Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: dysplasia

23 Why is the Recurrence Rate of Residual or Recurrent Disease Following Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR) of the Oesophageal Dysplasia’s and T1 Tumours Higher in the Greater Midlands Cancer Network?

Authors: Harshadkumar Rajgor, Jeff Butterworth

Abstract:

Background: Barretts oesophagus increases the risk of developing oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Over the last 40 years, there has been a 6 fold increase in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in the western world and the incidence rates are increasing at a greater rate than cancers of the colon, breast and lung. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a relatively new technique being used by 2 centres in the greater midlands cancer network. EMR can be used for curative or staging purposes, for high-grade dysplasia’s and T1 tumours of the oesophagus. EMR is also suitable for those who are deemed high risk for oesophagectomy. EMR has a recurrence rate of 21% according to the Wiesbaden data. Method: A retrospective study of prospectively collected data was carried out involving 24 patients who had EMR for curative or staging purposes. Complications of residual or recurrent disease following EMR that required further treatment were investigated. Results: In 54% of cases residual or recurrent disease was suspected. 96% of patients were given clear and concise information regarding their diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia or T1 tumours. All 24 patients consulted the same specialist healthcare team. Conclusion: EMR is a safe and effective treatment for patients who have high-grade dysplasia and T1NO tumours. In 54% of cases residual or recurrent disease was suspected. Initially, only single resections were undertaken. Multiple resections are now being carried out to reduce the risk of recurrence. Complications from EMR remain low in this series and consisted of a single episode of post procedural bleeding.

Keywords: endoscopic mucosal resection, oesophageal dysplasia, T1 tumours, cancer network

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
22 Salter Pelvic Osteotomy for the Treatment of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Assessment of Postoperative Results and Risk Factors

Authors: Suvorov Vasyl, Filipchuk Viktor

Abstract:

Background: If non-surgical treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) fails or if DDH is late-detected, surgery is necessary. Salter pelvic osteotomy (SPO) is an effective surgical option for such cases. The objectives of this study were to assess the results after SPO, evaluate risk factors, and reveal those radiological parameters that may correlate with the results. Mid- and long-term postoperative results after SPO in 17 patients (22 hip joints) were analyzed. Risk factors included those that do not depend on the surgeon (patient's age, value of the acetabular index (AI) preoperatively, DDH Tonnis grade) and those that depend on the surgeon (amount of AI correction). To radiological parameters which may correlate with the amount of AI correction, we referred distance "d" and the lateral rotation angle. Results: SPO allows performing AI correction in ranges 24.1 ± 6.5°. Excellent and good clinical results were obtained in 95.5% of patients; excellent and good radiological results in 86.4% of patients. Risk factors that do not depend on the surgeon were older patient’s age and higher preoperative AI values (p < 0.05). The risk factor that depends on the surgeon was the amount of AI correction (p < 0.05). The distance "d" was recognized as a radiological parameter that may indicate sufficient AI correction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In older patients with a higher preoperative AI value, the results will be predictably worse. The surgeon may influence the result with a greater amount of AI correction (which may also be indicated radiologically by the distance "d" values).

Keywords: developmental dysplasia of the hip, results, risk factor, pelvic osteotomy, salter osteotomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
21 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: BcL-2, immunohistochemistry, oral cancer, oral precancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
20 The Importance of Clinicopathological Features for Differentiation Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Ghada E. Esheba, Ghadeer F. Alharthi, Duaa A. Alhejaili, Rawan E. Hudairy, Wafaa A. Altaezi, Raghad M. Alhejaili

Abstract:

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of two specific gastrointestinal disorders: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Despite their distinct natures, these two diseases share many similar etiologic, clinical and pathological features, as a result, their accurate differential diagnosis may sometimes be difficult. Correct diagnosis is important because surgical treatment and long-term prognosis differ from UC and CD. Aim: This study aims to study the characteristic clinicopathological features which help in the differential diagnosis between UC and CD, and assess the disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 50 selected cases. The cases included 27 cases of UC and 23 cases of CD. All the cases were examined using H& E and immunohistochemically for bcl-2 expression. Results: Characteristic features of UC include: decrease in mucous content, irregular or villous surface, crypt distortion, and cryptitis, whereas the main cardinal histopathological features seen in CD were: epitheloid granuloma, transmural chronic inflammation, absence of mucin depletion, irregular surface, or crypt distortion. 3 cases of UC were found to be associated with dysplasia. UC mucosa contains fewer Bcl-2+ cells compared with CD mucosa. Conclusion: This study using multiple parameters such clinicopathological features and Bcl-2 expression as studied by immunohistochemical stain, helped to gain an accurate differentiation between UC and CD. Furthermore, this work spotted the light on the activity and different grades of UC which could be important for the prediction of relapse.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, dysplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
19 Expression of CASK Antibody in Non-Mucionus Colorectal Adenocarcinoma and Its Relation to Clinicopathological Prognostic Factors

