Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 854

Search results for: complementary regulated cascode

854 CMOS Positive and Negative Resistors Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross-Coupled Regulated Transistors

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


Two types of floating active resistors based on a complementary regulated cascode topology with cross-coupled regulated transistors are presented in this paper. The first topology is a high swing complementary regulated cascode active resistor. The second topology is a complementary common gate with a regulated cross coupled transistor. The small-signal input resistances of the floating resistors are derived. Three graphs of the input current versus the input voltage for different aspect ratios are designed and plotted using the Cadence Spectre 0.18-µm Rohm Semiconductor process. The total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted for three different aspect ratios with different input-voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies. From the simulation results, it is observed that a resistance of approximately 8.52 MΩ can be obtained from supply voltage at  ±0.9 V.

Keywords: floating active resistor, complementary common gate, complementary regulated cascode, current mirror

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853 2 Stage CMOS Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier Design Based On Inductive Coupling Technique in Submicron CMOS Process

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


This paper proposes one stage and two stage CMOS Complementary Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier (CRCDA) design based on Inductive and Transformer coupling techniques. Usually, Distributed amplifier is based on inductor coupling between gate and gate of MOSFET and between drain and drain of MOSFET. But this paper propose some new idea, by coupling with differential primary windings of transformer between gate and gate of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier and by coupling with differential secondary windings transformer of MOSFET between drain and drain of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier. This paper also proposes polynomial modeling of Silicon Transformer passive equivalent circuit from Nanyang Technological University which is used to extract frequency response of transformer. Cadence simulation results are used to verify validity of transformer polynomial modeling which can be used to design distributed amplifier without Cadence. 4 parameters of scattering matrix of 2 port of the propose circuit is derived as a function of 4 parameters of impedance matrix.

Keywords: CMOS regulated cascode distributed amplifier, silicon transformer modeling with polynomial, low power consumption, distribute amplification technique

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852 The Roles of Teachers in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning

Authors: Mine Cekin


Self-regulated learning (SRL), which can be defined as learning that takes place when an individual is an active controller over his cognition, behavior, and motivation in the learning process, seems to be an essential educational goal. However, it is asserted that students need an assistance to become self-regulated learners. Therefore, teachers appear to play an important role in the introduction of SRL. Even though the importance of SRL has been shown by many researchers, the issue of how teachers can introduce it in a classroom environment needs to be investigated thoroughly. When it comes to mathematics learning particularly, it seems really difficult to associate this area with self-regulated learning because of the fact that it is mainly seen as a domain that is overwhelmingly memorizing written notations. As a result, self-regulated learning in mathematics education and what roles teachers have seem to deserve a significant attention. In this study, the significance of SRL and the roles of teachers in promoting SRL in the field of mathematics education particularly with the help of current literature have been highlighted. Some of the roles of teachers are becoming self-regulated learners themselves, facilitating motivation and collaboration with their colleagues in their schools.

Keywords: mathematics education, motivation, self-regulated learning, teacher self-regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
851 Detection of Viral-Plant Interaction Using Some Pathogenesis Related Protein Genes to Identify Resistant Genes against Potato LeafRoll Virus and Potato Virus Y in Egyptian Isolates

Authors: Dalia. G. Aseel, E. E. Hafez, S. M. Hammad


Viral RNAs of both potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) were extracted from infected potato leaves collected from different Egyptian regions. Differential Display Polymerase Chain Reaction (DD-PCR) using (Endogluconase, β-1,3-glucanases, Chitinase, Peroxidase and Polyphenol oxidase) primers (forward strand) for was performed. The obtained data revealed different banding patterns depending on the viral type and the region of infection. Regarding PLRV, a 58 up regulated and 19 down regulated genes were detected, while, 31 up regulated and 14 down regulated genes were observed in case of PVY. Based on the nucleotide sequencing, variable phylogenetic relationships were reported for the three sequenced genes coding for: Induced stolen tip protein, Disease resistance RPP-like protein and non-specific lipid-transfer protein. In a complementary approach, using the quantitative Real-time PCR, the expressions of PRs genes understudy were estimated in the infected leaves by PLRV and PVY of three potato cultivars (Spunta, Diamont and Cara). The infection with both viruses inhibited the expressions of the five PRs genes. On the contrary, infected leaves by PLRV or PVY elevated the expression of some defense genes. This interaction also may be enhanced and/or inhibited the expression of some genes responsible for the plant defense mechanisms.

