detection method aims to make driver easy to adjust the side mirrors automatically. The system will determine the midpoint coordinate of eyes detection on RGB (color) image and the input signal from y-coordinate will send it to controller in order to rotate the angle of side mirror on vehicle. The eye position was cropped and the coordinate of midpoint was successfully detected from the circle of iris detection using Viola Jones detection and circular Hough transform methods on RGB image. The coordinate of midpoint from the experiment are tested using controller to determine the angle of rotation on the side mirrors.

Keywords: iris detection, midpoint coordinates, RGB images, side mirror

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7009 Does Mirror Therapy Improve Motor Recovery After Stroke? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Hassan Abo Salem, Guo Feng, Xiaolin Huang


The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy on motor recovery and functional abilities after stroke. The following databases were searched from inception to May 2014: Cochrane Stroke, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effect of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.12 randomized controlled trials studies met the inclusion criteria; 10 studies utilized the effect of mirror therapy for the upper limb and 2 studies for the lower limb. Mirror therapy had a positive effect on motor recover and function; however, we found no consistent influence on activity of daily living, Spasticity and balance. This meta-analysis suggests that, Mirror therapy has additional effect on motor recovery but has a small positive effect on functional abilities after stroke. Further high-quality studies with greater statistical power are required in order to accurately determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy following stroke.

Keywords: mirror therapy, motor recovery, stroke, balance

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7008 Design of 900 MHz High Gain SiGe Power Amplifier with Linearity Improved Bias Circuit

Authors: Guiheng Zhang, Wei Zhang, Jun Fu, Yudong Wang


A 900 MHz three-stage SiGe power amplifier (PA) with high power gain is presented in this paper. Volterra Series is applied to analyze nonlinearity sources of SiGe HBT device model clearly. Meanwhile, the influence of operating current to IMD3 is discussed. Then a β-helper current mirror bias circuit is applied to improve linearity, since the β-helper current mirror bias circuit can offer stable base biasing voltage. Meanwhile, it can also work as predistortion circuit when biasing voltages of three bias circuits are fine-tuned, by this way, the power gain and operating current of PA are optimized for best linearity. The three power stages which fabricated by 0.18 μm SiGe technology are bonded to the printed circuit board (PCB) to obtain impedances by Load-Pull system, then matching networks are done for best linearity with discrete passive components on PCB. The final measured three-stage PA exhibits 21.1 dBm of output power at 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) with power added efficiency (PAE) of 20.6% and 33 dB power gain under 3.3 V power supply voltage.

Keywords: high gain power amplifier, linearization bias circuit, SiGe HBT model, Volterra series

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
7007 A Study on Improvement of the Electromagnetic Vibration of a Polygon Mirror Scanner Motor

Authors: Yongmin You


Electric machines for office automation device such as printer and scanner have been required the low noise and vibration performance. Many researches about the low noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor have been also progressed. The noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor can be classified by aerodynamic, structural and electromagnetic. Electromagnetic noise and vibration can be occurred by high cogging torque and nonsinusoidal back EMF. To improve the cogging torque and back EMF characteristic, we apply unequal air-gap. To analyze characteristic of a polygon mirror scanner motor, two dimensional finite element method is used. To minimize the cogging torque of a polygon mirror motor, Kriging based on latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is utilized. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 23.4 % while maintaining the back EMF and average torque. To verify the optimal design results, the experiment was performed. We measured the vibration in motors at 23,600 rpm which is the rated velocity. The radial and axial gravitational acceleration of the optimal model were declined more than seven times and three times, respectively. From these results, a shape optimized unequal polygon mirror scanner motor has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and electromagnetic vibration characteristic.