Authors: Reham H. Soliman, Noha Noufal, Howayda AbdelAal

Abstract:

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family and has been proposed as a mediator of cell-cell adhesion and proliferation, which can contribute to tumorogenesis. CASK has been linked as a good prognostic factor with some tumor subtypes, while considered as a poor prognostic marker in others. To our knowledge, no sufficient evidence of CASK role in colorectal cancer is available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) in non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma and adenomatous polyps as precursor lesions and assess its prognostic significance. The study included 42 cases of conventional colorectal adenocarcinoma and 15 biopsies of adenomatous polyps with variable degrees of dysplasia. They were reviewed for clinicopathological prognostic factors and stained by CASK; mouse, monoclonal antibody using heat-induced antigen retrieval immunohistochemical techniques. The results showed that CASK protein was significantly overexpressed (p <0.05) in CRC compared with adenoma samples. The CASK protein was overexpressed in the majority of CRC samples with 85.7% of cases showing moderate to strong expression, while 46.7% of adenomas were positive. CASK overexpression was significantly correlated with both TNM stage and grade of differentiation (p <0.05). There was a significantly higher expression in tumor samples with early stages (I/II) rather than advanced stage (III/IV) and with low grade (59.5%) rather than high grade (40.5%). Another interesting finding was found among the adenomas group, where the stronger intensity of staining was observed in samples with high grade dysplasia (33.3%) than those of lower grades (13.3%). In conclusion, this study shows that there is significant overexpression of CASK protein in CRC as well as in adenomas with high grade dysplasia. This indicates that CASK is involved in the process of carcinogenesis and functions as a potential trigger of the adenoma-carcinoma cascade. CASK was significantly overexpressed in early stage and low-grade tumors rather than tumors with advanced stage and higher histological grades. This suggests that CASK protein is a good prognostic factor. We suggest that CASK affects CRC in two different ways derived from its physiology. CASK as part of MAGUK family can stimulate proliferation and through its cell membrane localization and as a mediator of cell-cell adhesion might contribute in tumor confinement and localization.

Keywords: CASK, colorectal cancer, overexpression, prognosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
18 Esophageal Premalignant and Malignant Epithelial Lesions: Pathological Characteristics and Value of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression.

Authors: Hanan Mohamed Abd Elmoneim, Rawan Saleh AlJawi, Razan Saleh AlJawi, Aseel Abdullah AlMasoudi , Zyad Adnan Turkistani, Anas Abdulkarim Alkhoutani , Ohood Musaed AlJuhani , Hanan Attiyah AlZahrani

Abstract:

Background Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide. More than 90% of esophageal cancers are either squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. Squamous dysplasia is a precancerous lesion for squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's esophagus is the precancerous lesion for adenocarcinoma. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the initiation factor for Barrett's esophagus. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme in arachidonic metabolism. It appears to play an important role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. COX-2 activity may be a potential target for the prevention of cancer progression by selective COX-2 inhibitors, which decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis. Objectives To assess COX-2 expression in premalignant and malignant esophageal epitheliums changes and detect its roles in progression of these lesions. Materials and Methods We analyzed the expression of COX-2 immunohistochemically in 40 esophageal biopsies utilizing the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method on archival formalin fixed-paraffin embedded blocks. Histopathologically, 17 (42.5%) of cases were non-malignant cases which included GERD, Barrett's esophagus and squamous dysplasia. The malignant cases were 23 (57.5%) squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Results In non-malignant cases 7 (41.2%) out of 17 cases had high COX-2 expression. In squamous cell carcinoma 10 (83.3%) out of 12 cases had high COX-2 expression. The expression of COX-2 was high in all 9 (100%) cases of adenocarcinoma. COX-2 expression is significantly increased (P=0.005 and P=0.0001) in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma respectively. There was a significant difference in COX-2 immunoreactivity between malignant and non-malignant lesions (P=0.0003). Conclusion COX-2 is responsible for the progression of esophageal diseases from benign to malignant. We recommend that COX-2 immunohistochemistry should be done routinely for premalignant and malignant esophageal lesions as selective COX-2 inhibitors will be helpful in the treatment. Further studies on molecular and genetic basis of COX-2 expression are needed to unmask its role and relation to progression of esophageal lesions.