Keywords: PLRV, PVY, PR genes, DD-PCR, qRT-PCR, sequencing

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850 From Past to Present Awareness about Complementary Therapies

Authors: Olcay Çam, Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Hacer Demirkol


Complementary and alternative medicine are important for human health. It has stood out that from past to present people have resorted to particularly Turkish bath houses, cupping therapy, mud bath, hirudotheraphy and healing waters for the purpose of recovering from diseases and refresh their souls. Now, methods such as herbal treatments, massage, aromatherapy, prayer, meditation, yoga and thermal springs have been recently observed to be the most frequently used complementary therapies in Turkey. These methods are not known by people exactly. As a result, complementary therapies are applied along with the modern therapies in Turkey, we are considered to be effective in maintaining and improving individuals’ health.

Keywords: complementary therapy, health, health services, modern therapies

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
849 Developing of Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale in Turkey

Authors: Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Şeyda Dülgerler, Mustafa Yıldız


The purpose of this research is to prove the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale reliability and validity. The research is a methodological type of research that has been planned to determine the validity and reliability of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale. The scale has been developed by the researchers. In the scale, there are 23 questions including complementary and modern therapies individuals apply when they have health problems 4-item Likert-type evaluation has been carried out in preparing the questionnaire. High score obtained from the scale indicates a positive attitude towards complementary therapies. In the course of validity assessment of the scale, expert opinion has been received, and the content validity of the scale has been determined by using Kendall coefficient correlation test (Wa=0.200, p = 0.460). In the course of the reliability assessment of the scale, total score correlations of 23 materials have been examined, and those under 0.20 correlation limit has been removed from the scale correlation. As a result, the scale was left to be 13 items. In the internal consistency tests of the analyses, Cronbach's alpha value has been found to be 0.79. As a result, of the validity analyses of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale, the content and language validity analyses has been found to be at the expected level. It has been determined to be a highly reliable scale as the result of the reliability analyses. In conclusion, Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale is a valid and reliable scale.

Keywords: alternative health care, complementary treatment, instrument development, nursing practice

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848 Price Regulation in Domestic Market: Incentives to Collude in the Deregulated Market

Authors: S. Avdasheva, D. Tsytsulina


In many regulated industries over the world price cap as a method of price regulation replaces cost-plus pricing. It is a kind of incentive regulation introduced in order to enhance productive efficiency by strengthening sellers’ incentives for cost reduction as well as incentives for more efficient pricing. However pricing under cap is not neutral for competition in the market. We consider influence on competition on the markets where benchmark for cap is chosen from when sellers are multi-market. We argue that the impact of price cap regulation on market competition depends on the design of cap. More specifically if cap for one (regulated) market depends on the price of the supplier in other (non-regulated) market, there is sub-type of price cap regulation (known in Russian tariff regulation as ‘netback minus’) that enhance incentives to collude in non-regulated market.

Keywords: price regulation, competition, collusion

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847 Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier

Authors: Alpana Agarwal, Akhil Sharma


This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.

Keywords: CMOS amplifier, gain boosting, inverter-based amplifier, self-biased inverter

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846 Deficiencies in Vitamin A and Iron Supply Potential of Selected Indigenous Complementary Foods of Infants in Uganda

Authors: Richard Kajjura, Joyce Kikafunda, Roger Whitehead


Introduction: Indigenous complementary recipes for children (6-23 months) are bulky and inextricably linked. The potential contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs is not well investigated in Uganda. Less is known whether children in Uganda are living with or without adequate supply of vitamin A and iron nutrients. In this study, vitamin A and iron contents were assessed in the complementary foods fed to infants aged 6-11 months in a Peri-urban setting in Kampala District in Central Uganda. Objective: Assessment of vitamin A and iron contents of indigenous complementary foods of children as fed and associated demographic factor. Method: In a cross sectional study design, one hundred and three (153) households with children aged 6-11 months were randomly selected to participate in the assessment. Complementary food samples were collected from the children’s mothers/caretakers at the time of feeding the child. The mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics of age, education, marital status, occupation and sex collected a semi-qualitative questionnaire. The Vitamin A and iron contents in the complementary foods were analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer for vitamin A and Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer for iron samples. The data was analyzed using Gene-stat software program. Results: The mean vitamin A content was 97.0± 72.5 µg while that of iron was 1.5 ± 0.4 mg per 100g of food sample as fed. The contribution of indigenous complementary foods found was 32% for vitamin A and 15% iron of the recommended dietary allowance. Age of children was found to be significantly associated Vitamin A and Iron supply potential. Conclusion: The contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs was low. Complementary foods in Uganda are more likely to be deficient in vitamin A and iron content. Nutrient dense dietary supplementation should be intervened in to make possible for Ugandan children attain full growth potential.

