Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Nobuhiko Nakano

13 CMOS Positive and Negative Resistors Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross-Coupled Regulated Transistors

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


Two types of floating active resistors based on a complementary regulated cascode topology with cross-coupled regulated transistors are presented in this paper. The first topology is a high swing complementary regulated cascode active resistor. The second topology is a complementary common gate with a regulated cross coupled transistor. The small-signal input resistances of the floating resistors are derived. Three graphs of the input current versus the input voltage for different aspect ratios are designed and plotted using the Cadence Spectre 0.18-µm Rohm Semiconductor process. The total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted for three different aspect ratios with different input-voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies. From the simulation results, it is observed that a resistance of approximately 8.52 MΩ can be obtained from supply voltage at  ±0.9 V.

Keywords: floating active resistor, complementary common gate, complementary regulated cascode, current mirror

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12 2 Stage CMOS Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier Design Based On Inductive Coupling Technique in Submicron CMOS Process

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


This paper proposes one stage and two stage CMOS Complementary Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier (CRCDA) design based on Inductive and Transformer coupling techniques. Usually, Distributed amplifier is based on inductor coupling between gate and gate of MOSFET and between drain and drain of MOSFET. But this paper propose some new idea, by coupling with differential primary windings of transformer between gate and gate of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier and by coupling with differential secondary windings transformer of MOSFET between drain and drain of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier. This paper also proposes polynomial modeling of Silicon Transformer passive equivalent circuit from Nanyang Technological University which is used to extract frequency response of transformer. Cadence simulation results are used to verify validity of transformer polynomial modeling which can be used to design distributed amplifier without Cadence. 4 parameters of scattering matrix of 2 port of the propose circuit is derived as a function of 4 parameters of impedance matrix.

Keywords: CMOS regulated cascode distributed amplifier, silicon transformer modeling with polynomial, low power consumption, distribute amplification technique

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11 CO2 Gas Solubility and Foam Generation

Authors: Chanmoly Or, Kyuro Sasaki, Yuichi Sugai, Masanori Nakano, Motonao Imai


Cold drainage mechanism of oil production is a complicated process which involves with solubility and foaming processes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane (as light oil) and the effect of depressurization processes on microbubble generation. The experimental study of sensitivity parameters of temperature and pressure on CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane was conducted at temperature of 20 °C and 50 °C and pressure ranged 2.0–7.0 MPa by using PVT (RUSKA Model 2370) apparatus. The experiments of foamy hexadecane were also prepared by depressurizing from saturated pressure of 6.4 MPa and temperature of 50 °C. The experimental results show the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane linearly increases with increasing pressure. At pressure 4.5 MPa, CO2 gas dissolved in hexadecane 2.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 50 °C and 3.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 20 °C. The bubbles of foamy hexadecane were observed that most of large bubbles were coalesced shortly whereas the small one keeps presence. The experimental result of foamy hexadecane indicated large depressurization step (∆P) produces high quality of foam with high microbubble distribution.

Keywords: CO2 gas solubility, depressurization process, foamy hexadecane, microbubble distribution

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10 Hypoglycemic Coma in Elderly Patients with Diabetes mellitus

Authors: D. Furuya, H. Ryujin, S. Takahira, Y. Sekine, Y. Oya, K. Sonoda, H. Ogawa, Y. Nomura, R. Maruyama, H. Kim, T. Kudo, A. Nakano, T. Saruta, S. Sugita, M. Nemoto, N. Tanahashi


Purpose: To study the clinical characteristics of hypoglycemic coma in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Participants in this retrospective study comprised 91 patients (54 men, 37 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 71.5 ± 12.6 years; range, 42-97 years) brought to our emergency department by ambulance with disturbance of consciousness in the 7 years from April 2007 to March 2014. Patients with hypoglycemia caused by alcoholic ketoacidosis, nutrition disorder, malignancies and psychological disorder were excluded. Results: Patients with type 1 (8 of 91) or type 2 DM (83 of 91) were analyzed. Mean blood sugar level was 31.6 ± 10.4 in all patients. A sulfonylurea (SU) was more commonly used in elderly (>75 years old; n=44)(70.5%) than in younger patients (36.2%, p < 0.05). Cases showing prolonged unconsciousness (range, 1 hour to 21 days; n=30) included many (p < 0.05) patients with dementia (13.3%; 0.5% without dementia) and fewer (p < 0.05) patients with type 1 DM (0%; 13.1% in type 2 DM). Specialists for DM (n=33) used SU less often (24.2%) than general physicians (69.0%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cases of hypoglycemic coma, SU was frequently used in elderly patients with DM.