Keywords: polygon mirror scanner motor, optimal design, finite element method, vibration

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7006 Flexible Programmable Circuit Board Electromagnetic 1-D Scanning Micro-Mirror Laser Rangefinder by Active Triangulation

Authors: Vixen Joshua Tan, Siyuan He


Scanners have been implemented within single point laser rangefinders, to determine the ranges within an environment by sweeping the laser spot across the surface of interest. The research motivation is to exploit a smaller and cheaper alternative scanning component for the emitting portion within current designs of laser rangefinders. This research implements an FPCB (Flexible Programmable Circuit Board) Electromagnetic 1-Dimensional scanning micro-mirror as a scanning component for laser rangefinding by means of triangulation. The prototype uses a laser module, micro-mirror, and receiver. The laser module is infrared (850 nm) with a power output of 4.5 mW. The receiver consists of a 50 mm convex lens and a 45mm 1-dimensional PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) placed at the focal length of the lens at 50 mm. The scanning component is an elliptical Micro-Mirror attached onto an FPCB Structure. The FPCB structure has two miniature magnets placed symmetrically underneath it on either side, which are then electromagnetically actuated by small solenoids, causing the FPCB to mechanically rotate about its torsion beams. The laser module projects a laser spot onto the micro-mirror surface, hence producing a scanning motion of the laser spot during the rotational actuation of the FPCB. The receiver is placed at a fixed distance from the micro-mirror scanner and is oriented to capture the scanning motion of the laser spot during operation. The elliptical aperture dimensions of the micro-mirror are 8mm by 5.5 mm. The micro-mirror is supported by an FPCB with two torsion beams with dimensions of 4mm by 0.5mm. The overall length of the FPCB is 23 mm. The voltage supplied to the solenoids is sinusoidal with an amplitude of 3.5 volts and 4.5 volts to achieve optical scanning angles of +/- 10 and +/- 17 degrees respectively. The operating scanning frequency during experiments was 5 Hz. For an optical angle of +/- 10 degrees, the prototype is capable of detecting objects within the ranges from 0.3-1.2 meters with an error of less than 15%. As for an optical angle of +/- 17 degrees the measuring range was from 0.3-0.7 meters with an error of 16% or less. Discrepancy between the experimental and actual data is possibly caused by misalignment of the components during experiments. Furthermore, the power of the laser spot collected by the receiver gradually decreased as the object was placed further from the sensor. A higher powered laser will be tested to potentially measure further distances more accurately. Moreover, a wide-angled lens will be used in future experiments when higher scanning angles are used. Modulation within the current and future higher powered lasers will be implemented to enable the operation of the laser rangefinder prototype without the use of safety goggles.

Keywords: FPCB electromagnetic 1-D scanning micro-mirror, laser rangefinder, position sensitive detector, PSD, triangulation

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7005 Design and Fabrication of an Electrostatically Actuated Parallel-Plate Mirror by 3D-Printer

Authors: J. Mizuno, S. Takahashi


In this paper, design and fabrication of an actuated parallel-plate mirror based on a 3D-printer is described. The mirror and electrode layers are fabricated separately and assembled thereafter. The alignment is performed by dowel pin-hole pairs fabricated on the respective layers. The electrodes are formed on the surface of the electrode layer by Au ion sputtering using a suitable mask, which is also fabricated by a 3D-printer.For grounding the mirror layer, except the contact area with the electrode paths, all the surface is Au ion sputtered. 3D-printers are widely used for creating 3D models or mock-ups. The authors have recently proposed that these models can perform electromechanical functions such as actuators by suitably masking them followed by metallization process. Since the smallest possible fabrication size is in the order of sub-millimeters, these electromechanical devices are named by the authors as SMEMS (Sub-Milli Electro-Mechanical Systems) devices. The proposed mirror described in this paper which consists of parallel-plate electrostatic actuators is also one type of SMEMS devices. In addition, SMEMS is totally environment-clean compared to MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication processes because any hazardous chemicals or gases are utilized.

Keywords: MEMS, parallel-plate mirror, SMEMS, 3D-printer

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7004 Smashed Mirror: Immigrant Students’ Constructions of South Africa

Authors: Vandeyar Saloshna, Vandeyar Hirusellvan


The image of post-apartheid South African Society that is reflected in the social mirror of the world is largely one of hope, faith, and aspiration. But is this reality? Utilizing social constructivism, case study approach and narrative inquiry, this chapter set out to explore the reflection of South African students from the lens of immigrant students. The picture that unfolds is troublesome in its negativity. In this chapter, we establish in detail what this picture is about and what implications it holds for South African Society.