Keywords: indigenous complementary food, infant, iron, vitamin A

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845 A Low-Power, Low-Noise and High Linearity 60 GHz LNA for WPAN Applications

Authors: Noha Al Majid, Said Mazer, Moulhime El Bekkali, Catherine Algani, Mahmoud Mehdi


A low noise figure (NF) and high linearity V-band Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is reported in this article. The LNA compromises a three-stage cascode configuration. This LNA will be used as a part of a WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) receiver in the millimeter-wave band at 60 GHz. It is designed according to the MMIC technology (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) in PH 15 process from UMS foundry and uses a 0.15 μm GaAs PHEMT (Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor). The particularity of this LNA compared to other LNAs in literature is its very low noise figure which is equal to 1 dB and its high linearity (IIP3 is about 22 dB). The LNA consumes 0.24 Watts, achieving a high gain which is about 23 dB, an input return loss better than -10 dB and an output return loss better than -8 dB.

Keywords: low noise amplifier, V-band, MMIC technology, LNA, amplifier, cascode, pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT), high linearity

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844 Goal Orientation, Learning Strategies and Academic Performance in Adult Distance Learning

Authors: Ying Zhou, Jian-Hua Wang


Based upon the self-determination theory and self-regulated learning theory, this study examined the predictiveness of goal orientation and self-regulated learning strategies on academic achievement of adult students in distance learning. The results show a positive relation between goal orientation and the use of self-regulated strategies, and academic achievements. A significant and positive indirect relation of mastery goal orientation through self-regulated learning strategies was also found. In addition, results pointed to a positive indirect impact of performance-approach goal orientation on academic achievement. The effort regulation strategy fully mediated this relation. The theoretical and instructional implications are discussed. Interventions can be made to motivate students’ mastery or performance approach goal orientation and help them manage their time or efforts.

Keywords: goal orientation, self-regulated strategies, achievement, adult distance students

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843 Transcriptomic Analyses of Kappaphycus alvarezii under Different Wavelengths of Light

Authors: Vun Yee Thien, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Wilson Thau Lym Yong


Transcriptomes associated with the process of photosynthesis have offered insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in terrestrial plants; however, limited information is available as far as macroalgae are concerned. This investigation aims to decipher the underlying mechanisms associated with photosynthesis in the red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii, by performing a differential expression analysis on a de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis of gene expression was designed to examine the alteration of light qualities and its effect on physiological mechanisms in the red alga. High-throughput paired-end RNA-sequencing was applied to profile the transcriptome of K. alvarezii irradiated with different wavelengths of light (blue 492-455 nm, green 577-492 nm and red 780-622 nm) as compared to the full light spectrum, resulted in more than 60 million reads individually and assembled using Trinity and SOAPdenovo-Trans. The transcripts were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant (nr) protein, SwissProt, KEGG and COG databases with a cutoff E-value of 1e-5 and nearly 30% of transcripts were assigned to functional annotation by Blast searches. Differential expression analysis was performed using edgeR. The DEGs were designated to six categories: BL (blue light) regulated, GL (green light) regulated, RL (red light) regulated, BL or GL regulated, BL or RL regulated, GL or RL regulated, and either BL, GL or RL regulated. These DEGs were mapped to terms in KEGG database and compared with the whole transcriptome background to search for genes that regulated by light quality. The outcomes of this study will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying light-induced responses in red algae.

Keywords: de novo transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression, Kappaphycus alvareziired, red alga

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842 Complementary and Traditional Medicine in Turkey

Authors: Hüseyin Biçer


The purpose of this study is an explanation of using and expectation traditional and complementary medicine in Turkey in terms of regionally, cultural and social. Due to geopolitics position, at the intersection of the Middle East, Africa and Europe, Turkey has historically hosted many civilizations and cultures, and hosts many religions at the same time and therefore is very open to intercultural interaction. For this reason, the traditional medicine of Turkey contains traces of many civilizations rather than a traditional medicine of its own. In Turkey, complementary and traditional medicine are used actively. The aim of the study is to measure whether the patients have ever taken traditional medicine as a caretaker or for the supportive treatment of their diseases, and as a result, their expectations. This cross-sectional, paper-based survey study was conducted in 27 state hospitals and 29 family medicine clinics in seven geographical regions of Turkey. Patients who had an appointment in the waiting rooms that day were included. 77.4% of the patients participating in the study stated that they used traditional medicine at least 5 times in their life, 27.6% stated that traditional medicine was sufficient in some diseases, and 36.8% stated that traditional treatment was a part of normal treatment. Both faith and cultural approaches in Turkey always keep traditional medicine close to drugs. Another danger, apart from traditional medicine drugs that can interact with drugs, is that patients find it sufficient to use traditional and complementary medicine alone.