Keywords: hypoglycemic coma, Diabetes mellitus, unconsciousness, elderly patients

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9 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano


A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: high voltage, IGBT, solid state switch, bipolar transistor

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8 CT-Scan Transition of Pulmonary Edema Due to Water-Soluble Paint Inhalation

Authors: Masashi Kanazawa, Takaaki Nakano, Masaaki Takemoto, Tomonori Imamura, Mamiko Sugimura, Toshitaka Ito


Introduction: We experienced a massive disaster due to inhalation of water-soluble paint. Sixteen patients were brought to our emergency room, and pulmonary edema was revealed on the CT images of 12 cases. Purpose: Transition of chest CT-scan findings in cases with pulmonary edema was examined. Method: CT-scans were performed on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 19th days after the inhalation event. Patients whose pulmonary edema showed amelioration or exacerbation were classified into the improvement or the exacerbation group, respectively. Those with lung edema findings appearing at different sites after the second day were classified into the changing group. Results: Eight, one and three patients were in the improvement, exacerbation and changing groups, respectively. In all cases, the pulmonary edema had disappeared from CT images on the 19th day after the inhalation event. Conclusion: Inhalation of water-soluble paints is considered to be relatively safe. However, our observations in these emergency cases suggest that, even if pulmonary edema is not severe immediately after the exposure, new lesions may appear later and existing lesions may worsen. Follow-up imaging is thus necessary for about two weeks.

Keywords: CT scan, intoxication, pulmonary edema, water-soluble paint

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7 Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of a Tri-Stable Nonlinear Energy Harvesting System in Rotational Motion for Low Frequency Environment

Authors: Mei Xutao, Nakano Kimihiko


In order to enhance the energy harvesting efficiency, this paper presents a novel tri-stable energy harvesting system (TEHS), which is realized by the effect of magnetic force, in rotational motion to scavenge vibration energy. The device is meant to provide the power supply for wireless autonomous systems in low-frequency environment. The nonlinear TEHS is composed of the cantilever beam which is mounted on a rotating hub and partially covered by piezoelectric patch, a tip mass magnet in the end and two fixed magnets. A theoretical investigation using the Lagrangian formulation is derived to describe the motion of the energy harvesting system and the output voltage. Additionally, several numerical simulations were carried out to characterize the system under different external excitations and to validate its performance. The results demonstrated that TEHS owns a wide range of frequency of snap-through and high output voltage compared with the bi-stable energy harvesting system (BEHS). Moreover, some sets of experimental validations will be performed in the future work because the experimental setup is in the configuration now.

Keywords: piezoelectric beam, rotational motion, snap-through, tri-stable energy harvester

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6 Development of Electroencephalograph Collection System in Language-Learning Self-Study System That Can Detect Learning State of the Learner

Authors: Katsuyuki Umezawa, Makoto Nakazawa, Manabu Kobayashi, Yutaka Ishii, Michiko Nakano, Shigeichi Hirasawa


This research aims to develop a self-study system equipped with an artificial teacher who gives advice to students by detecting the learners and to evaluate language learning in a unified framework. 'Detecting the learners' means that the system understands the learners' learning conditions, such as each learner’s degree of understanding, the difference in each learner’s thinking process, the degree of concentration or boredom in learning, and problem solving for each learner, which can be interpreted from learning behavior. In this paper, we propose a system to efficiently collect brain waves from learners by focusing on only the brain waves among the biological information for 'detecting the learners'. The conventional Electroencephalograph (EEG) measurement method during learning using a simple EEG has the following disadvantages. (1) The start and end of EEG measurement must be done manually by the experiment participant or staff. (2) Even when the EEG signal is weak, it may not be noticed, and the data may not be obtained. (3) Since the acquired EEG data is stored in each PC, there is a possibility that the time of data acquisition will be different in each PC. This time, we developed a system to collect brain wave data on the server side. This system overcame the above disadvantages.

Keywords: artificial teacher, e-learning, self-study system, simple EEG

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5 Gene Expression Analysis for Corals / Zooxanthellae under High Seawater Temperature Stress

Authors: Haruka Ito, Toru Maruyama, Michihiro Ito, Chuya Shinzato, Hiroyuki Fujimura, Yoshikatsu Nakano, Shoichiro Suda, Sachiyo Aburatani, Haruko Takeyama