Keywords: immigrant students, social mirror, xenophobia, identity formation, makwerekwere, expectations

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7003 The Effects of Mirror Therapy on Clinical Improvement in Hemiplegic Lower Extremity Rehabilitation in Subjects with Chronic Stroke

Authors: Hassan Abo-Salem, Huang Xiaolin


Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) has been investigated in acute hemiplegia. The present study examines whether MT, given during chronic stroke, was more effective in promoting motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking speed than standard rehabilitation alone. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with chronic stroke. Fifteen patients each were assigned to the treatment group and the control group. All patients received a conventional rehabilitation program for a 4-week period. In addition to this rehabilitation program, patients in the treatment group received mirror therapy for 4 weeks, 5 days a week. Main measures: Passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, gait speed, Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, plantarflexor muscle tone by Modified Ashworth Scale. Results: Results: No significant difference was found in the outcome measures among groups before treatment. When compared with standard rehabilitation, mirror therapy improved Ankle ROM, Brunnstrom stages and waking speed (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between two groups on MAS (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Mirror therapy combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and walking speed in chronic stroke patients.

Keywords: mirror therapy, stroke, MAS, walking speed

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7002 An Investigation of the Effects of Emotional Experience Induction on Mirror Neurons System Activity with Regard to Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms

Authors: Elyas Akbari, Jafar Hasani, Newsha Dehestani, Mohammad Khaleghi, Alireza Moradi


The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of emotional experience induction in the mirror neurons systems (MNS) activity with regard to the spectrum of depressive symptoms. For this purpose, at first stage, 449 students of Kharazmi University of Tehran were selected randomly and completed the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Then, 36 students with standard Z-score equal or above +1.5 and equal or equal or below -1.5 were selected to construct two groups of high and low spectrum of depressive symptoms. In the next stage, the basic activity of MNS was recorded (mu wave) before presenting the positive and negative emotional video clips by Electroencephalography (EEG) technique. The findings related to emotion induction (neutral, negative and positive emotion) demonstrated that the activity of recorded mirror neuron areas had a significant difference between the depressive and non-depressive groups. These findings suggest that probably processing of negative emotions in depressive individuals is due to the idea that the mirror neurons in motor cortex matched up the activity of cognitive regions with the person’s schema. Considering the results of the present study, it could be said that the MNS provides a substrate where emotional disorders can be studied and evaluated.

Keywords: emotional experiences, mirror neurons, depressive symptoms, negative and positive emotion

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7001 A Study on Cleaning Mirror Technology with Reduced Water Consumption in a Solar Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Bayarjargal Enkhtaivan, Gao Wei, Zhang Yanping, He Guo Qiang


In our study, traditional cleaning mirror technology with reduced consumption of water in solar thermal power plants is investigated. In developed countries, a significant increase of growth and innovation in solar thermal power sector is evident since over the last decade. These power plants required higher water consumption, however, there are some complications to construct and operate such power plants under severe drought-inflicted areas like deserts where high water-deficit can be seen but sufficient solar energy is available. Designing new experimental equipments is the most important advantage of this study. These equipments can estimate various types of measurements at the mean time. In this study, Glasses were placed for 10 and 20 days at certain positions to deposit dusts on glass surface by using a common method. Dust deposited on glass surface was washed by experimental equipment and measured dust deposition on each glass. After that, experimental results were analyzed and concluded.

Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP) plant, high-pressure water, test equipment of clean mirror, cleaning technology of glass and mirror

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7000 Pre-Operative Tool for Facial-Post-Surgical Estimation and Detection

Authors: Ayat E. Ali, Christeen R. Aziz, Merna A. Helmy, Mohammed M. Malek, Sherif H. El-Gohary


Goal: Purpose of the project was to make a plastic surgery prediction by using pre-operative images for the plastic surgeries’ patients and to show this prediction on a screen to compare between the current case and the appearance after the surgery. Methods: To this aim, we implemented a software which used data from the internet for facial skin diseases, skin burns, pre-and post-images for plastic surgeries then the post- surgical prediction is done by using K-nearest neighbor (KNN). So we designed and fabricated a smart mirror divided into two parts a screen and a reflective mirror so patient's pre- and post-appearance will be showed at the same time. Results: We worked on some skin diseases like vitiligo, skin burns and wrinkles. We classified the three degrees of burns using KNN classifier with accuracy 60%. We also succeeded in segmenting the area of vitiligo. Our future work will include working on more skin diseases, classify them and give a prediction for the look after the surgery. Also we will go deeper into facial deformities and plastic surgeries like nose reshaping and face slim down. Conclusion: Our project will give a prediction relates strongly to the real look after surgery and decrease different diagnoses among doctors. Significance: The mirror may have broad societal appeal as it will make the distance between patient's satisfaction and the medical standards smaller.

Keywords: k-nearest neighbor (knn), face detection, vitiligo, bone deformity

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6999 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee


This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.

Keywords: physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy

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6998 Modeling of Wind Loads on Heliostats Installed in South Algeria of Various Pylon Height

Authors: Hakim Merarda, Mounir Aksas, Toufik Arrif, Abd Elfateh Belaid, Amor Gama, Reski Khelifi


Knowledge of wind loads is important to develop a heliostat with good performance. These loads can be calculated by mathematical equations based on several parameters: the density, wind velocity, the aspect ratio of the mirror (height/width) and the coefficient of the height of the tower. Measurement data of the wind velocity and the density of the air are used in a numerical simulation of wind profile that was performed on heliostats with different pylon heights, with 1m^2 mirror areas and with aspect ratio of mirror equal to 1. These measurement data are taken from the meteorological station installed in Ghardaia, Algeria. The main aim of this work is to find a mathematical correlation between the wind loads and the height of the tower.

Keywords: heliostat, solar tower power, wind loads simulation, South Algeria

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6997 Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank Design Using Population Based Stochastic Optimization

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ding-Chen Chung


The paper deals with the optimal design of two-channel linear-phase (LP) quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks using a metaheuristic based optimization technique. Based on the theory of two-channel QMF banks using two recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs), the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an objective function which is a weighted sum of the group delay error of the designed QMF bank and the magnitude response error of the designed low-pass analysis filter. Through a frequency sampling and a weighted least squares approach, the optimization problem of the objective function can be solved by utilizing a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The resulting two-channel QMF banks can possess approximately LP response without magnitude distortion. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: quadrature mirror filter bank, digital all-pass filter, weighted least squares algorithm, particle swarm optimization

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6996 The Study of Mirror Self-Recognition in Wildlife

Authors: Azwan Hamdan, Mohd Qayyum Ab Latip, Hasliza Abu Hassim, Tengku Rinalfi Putra Tengku Azizan, Hafandi Ahmad