Keywords: complementary medicine, traditional medicine, medicine in Turkey, alternative medicine

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841 Commodification of the Chinese Language: Investigating Language Ideology in the Chinese Complementary Schools’ Online Discourse

Authors: Yuying Liu


Despite the increasing popularity of Chinese and the recognition of the growing commodifying ideology of Chinese language in many contexts (Liu and Gao, 2020; Guo, Shin and Shen 2020), the ideological orientations of the Chinese diaspora community towards the Chinese language remain under-researched. This research contributes seeks to bridge this gap by investigating the micro-level language ideologies embedded in the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. Informed by Ruíz’s (1984) metaphorical representations of language, 11 Chinese complementary schools’ websites were analysed as discursive texts that signal the language policy and ideology to prospective learners and parents were analysed. The results of the analysis suggest that a move from a portrayal of Chinese as linked to student heritage identity, to the commodification of linguistic and cultural diversity, is evident. It denotes the growing commodifying ideology among the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. The changing profile of the complementary school, from serving an ethnical community to teaching Chinese as a foreign language for the wider community, indicates the possibility of creating the a positive synergy between the Complementary school and the mainstream education. This study contributes to the wider discussions of language ideology and language planning, with regards to modern language learning and heritage language maintenance.

Keywords: the Chinese language;, Chinese as heritage language, Chinese as foreign language, Chinese community schools

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840 Effect of Non-Regulated pH on the Dynamics of Dark Fermentative Biohydrogen Production with Suspended and Immobilized Cell Culture

Authors: Joelle Penniston, E. B. Gueguim-Kana


Biohydrogen has been identified as a promising alternative to the use of non-renewable fossil reserves, owing to its sustainability and non-polluting nature. pH is considered as a key parameter in fermentative biohydrogen production processes, due to its effect on the hydrogenase activity, metabolic activity as well as substrate hydrolysis. The present study assesses the influence of regulating pH on dark fermentative biohydrogen production. Four experimental hydrogen production schemes were evaluated. Two were implemented using suspended cells under regulated pH growth conditions (Sus_R) and suspended and non-regulated pH (Sus_N). The two others regimes consisted of alginate immobilized cells under pH regulated growth conditions (Imm_R) and immobilized and non-pH regulated conditions (Imm_N). All experiments were carried out at 37.5°C with glucose as sole source of carbon. Sus_R showed a lag time of 5 hours and a peak hydrogen fraction of 36% and a glucose degradation of 37%, compared to Sus_N which showed a peak hydrogen fraction of 44% and complete glucose degradation. Both suspended culture systems showed a higher peak biohydrogen fraction compared to the immobilized cell system. Imm_R experiments showed a lag phase of 8 hours, a peak biohydrogen fraction of 35%, while Imm_N showed a lag phase of 5 hours, a peak biohydrogen fraction of 22%. 100% glucose degradation was observed in both pH regulated and non-regulated processes. This study showed that biohydrogen production in batch mode with suspended cells in a non-regulated pH environment results in a partial degradation of substrate, with lower yield. This scheme has been the culture mode of choice for most reported studies in biohydrogen research. The relatively lower slope in pH trend of the non-regulated pH experiment with immobilized cells (Imm_N) compared to Sus_N revealed that that immobilized systems have a better buffering capacity compared to suspended systems, which allows for the extended production of biohydrogen even under non-regulated pH conditions. However, alginate immobilized cultures in flask systems showed some drawbacks associated to high rate of gas production that leads to increased buoyancy of the immobilization beads. This ultimately impedes the release of gas out of the flask.