Clarifying symbiotic relationships is one of the most important theme for understanding the marine eco-system. Coral reef has been regarded as an important environmental resource. Coral holobiont composed by coral, symbiotic microalgae zooxanthellae, and bacteria have complexed relationship. Zooxanthellae mainly supply organic matter to the host corals through their photosynthetic activity. The symbiotic relationship is indispensable for corals but may easily collapses due to the rise of seawater temperature. However, the molecular mechanism how seawater temperature influences their relationships still remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis has applied to elucidate the coral-zooxanthellae relationships under high seawater temperature stress. To observe reactions of corals and zooxanthellae against the rise of seawater temperature, meta-gene expression in coral have been analyzed. The branches from six different colonies of a stony coral, Acropora tenuis, were sampled at nine times by 2016 at two locations, Ishikawabaru and South of Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan. The mRNAs extracted from the branches including zooxanthellae were sequenced by illumina HiSeq. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) based on hyper geometric distribution was performed. The seawater temperature at 2016 summer was unusually high, which was caused by El Niño event, and the number of zooxanthellae in coral was decreased in August. GSEA derived the several specific genes expressed in A. tenuis under heat stress conditions. The upregulated genes under heat stress highly related with infection immunity. The downregulated genes significantly contained cell cycle related genes. Thu, it is considered that heat stress cause disorder in cell metabolism of A. tenuis, resulting in serious influence to coral holobiont.

Keywords: coral, symbiosis, thermal stress response, transcriptome analysis

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4 Proposed Design of an Optimized Transient Cavity Picosecond Ultraviolet Laser

Authors: Marilou Cadatal-Raduban, Minh Hong Pham, Duong Van Pham, Tu Nguyen Xuan, Mui Viet Luong, Kohei Yamanoi, Toshihiko Shimizu, Nobuhiko Sarukura, Hung Dai Nguyen


There is a great deal of interest in developing all-solid-state tunable ultrashort pulsed lasers emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) region for applications such as micromachining, investigation of charge carrier relaxation in conductors, and probing of ultrafast chemical processes. However, direct short-pulse generation is not as straight forward in solid-state gain media as it is for near-IR tunable solid-state lasers such as Ti:sapphire due to the difficulty of obtaining continuous wave laser operation, which is required for Kerr lens mode-locking schemes utilizing spatial or temporal Kerr type nonlinearity. In this work, the transient cavity method, which was reported to generate ultrashort laser pulses in dye lasers, is extended to a solid-state gain medium. Ce:LiCAF was chosen among the rare-earth-doped fluoride laser crystals emitting in the UV region because of its broad tunability (from 280 to 325 nm) and enough bandwidth to generate 3-fs pulses, sufficiently large effective gain cross section (6.0 x10⁻¹⁸ cm²) favorable for oscillators, and a high saturation fluence (115 mJ/cm²). Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the spectro-temporal evolution of the broadband UV laser emission from Ce:LiCAF, represented as a system of two homogeneous broadened singlet states, by solving the rate equations extended to multiple wavelengths. The goal is to find the appropriate cavity length and Q-factor to achieve the optimal photon cavity decay time and pumping energy for resonator transients that will lead to ps UV laser emission from a Ce:LiCAF crystal pumped by the fourth harmonics (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser. Results show that a single ps pulse can be generated from a 1-mm, 1 mol% Ce³⁺-doped LiCAF crystal using an output coupler with 10% reflectivity (low-Q) and an oscillator cavity that is 2-mm long (short cavity). This technique can be extended to other fluoride-based solid-state laser gain media.

Keywords: rare-earth-doped fluoride gain medium, transient cavity, ultrashort laser, ultraviolet laser

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3 Spectrophotometric Detection of Histidine Using Enzyme Reaction and Examination of Reaction Conditions

Authors: Akimitsu Kugimiya, Kouhei Iwato, Toru Saito, Jiro Kohda, Yasuhisa Nakano, Yu Takano


The measurement of amino acid content is reported to be useful for the diagnosis of several types of diseases, including lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and diabetes. The conventional detection methods for amino acid are high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), but they have several drawbacks as the equipment is cumbersome and the techniques are costly in terms of time and costs. In contrast, biosensors and biosensing methods provide more rapid and facile detection strategies that use simple equipment. The authors have reported a novel approach for the detection of each amino acid that involved the use of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) as a molecular recognition element because aaRS is expected to a selective binding ability for corresponding amino acid. The consecutive enzymatic reactions used in this study are as follows: aaRS binds to its cognate amino acid and releases inorganic pyrophosphate. Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was produced by the enzyme reactions of inorganic pyrophosphatase and pyruvate oxidase. The Trinder’s reagent was added into the reaction mixture, and the absorbance change at 556 nm was measured using a microplate reader. In this study, an amino acid-sensing method using histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS; histidine-specific aaRS) as molecular recognition element in combination with the Trinder’s reagent spectrophotometric method was developed. The quantitative performance and selectivity of the method were evaluated, and the optimal enzyme reaction and detection conditions were determined. The authors developed a simple and rapid method for detecting histidine with a combination of enzymatic reaction and spectrophotometric detection. In this study, HisRS was used to detect histidine, and the reaction and detection conditions were optimized for quantitation of these amino acids in the ranges of 1–100 µM histidine. The detection limits are sufficient to analyze these amino acids in biological fluids. This work was partly supported by Hiroshima City University Grant for Special Academic Research (General Studies).