Animal cognition provides some evidence for self-recognition, which is described as the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. The mirror self-recognition (MSR) or mark test is a behavioral technique to determine whether an animal have the ability of self-recognition or self-awareness in front of the mirror. It also describes the capability for an animal to be aware of and make judgments about its new environment. Thus, the objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the ability of wild and captive wildlife in mirror self-recognition. Wild animals from the Royal Belum Rainforest Malaysia were identified based on the animal trails and salt lick grounds. Acrylic mirrors with wood frame (200 x 250cm) were located near to animal trails. Camera traps (Bushnell, UK) with motion-detection infrared sensor are placed near the animal trails or hiding spot. For captive wildlife, animals such as Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) were selected from Zoo Negara Malaysia. The captive animals were also marked using odorless and non-toxic white paint on its forehead. An acrylic mirror with wood frame (200 x 250cm) and a video camera were placed near the cage. The behavioral data were analyzed using ethogram and classified through four stages of MSR; social responses, physical inspection, repetitive mirror-testing behavior and realization of seeing themselves. Results showed that wild animals such as barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) increased their physical inspection (e.g inspecting the reflected image) and repetitive mirror-testing behavior (e.g rhythmic head and leg movement). This would suggest that the ability to use a mirror is most likely related to learning process and cognitive evolution in wild animals. However, the sun bear’s behaviors were inconsistent and did not clearly undergo four stages of MSR. This result suggests that when keeping Malayan sun bear in captivity, it may promote communication and familiarity between conspecific. Interestingly, chimp has positive social response (e.g manipulating lips) and physical inspection (e.g using hand to inspect part of the face) when they facing a mirror. However, both animals did not show any sign towards the mark due to lost of interest in the mark and realization that the mark is inconsequential. Overall, the results suggest that the capacity for MSR is the beginning of a developmental process of self-awareness and mental state attribution. In addition, our findings show that self-recognition may be based on different complex neurological and level of encephalization in animals. Thus, research on self-recognition in animals will have profound implications in understanding the cognitive ability of an animal as an effort to help animals, such as enhanced management, design of captive individuals’ enclosures and exhibits, and in programs to re-establish populations of endangered or threatened species.

Keywords: mirror self-recognition (MSR), self-recognition, self-awareness, wildlife

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6995 Mirror-Like Effect Based on Correlations among Atoms

Authors: Qurrat-ul-Ain Gulfam, Zbigniew Ficek


The novel idea to use single atoms as highly reflecting mirrors has recently gained much attention. Usually, to observe the reflective nature of an atom, it is required to couple the atom to an external medium such that a directional spontaneous emission could be realized. We propose an alternative way to achieve the directional emission by considering a system of correlated atoms in free space. It is well known that mutually interacting atoms have a strong tendency to emit the radiation along particular discrete directions. That relieves one from the stingy condition of associating the atomic system to another media and facilitates the experimental implementation to a large degree. Moreover, realistic 3-dimensional collective emission can be taken into account in the dynamics. Two interesting spatial setups have been considered; one where a probe atom is confined in a linear cavity formed by two atomic mirrors and, the other where a probe atom faces a chain of correlated atoms. We observe an evidence of the mirror-like effect in a simple system of a chain of three atoms. The angular distribution of the radiation intensity observed in the far field is greatly affected by the atomic interactions. Hence, suitable directions for enhanced reflectivity can be determined.

Keywords: atom-mirror effect, correlated system, dipole-dipole interactions, intensity

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6994 Chiral Molecule Detection via Optical Rectification in Spin-Momentum Locking

Authors: Jessie Rapoza, Petr Moroshkin, Jimmy Xu


Chirality is omnipresent, in nature, in life, and in the field of physics. One intriguing example is the homochirality that has remained a great secret of life. Another is the pairs of mirror-image molecules – enantiomers. They are identical in atomic composition and therefore indistinguishable in the scalar physical properties. Yet, they can be either therapeutic or toxic, depending on their chirality. Recent studies suggest a potential link between abnormal levels of certain D-amino acids and some serious health impairments, including schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and potentially cancer. Although indistinguishable in their scalar properties, the chirality of a molecule reveals itself in interaction with the surrounding of a certain chirality, or more generally, a broken mirror-symmetry. In this work, we report on a system for chiral molecule detection, in which the mirror-symmetry is doubly broken, first by asymmetric structuring a nanopatterned plasmonic surface than by the incidence of circularly polarized light (CPL). In this system, the incident circularly-polarized light induces a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave, propagating along the asymmetric plasmonic surface. This SPP field itself is chiral, evanescently bound to a near-field zone on the surface (~10nm thick), but with an amplitude greatly intensified (by up to 104) over that of the incident light. It hence probes just the molecules on the surface instead of those in the volume. In coupling to molecules along its path on the surface, the chiral SPP wave favors one chirality over the other, allowing for chirality detection via the change in an optical rectification current measured at the edges of the sample. The asymmetrically structured surface converts the high-frequency electron plasmonic-oscillations in the SPP wave into a net DC drift current that can be measured at the edge of the sample via the mechanism of optical rectification. The measured results validate these design concepts and principles. The observed optical rectification current exhibits a clear differentiation between a pair of enantiomers. Experiments were performed by focusing a 1064nm CW laser light at the sample - a gold grating microchip submerged in an approximately 1.82M solution of either L-arabinose or D-arabinose and water. A measurement of the current output was then recorded under both rights and left circularly polarized lights. Measurements were recorded at various angles of incidence to optimize the coupling between the spin-momentums of the incident light and that of the SPP, that is, spin-momentum locking. In order to suppress the background, the values of the photocurrent for the right CPL are subtracted from those for the left CPL. Comparison between the two arabinose enantiomers reveals a preferential signal response of one enantiomer to left CPL and the other enantiomer to right CPL. In sum, this work reports on the first experimental evidence of the feasibility of chiral molecule detection via optical rectification in a metal meta-grating. This nanoscale interfaced electrical detection technology is advantageous over other detection methods due to its size, cost, ease of use, and integration ability with read-out electronic circuits for data processing and interpretation.