Keywords: biohydrogen, sustainability, suspended, immobilized

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839 2.4 GHz 0.13µM Multi Biased Cascode Power Amplifier for ISM Band Wireless Applications

Authors: Udayan Patankar, Shashwati Bhagat, Vilas Nitneware, Ants Koel


An ISM band power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low-power radio-frequency signal into a larger signal of significant power, typically used for driving the antenna of a transmitter. Due to drastic changes in telecommunication generations may lead to the requirements of improvements. Rapid changes in communication lead to the wide implementation of WLAN technology for its excellent characteristics, such as high transmission speed, long communication distance, and high reliability. Many applications such as WLAN, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, etc. were evolved with 2.4GHz to 5 GHz ISM Band, in which the power amplifier (PA) is a key building block of RF transmitters. There are many manufacturing processes available to manufacture a power amplifier for desired power output, but the major problem they have faced is about the power it consumed for its proper working, as many of them are fabricated on the GaN HEMT, Bi COMS process. In this paper we present a CMOS Base two stage cascode design of power amplifier working on 2.4GHz ISM frequency band. To lower the costs and allow full integration of a complete System-on-Chip (SoC) we have chosen 0.13µm low power CMOS technology for design. While designing a power amplifier, it is a real task to achieve higher power efficiency with minimum resources. This design showcase the Multi biased Cascode methodology to implement a two-stage CMOS power amplifier using ADS and LTSpice simulating tool. Main source is maximum of 2.4V which is internally distributed into different biasing point VB driving and VB driven as required for distinct stages of two stage RF power amplifier. It shows maximum power added efficiency near about 70.195% whereas its Power added efficiency calculated at 1 dB compression point is 44.669 %. Biased MOSFET is used to reduce total dc current as this circuit is designed for different wireless applications comes under 2.4GHz ISM Band.

Keywords: RFIC, PAE, RF CMOS, impedance matching

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838 Use of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in Patients with Chronic Pain in a Medical Institution in Medellin, Colombia, 2014

Authors: Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Juliana Molina Valencia, Esteban Vallejo Agudelo, Daniel Gallego González, María Isabel Pérez Palacio, Juan Ricardo Gaviria García, María De Los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez


Alternative and complementary therapies constitute a vast and complex combination of interventions, philosophies, approaches, and therapies that acquire a holistic healthcare point of view, becoming an alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Objective: determine the characteristics of the use of alternative and complementary therapies in patients with chronic pain who consulted in a medical institution. Methodology: cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a population of patients that assisted to the outpatient consultation and met the eligibility criteria. Sampling was not conducted. A form was used for the collection of demographic and clinical variables and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) was validated. The analysis and processing of information was carried out using the SPSS program vr.19. Results: 220 people with chronic pain were included. The average age was 54.7±16.2 years, 78.2% were women, and 75.5% belonged to the socioeconomic strata 1 to 3. Musculoskeletal pain (77.7%), migraine (15%) and neuralgia (9.1%) were the most frequently types of chronic pain. 33.6% of participants have used some kind of alternative and complementary therapy; the most frequent were: homeopathy (14.5%), phytotherapy (12.7%), and acupuncture (11.4%). The total average HCAMQ score for the study group was 30.2±7.0 points, which shows a moderate attitude toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The highest scores according to the type of pain were: neuralgia (32.4±5.8), musculoskeletal pain (30.5±6.7), fibromyalgia (29.6±7.3) and migraine (28.5±8.8). The reliability of the HCAMQ was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.6). Conclusion: it was noted that the types of chronic pain and the clinical or therapeutic management of patients correspond to the data available in current literature. Despite the moderate attitude toward the use of these alternative and complementary therapies, one of every three patients uses them.

Keywords: chronic pain, complementary therapies, homeopathy, acupuncture analgesia

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837 Improving Mathematics and Engineering Interest through Programming

Authors: Geoffrey A. Wright


In an attempt to address shortcomings revealed in international assessments and lamented in legislation, many schools are reducing or eliminating elective courses, applying the rationale that replacing "non-essential" subjects with core subjects, such as mathematics and language arts, will better position students in the global market. However, there is evidence that systematically pairing a core subject with another complementary subject may lead to greater overall learning in both subjects. In this paper, we outline the methods and preliminary findings from a study we conducted analyzing the influence learning programming has on student mathematical comprehension and ability. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate in what ways two subjects might complement each other, and to better understand the principles and conditions that encourage what we call lateral transfer, the synergistic effect that occurs when a learner studies two complementary subjects.