Keywords: amino acid, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, biosensing, enzyme reaction

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2 Network Analysis to Reveal Microbial Community Dynamics in the Coral Reef Ocean

Authors: Keigo Ide, Toru Maruyama, Michihiro Ito, Hiroyuki Fujimura, Yoshikatu Nakano, Shoichiro Suda, Sachiyo Aburatani, Haruko Takeyama


Understanding environmental system is one of the important tasks. In recent years, conservation of coral environments has been focused for biodiversity issues. The damage of coral reef under environmental impacts has been observed worldwide. However, the casual relationship between damage of coral and environmental impacts has not been clearly understood. On the other hand, structure/diversity of marine bacterial community may be relatively robust under the certain strength of environmental impact. To evaluate the coral environment conditions, it is necessary to investigate relationship between marine bacterial composition in coral reef and environmental factors. In this study, the Time Scale Network Analysis was developed and applied to analyze the marine environmental data for investigating the relationship among coral, bacterial community compositions and environmental factors. Seawater samples were collected fifteen times from November 2014 to May 2016 at two locations, Ishikawabaru and South of Sesoko in Sesoko Island, Okinawa. The physicochemical factors such as temperature, photosynthetic active radiation, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH, salinity, chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter and depth were measured at the coral reef area. Metagenome and metatranscriptome in seawater of coral reef were analyzed as the biological factors. Metagenome data was used to clarify marine bacterial community composition. In addition, functional gene composition was estimated from metatranscriptome. For speculating the relationships between physicochemical and biological factors, cross-correlation analysis was applied to time scale data. Even though cross-correlation coefficients usually include the time precedence information, it also included indirect interactions between the variables. To elucidate the direct regulations between both factors, partial correlation coefficients were combined with cross correlation. This analysis was performed against all parameters such as the bacterial composition, the functional gene composition and the physicochemical factors. As the results, time scale network analysis revealed the direct regulation of seawater temperature by photosynthetic active radiation. In addition, concentration of dissolved oxygen regulated the value of chlorophyll. Some reasonable regulatory relationships between environmental factors indicate some part of mechanisms in coral reef area.

Keywords: coral environment, marine microbiology, network analysis, omics data analysis

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1 Evaluation Method for Fouling Risk Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Authors: Natsuki Kishizawa, Keiko Nakano, Hussam Organji, Amer Shaiban, Mohammad Albeirutty


One of the most important tasks in operating desalination plants using a reverse osmosis (RO) method is preventing RO membrane fouling caused by foulants found in seawater. Optimal design of the pre-treatment process of RO process for plants enables the reduction of foulants. Therefore, a quantitative evaluation of the fouling risk in pre-treated water, which is fed to RO, is required for optimal design. Some measurement methods for water quality such as silt density index (SDI) and total organic carbon (TOC) have been conservatively applied for evaluations. However, these methods have not been effective in some situations for evaluating the fouling risk of RO feed water. Furthermore, stable management of plants will be possible by alerts and appropriate control of the pre-treatment process by using the method if it can be applied to the inline monitoring system for the fouling risk of RO feed water. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to evaluate the fouling risk of RO feed water. We applied a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to measure the amount of foulants found in seawater using a sensor whose surface is coated with polyamide thin film, which is the main material of a RO membrane. The increase of the weight of the sensor after a certain length of time in which the sample water passes indicates the fouling risk of the sample directly. We classified the values as “FP: Fouling Potential”. The characteristics of the method are to measure the very small amount of substances in seawater in a short time: < 2h, and from a small volume of the sample water: < 50mL. Using some RO cell filtration units, a higher correlation between the pressure increase given by RO fouling and the FP from the method than SDI and TOC was confirmed in the laboratory-scale test. Then, to establish the correlation in the actual bench-scale RO membrane module, and to confirm the feasibility of the monitoring system as a control tool for the pre-treatment process, we have started a long-term test at an experimental desalination site by the Red Sea in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Implementing inline equipment for the method made it possible to measure FP intermittently (4 times per day) and automatically. Moreover, for two 3-month long operations, the RO operation pressure among feed water samples of different qualities was compared. The pressure increase through a RO membrane module was observed at a high FP RO unit in which feed water was treated by a cartridge filter only. On the other hand, the pressure increase was not observed at a low FP RO unit in which feed water was treated by an ultra-filter during the operation. Therefore, the correlation in an actual scale RO membrane was established in two runs of two types of feed water. The result suggested that the FP method enables the evaluation of the fouling risk of RO feed water.

Keywords: fouling, monitoring, QCM, water quality

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