Keywords: Chirality, detection, molecule, spin

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6993 PointNetLK-OBB: A Point Cloud Registration Algorithm with High Accuracy

Authors: Wenhao Lan, Ning Li, Qiang Tong


To improve the registration accuracy of a source point cloud and template point cloud when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, a PointNetLK algorithm combined with an oriented bounding box (PointNetLK-OBB) is proposed. In this algorithm, the OBB of a 3D point cloud is used to represent the macro feature of source and template point clouds. Under the guidance of the iterative closest point algorithm, the OBB of the source and template point clouds is aligned, and a mirror symmetry effect is produced between them. According to the fitting degree of the source and template point clouds, the mirror symmetry plane is detected, and the optimal rotation and translation of the source point cloud is obtained to complete the 3D point cloud registration task. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment was performed using the publicly available ModelNet40 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with PointNetLK, PointNetLK-OBB improves the registration accuracy of the source and template point clouds when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, and the sensitivity of the initial relative position between the source point cloud and template point cloud is reduced. The primary contribution of this paper is the use of PointNetLK to avoid the non-convex problem of traditional point cloud registration and leveraging the regularity of the OBB to avoid the local optimization problem in the PointNetLK context.

Keywords: mirror symmetry, oriented bounding box, point cloud registration, PointNetLK-OBB

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6992 Blood Volume Pulse Extraction for Non-Contact Photoplethysmography Measurement from Facial Images

Authors: Ki Moo Lim, Iman R. Tayibnapis


According to WHO estimation, 38 out of 56 million (68%) global deaths in 2012, were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To avert NCD, one of the solutions is early detection of diseases. In order to do that, we developed 'U-Healthcare Mirror', which is able to measure vital sign such as heart rate (HR) and respiration rate without any physical contact and consciousness. To measure HR in the mirror, we utilized digital camera. The camera records red, green, and blue (RGB) discoloration from user's facial image sequences. We extracted blood volume pulse (BVP) from the RGB discoloration because the discoloration of the facial skin is accordance with BVP. We used blind source separation (BSS) to extract BVP from the RGB discoloration and adaptive filters for removing noises. We utilized singular value decomposition (SVD) method to implement the BSS and the adaptive filters. HR was estimated from the obtained BVP. We did experiment for HR measurement by using our method and previous method that used independent component analysis (ICA) method. We compared both of them with HR measurement from commercial oximeter. The experiment was conducted under various distance between 30~110 cm and light intensity between 5~2000 lux. For each condition, we did measurement 7 times. The estimated HR showed 2.25 bpm of mean error and 0.73 of pearson correlation coefficient. The accuracy has improved compared to previous work. The optimal distance between the mirror and user for HR measurement was 50 cm with medium light intensity, around 550 lux.