Keywords: programming, engineering, technology, complementary subjects

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836 Knowledge, Experiences, and Attitudes of Paediatric Nurses regarding Complementary Health Approaches Used by Themselves and Parents for Their Children in Turkey

Authors: Vildan Cırık, Emine Efe


Complementary health approaches are growing in popularity worldwide and play a substantial role in health care. It is very important for paediatric nurses to have knowledge of practices affecting the medical conditions of patients and to communicate with them through integrative nursing care. The purpose of this study was to determine paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of complementary health approaches (CHA) and their personal and professional attitudes to the use of complementary health approaches. This multicentre study was conducted with 1450 paediatric nurses in 18 hospitals in Turkey. Paediatric nurses included in the study were working in the following clinics: Paediatric Service, Paediatric Intensive Care, Paediatric Haematology/Oncology. Data collection focused on the paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of CHA. A high proportion of our sample of paediatric nurses reported that they had used some form of CHA themselves; the most popular choices of CHA were prayer, massage, and vitamins techniques. Paediatric nurses reported positive experiences (drawing/music/art/dance therapies, prayer, herbs, thermal springs, massage, and reflexology) and negative experiences (herbs, thermal springs, prayer, and massage). This study may contribute to increased awareness of the potentially important role of paediatric nurses in the delivery of CHA. Paediatric nurses play important roles in helping patients to use complementary health approaches safely and accurately. Trainings on CHA should be organised, data collection forms including CHA should be created, and evidence-based studies should be focused towards improving the clinical practice of paediatric nurses.

Keywords: complementary health approaches, paediatric nurses, knowledge, experience, attitude, Turkey

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835 Beam Coding with Orthogonal Complementary Golay Codes for Signal to Noise Ratio Improvement in Ultrasound Mammography

Authors: Y. Kumru, K. Enhos, H. Köymen


In this paper, we report the experimental results on using complementary Golay coded signals at 7.5 MHz to detect breast microcalcifications of 50 µm size. Simulations using complementary Golay coded signals show perfect consistence with the experimental results, confirming the improved signal to noise ratio for complementary Golay coded signals. For improving the success on detecting the microcalcifications, orthogonal complementary Golay sequences having cross-correlation for minimum interference are used as coded signals and compared to tone burst pulse of equal energy in terms of resolution under weak signal conditions. The measurements are conducted using an experimental ultrasound research scanner, Digital Phased Array System (DiPhAS) having 256 channels, a phased array transducer with 7.5 MHz center frequency and the results obtained through experiments are validated by Field-II simulation software. In addition, to investigate the superiority of coded signals in terms of resolution, multipurpose tissue equivalent phantom containing series of monofilament nylon targets, 240 µm in diameter, and cyst-like objects with attenuation of 0.5 dB/[MHz x cm] is used in the experiments. We obtained ultrasound images of monofilament nylon targets for the evaluation of resolution. Simulation and experimental results show that it is possible to differentiate closely positioned small targets with increased success by using coded excitation in very weak signal conditions.

Keywords: coded excitation, complementary golay codes, DiPhAS, medical ultrasound

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834 Fostering Preschoolers’ Self-Regulated Learning: A Pilot Study

Authors: Janete Silva Moreira, Paula Costa Ferreira, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão


Self-regulated learning is a transversal competency in human development and plays a central role in acquiring autonomy. It is a complex and dynamic process involving personal, behavioral, and contextual dimensions, as advocated by the socio-cognitive theory. Moreover, the current social challenges require educational professionals, particularly teachers, to be flexible and personalize teaching practices according to children's specificities. This investigation aimed to support the use of approaches that foster self-regulated learning in preschool through a mixed-method and cross-validation approach. We intended to improve preschoolers' self-regulated learning strategies (i.e., forethought, performance, and self-reflection) through an educational intervention, specially designed for this purpose, hypothesizing different results when comparing levels of intervention. Additionally, we aimed to validate a dynamic assessment method socially. Participants included nine preschool teachers and their students (N = 115). The educational intervention was implemented by teachers while engaging in professional training. Children’s pre and post-measures were collected with a dynamic assessment method validated for the children's age, the Dynamic Assessment of Self-regulation in Preschool (DASP) method, applied by teachers. Focus groups were conducted by the researchers with teachers to assess the social validity of the DASP method. Results will be presented showing significant differences between intervention levels regarding some self-regulated learning phases (i.e., forethought and self-reflection). The potentialities of the DASP method for preschool practices considered by teachers will also be shown. Furthermore, this study contributes to the design of educational resources to promote preschool practices according to self-regulated learning dimensions and preschool authentic activities. The possibilities and constraints of the investigation will be discussed considering theoretical, practical, and policy implications.