Keywords: blood volume pulse, heart rate, photoplethysmography, independent component analysis

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6991 CMOS Positive and Negative Resistors Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross-Coupled Regulated Transistors

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


Two types of floating active resistors based on a complementary regulated cascode topology with cross-coupled regulated transistors are presented in this paper. The first topology is a high swing complementary regulated cascode active resistor. The second topology is a complementary common gate with a regulated cross coupled transistor. The small-signal input resistances of the floating resistors are derived. Three graphs of the input current versus the input voltage for different aspect ratios are designed and plotted using the Cadence Spectre 0.18-µm Rohm Semiconductor process. The total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted for three different aspect ratios with different input-voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies. From the simulation results, it is observed that a resistance of approximately 8.52 MΩ can be obtained from supply voltage at  ±0.9 V.

Keywords: floating active resistor, complementary common gate, complementary regulated cascode, current mirror

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6990 Igbo Art: A Reflection of the Igbo’s Visual Culture

Authors: David Osa-Egonwa


Visual culture is the expression of the norms and social behavior of a society in visual images. A reflection simply shows you how you look when you stand before a mirror, a clear water or stream. The mirror does not alter, improve or distort your original appearance, neither does it show you a caricature of what stands before it, this is the case with visual images created by a tribe or society. The ‘uli’ is hand drawn body design done on Igbo women and speaks of a culture of body adornment which is a practice that is appreciated by that tribe. The use of pattern of the gliding python snake ‘ije eke’ or ‘ijeagwo’ for wall painting speaks of the Igbo culture as one that appreciates wall paintings based on these patterns. Modern life came and brought a lot of change to the Igbo-speaking people of Nigeria. Change cloaked in the garment of Westernization has influenced the culture of the Igbos. This has resulted in a problem which is a break in the cultural practice that has also affected art produced by the Igbos. Before the colonial masters arrived and changed the established culture practiced by the Igbos, visual images were created that retained the culture of this people. To bring this point to limelight, this paper has adopted a historical method. A large number of works produced during pre and post-colonial era which range from sculptural pieces, paintings and other artifacts, just to mention a few, were studied carefully and it was discovered that the visual images hold the culture or aspects of the culture of the Igbos in their renditions and can rightly serve as a mirror of the Igbo visual culture.

Keywords: artistic renditions, historical method, Igbo visual culture, changes

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6989 Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator

Authors: M. Tawfik, X. Tonnellier, C. Sansom


The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include: Deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.

Keywords: Fresnel lens, LLBG, solar concentrator, solar tracking

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6988 Gender Discrepancies in Current Pedagogical and Curricular Practices in EFL Higher Education Settings

Authors: Hamad Aldosari


The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of sexism, or gender discrepancies, in current pedagogical and curricular practices in EFL learning higher education settings. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of both course contents and pedagogies in Saudi higher education institutions are to be discussed with reference to female/male topic presentation in dialogs and reading passages, sex-based activity types, stereotyped sex roles and the masculine generic conceptions of male superiority subliminally related in EFL curriculum and pedagogical practices, as well as the causes and effects of segregated language education practices in Saudi Arabia from a holistic vantage point of analysis. Analysis findings show that language educational practices including educational settings and segregation are gender-biased in attitude, but with regard to curriculum, sexism has not been traced. Findings also show that sexism is rampant due to socio-cultural aspects of language education rather than to religious reasons: a finding that seems to mirror the institutionalized unfair sex discrimination to the disadvantage of women in the Arabian societies at large.

Keywords: genderism, sex segregation, Saudi Arabia, EFL

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6987 Fabrication of Profile-Coated Rhodium X-Ray Focusing Mirror

Authors: Bing Shi, Raymond A. Conley, Jun Qian, Xianbo Shi, Steve Heald, Lahsen Assoufid


A pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors were designed and fabricated for experiments within a hard x-ray energy range lower than 20 kev at beamline 20-ID in a synchrotron radiation facility, Advanced Photon Source (APS). The KB mirrors were deposited with Rhodium thin films using a customized designed and self-built magnetron sputtering system. The purpose of these mirrors is to focus the x-ray beam down to 1 micron. This is the first pair of Rhodium-coated KB mirrors with elliptical shape that was fabricated using the profile coating technique. The profile coating technique is to coat the substrate with designed shape using masks during the deposition. The mirrors were equipped at the beamline and achieved the designed focusing requirement. The details of the mirror design, the fabrication process, and the customized magnetron sputtering deposition system will be discussed.

Keywords: magnetron-sputtering deposition, focusing optics, x-ray, rhodium thin film

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6986 Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics

Authors: Madiha Tariq, Hena Rabbani


Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.

Keywords: dynamical localization, cavity optomechanics, Hamiltonian chaos, probe field

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6985 Compensation of Cable Attenuation in Step Current Generators to Enable the Convolution Method for Calibration of Current Transducers

Authors: P. Treyer, M. Kujda, H. Urs


The purpose of this paper is to digitally compensate for the apparent discharge time constant of the coaxial cable so that the current step response is flat and can be used to calibrate current transducers using the convolution method. For proper use of convolution, the step response record length is required to be at least the same as the waveform duration to be evaluated. The current step generator based on the cable discharge is compared to the Blumlein generator. Moreover, the influence of each component of the system on the performance of the step is described, which allows building the appropriate measurement set-up. In the end, the calibration of current viewing resistors dedicated to high current impulse is computed.

Keywords: Blumlein generator, cable attenuation, convolution, current step generator

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6984 Identification of How Pre-Service Physics Teachers Understand Image Formations through Virtual Objects in the Field of Geometric Optics and Development of a New Material to Exploit Virtual Objects

Authors: Ersin Bozkurt


The aim of the study is to develop materials for understanding image formations through virtual objects in geometric optics. The images in physics course books are formed by using real objects. This results in mistakes in the features of images because of generalizations which leads to conceptual misunderstandings in learning. In this study it was intended to identify pre-service physics teachers misunderstandings arising from false generalizations. Focused group interview was used as a qualitative method. The findings of the study show that students have several misconceptions such as "the image in a plain mirror is always virtual". However a real image can be formed in a plain mirror. To explain a virtual object's image formation in a more understandable way an overhead projector and episcope and their design was illustrated. The illustrations are original and several computer simulations will be suggested.

Keywords: computer simulations, geometric optics, physics education, students' misconceptions in physics

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6983 Design of Two-Channel Quincunx Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou


This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive two-channel quincunx quadrature mirror filter (QQMF) banks design. The analysis and synthesis filters of the 2-D recursive QQMF bank are composed of 2-D recursive digital allpass lattice filters (DALFs) with symmetric half-plane (SHP) support regions. Using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters, we facilitate the design of the proposed QQMF bank. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive SHP DALFs, we present a structure of 2-D recursive digital allpass filters by using 2-D SHP recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive QQMF bank is that the resulting 2-D recursive QQMF bank provides better performance than the existing 2-D recursive QQMF banks. Simulation results are also presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: all-pass digital filter, lattice structure, quincunx QMF bank, symmetric half-plane digital filter

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6982 A Tunable Long-Cavity Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Nonlinear Amplifier Loop Mirror

Authors: Pinghe Wang


In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable long-cavity passive mode-locked fiber laser. The mode locker is a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The cavity frequency of the laser is 465 kHz because that 404m SMF is inserted in the cavity. A tunable bandpass filter with ~1nm 3dB bandwidth is inserted into the cavity to realize tunable mode locking. The passive mode-locked laser at a fixed wavelength is investigated in detail. The experimental results indicate that the laser operates in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser generates the rectangular pulses with 10.58 ns pulse duration, 70.28nJ single-pulse energy. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser keeps stable mode locking status in the range from 1523.4nm to 1575nm. During the whole tuning range, the SNR, the pulse duration, the output power and single pulse energy have a little fluctuation because that the gain of the EDF changes with the wavelength.

Keywords: fiber laser, dissipative soliton resonance, mode locking, tunable

Procedia PDF Downloads 154