Keywords: self-regulated learning, preschool, dynamic assessment, educational intervention, professional training

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833 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon


Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

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832 Self-Regulated Learning: A Required Skill for Web 2.0 Internet-Based Learning

Authors: Pieter Conradie, M. Marina Moller


Web 2.0 Internet-based technologies have intruded all aspects of human life. Presently, this phenomenon is especially evident in the educational context, with increased disruptive Web 2.0 technology infusions dramatically changing educational practice. The most prominent of these Web 2.0 intrusions can be identified as Massive Open Online Courses (Coursera, EdX), video and photo sharing sites (Youtube, Flickr, Instagram), and Web 2.0 online tools utilize to create Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) (Symbaloo (aggregator), Delicious (social bookmarking), PBWorks (collaboration), Google+ (social networks), Wordspress (blogs), Wikispaces (wiki)). These Web 2.0 technologies have supported the realignment from a teacher-based pedagogy (didactic presentation) to a learner-based pedagogy (problem-based learning, project-based learning, blended learning), allowing greater learner autonomy. No longer is the educator the source of knowledge. Instead the educator has become the facilitator and mediator of the learner, involved in developing learner competencies to support life-long learning (continuous learning) in the 21st century. In this study, the self-regulated learning skills of thirty first-year university learners were explored by utilizing the Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire. Implementing an action research method, an intervention was affected towards improving the self-regulation skill set of the participants. Statistical significant results were obtained with increased self-regulated learning proficiency, positively impacting learner performance. Goal setting, time management, environment structuring, help seeking, task (learning) strategies and self-evaluation skills were confirmed as determinants of improved learner success.

Keywords: andragogy, online self-regulated learning questionnaire, self-regulated learning, web 2.0

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831 Development and Evaluation of New Complementary Food from Maize, Soya Bean and Moringa for Young Children

Authors: Berhan Fikru


The objective of this study was to develop new complementary food from maize, soybean and moringa for young children. The complementary foods were formulated with linear programming (LP Nutri-survey software) and Faffa (corn soya blend) use as control. Analysis were made for formulated blends and compared with the control and recommended daily intake (RDI). Three complementary foods composed of maize, soya bean, moringa and sugar with ratio of 65:20:15:0, 55:25:15:5 and 65:20:10:5 for blend 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The blends were formulated based on the protein, energy, mineral (iron, zinc an calcium) and vitamin (vitamin A and C) content of foods. The overall results indicated that nutrient content of faffa (control) was 16.32 % protein, 422.31 kcal energy, 64.47 mg calcium, 3.8 mg iron, 1.87mg zinc, 0.19 mg vitamin A and 1.19 vitamin C; blend 1 had 17.16 % protein, 429.84 kcal energy, 330.40 mg calcium, 6.19 mg iron, 1.62 mg zinc, 6.33 mg vitamin A and 4.05 mg vitamin C; blend 2 had 20.26 % protein, 418.79 kcal energy, 417.44 mg calcium, 9.26 mg iron, 2.16 mg zinc, 8.43 mg vitamin A and 4.19 mg vitamin C whereas blend 3 exhibited 16.44 % protein, 417.42 kcal energy, 242.4 mg calcium, 7.09 mg iron, 2.22 mg zinc, 3.69 mg vitamin A and 4.72 mg vitamin C, respectively. The difference was found between all means statically significance (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that the faffa control and blend 3 were preferred by semi-trained panelists. Blend 3 had better in terms of its mineral and vitamin content than FAFFA corn soya blend and comparable with WFP proprietary products CSB+, CSB++ and fulfills the WHO recommendation for protein, energy and calcium. The suggested formulation with Moringa powder can therefore be used as a complementary food to improve the nutritional status and also help solve problems associated with protein energy and micronutrient malnutrition for young children in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia.

Keywords: corn soya blend, proximate composition, micronutrient, mineral chelating agents, complementary foods

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830 Omani PE Candidate Self-Reports of Learning Strategies Used to Learn Sport Skills

Authors: Nasser Al-Rawahi


The study aims at determining self-regulated learning strategies used by Omani physical education candidates to learn sport skills. The data were collected by a self-regulated learning theory questionnaire. The sample of the study comprised of 145 undergraduate physical education students enrolled in the department of physical education at the College of Education, Sultan Qaboos University. The findings of the study revealed that the most commonly used strategies for learning sport skills by Omani physical education candidate are ‘the effort learning strategies, planning learning strategies and evaluation learning strategies’. However, the reflection learning strategies, self-monitoring and self-efficacy learning strategies were revealed as the least used strategies by the PE candidates in learning and acquiring sport skills. Based on these findings, suggestions and recommendations for future research were provided.

Keywords: learning strategies, physical education candidates, self-regulated learning theory, Oman

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829 Contested Space for Regulation in Higher Education

Authors: Sulila Anar


Institutions of any kind are regulated by laws which could be formal or informal, visible or invisible that influences the very structure of the institutions itself. Here in this paper the attempt will be to see how institutions of higher education are regulated by the regulatory institutions by taking the case of India, the third largest education system in the world. The attempt is to try to see how regulation of higher education creates a space for contestation among regulatory institutions based on secondary resources and how this affects the governance of university to achieve the goals and visions.

Keywords: higher education, regulation, autonomy, space

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828 Improvement and Miniaturization RFID Patch Antenna by Inclusion the Complementary Metamaterials

Authors: Seif Naoui, Lassaad Latrach, Ali Gharsallah


This paper is specialized to highlight the method of miniaturization and improvement the patch antenna by using the complementary metamaterial. This method is presented by a simple technique is composed a structure of patch antenna integrated in its surface a cell of complementary split ring resonator. This resonator is placed at the middle of the radiating patch in parallel with the transmission line and with a variable angle of orientation. The objective is to find the ultimate angle where the best results are obtained on improving the characteristics of the considered antenna. This motif widespread at the traceability applications by wireless communication for RFID technology at the operation frequency 2.45 GHz. Our contribution is based on studies empirical often presented in this article. All simulation results were made by the CST Microwave Studio.

Keywords: complimentary split ring resonators, computer simulation technology microwave studio, metamaterials patch antennas, microstrip patch antenna, radio frequency identification

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827 Identification of Salt Responsive Proteins in Rice Leaf Sheath (Oryza sativa L.) with Nanoliquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Kanlaya Kong-Ngern, Chutima Homwonk, Sittiruk Roytrakul


In this research, we compared the proteomic profile of two rice leaf sheaths under salt stress, Thai moderately salt tolerant rice (Leaung Anan), and high salt tolerant rice (Pokkali). Seeds were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 days before NaCl was introduced initially at the level of 12 dS m⁻¹ for 10 days. Then the leaf sheath proteomes were analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE and NanoLC-MS/MS. In this study, 873 proteins were detected. Among these proteins, 219 proteins were known proteins and the other proteins were unnamed and unknown proteins. By using Mev software, we found that only 31 proteins in treated plants of both rice cultivars significantly expressed, 21 proteins were up-regulated and 10 proteins were down-regulated. Interestingly, the intensity of the 3 proteins in the Leaung Anan more expressed than in the Pokkali. The results indicate that the up-regulated proteins were more expressed in less tolerant rice may play an important role in helping rice to survive under salt stress.

Keywords: mass spectrometry, proteomics, rice leaf sheaths, salt stress

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826 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Vector Modulator for Beamforming System

Authors: J. S. Kim


This paper presents a 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) vector modulator for beamforming system. The vector modulator features a 360° phase and gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB with a root mean square phase and amplitude error of only 2.2° and 0.45 dB, respectively. These features make it a suitable for wireless backhaul system in the 5 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. It draws a current of 20.4 mA from a 1.2 V supply. The total chip size is 1.87x1.34 mm².

Keywords: CMOS, vector modulator, beamforming, 802.11ac

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825 Enhanced Iron Accumulation in Chickpea Though Expression of Iron-Regulated Transport and Ferritin Genes

Authors: T. M. L. Hoang, G. Tan, S. D. Bhowmik, B. Williams, A. Johnson, M. R. Karbaschi, Y. Cheng, H. Long, S. G. Mundree


Iron deficiency is a worldwide problem affecting both developed and developing countries. Currently, two major approaches namely iron supplementation and food fortification have been used to combat this issue. These measures, however, are limited by the economic status of the targeted demographics. Iron biofortification through genetic modification to enhance the inherent iron content and bioavailability of crops has been employed recently. Several important crops such as rice, wheat, and banana were reported successfully improved iron content via this method, but there is no known study in legumes. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important leguminous crop that is widely consumed, particularly in India where iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent. Chickpea is also an ideal pulse in the formulation of complementary food between pulses and cereals to improve micronutrient contents. This project aims at generating enhanced ion accumulation and bioavailability chickpea through the exogenous expression of genes related to iron transport and iron homeostasis in chickpea plants. Iron-Regulated Transport (IRT) and Ferritin genes in combination were transformed into chickpea half-embryonic axis by agrobacterium–mediated transformation. Transgenic independent event was confirmed by Southern Blot analysis. T3 leaves and seeds of transgenic chickpea were assessed for iron contents using LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry). The correlation between transgene expression levels and iron content in T3 plants and seeds was assessed using qPCR. Results show that iron content in transgenic chickpea expressing the above genes significantly increased compared to that in non-transgenic controls.

Keywords: iron biofortification, chickpea, IRT, ferritin, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, LA-ICP-MS, ICP-OES

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