Keywords: Cox-2, Esophageal adinocarcinoma, Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, Immunohistochemistry.

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
17 Congenital Malformations in Neonate Dogs in the Sao Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Maria Lucia G. Lourenco, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Congenital malformations are organ defects due to genetic or teratogenic causes, which can lead to high mortality in dog litters. This study assessed and described the congenital malformations in newborn dogs. The study included litters attend in the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. One hundred seventy-eight litters and 803 newborns were evaluated. The occurrence of litters with malformations was 24.7%, and of newborns was 6.7%. Twenty-seven different malformations were registered: anasarca, anal atresia, cleft lip, cleft palate, duplicated right ribcage, equinovarus, exencephaly, gastroschisis, hydrocephaly, lissencephaly, macroglossia, microphthalmia, mitral valve dysplasia, omphalocele, eyelid agenesis, persistent urachus, polydactyly, pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary valve stenosis, rectovaginal fistula, agenesis of abdominal muscles, rib hypoplasia, scoliosis, segmental aplasia of the intestines, tricuspid valve dysplasia, unilateral kidney agenesis, and vaginal atresia. 68.7% of newborns died as a result of malformations. The pure breeds with the highest chances of manifesting malformations in contrast with mixed breeds were French Bulldog, Pug, English Bulldog, Rottweiler, German Spitz, Pinscher, Pitbull, Yorkshire Terrier, and Shih-Tzu. Significant values (P<0.05) occurred in races French Bulldogs and Pugs. The causes of congenital disabilities are possibly related to hereditary genetic factors considering that the highest incidence of malformations was observed among purebreds. There as one case of exposure to a teratogenic agent, but no other mothers were exposed to such agents during pregnancy. Two cases of consanguineal breeding between siblings were reported. The mortality rate was high. Genetic breeding programs for reproduction, avoiding consanguineous mating, care in choosing parents, and avoiding maternal exposure to teratogenic agents are of utmost importance in reducing dog malformations and consequent mortality.

Keywords: congenital defects, teratogenesis, canine neonatology, newborn puppy

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
16 Impact of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Colorectal Adenoma-Colorectal Carcinoma Sequence

Authors: Jannis Kountouras, Nikolaos Kapetanakis, Stergios A. Polyzos, Apostolis Papaeftymiou, Panagiotis Katsinelos, Ioannis Venizelos, Christina Nikolaidou, Christos Zavos, Iordanis Romiopoulos, Elena Tsiaousi, Evangelos Kazakos, Michael Doulberis

Abstract:

Background & Aims: Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-I) has been recognized as a substantial risk agent involved in gastrointestinal (GI) tract oncogenesis by stimulating cancer stem cells (CSCs), oncogenes, immune surveillance processes, and triggering GI microbiota dysbiosis. We aimed to investigate the possible involvement of active Hp-I in the sequence: chronic inflammation–adenoma–colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Methods: Four pillars were investigated: (i) endoscopic and conventional histological examinations of patients with CRC, colorectal adenomas (CRA) versus controls to detect the presence of active Hp-I; (ii) immunohistochemical determination of the presence of Hp; expression of CD44, an indicator of CSCs and/or bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs); expressions of oncogene Ki67 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein; (iii) expression of CD45, indicator of immune surveillance locally (assessing mainly T and B lymphocytes locally); and (iv) correlation of the studied parameters with the presence or absence of Hp-I. Results: Among 50 patients with CRC, 25 with CRA, and 10 controls, a significantly higher presence of Hp-I in the CRA (68%) and CRC group (84%) were found compared with controls (30%). The presence of Hp-I with accompanying immunohistochemical expression of CD44 in biopsy specimens was revealed in a high proportion of patients with CRA associated with moderate/severe dysplasia (88%) and CRC patients with moderate/severe degree of malignancy (91%). Comparable results were also obtained for Ki67, Bcl-2, and CD45 immunohistochemical expressions. Concluding Remarks: Hp-I seems to be involved in the sequence: CRA – dysplasia – CRC, similarly to the upper GI tract oncogenesis, by several pathways such as the following: Beyond Hp-I associated insulin resistance, the major underlying mechanism responsible for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) that increase the risk of colorectal neoplasms, as implied by other Hp-I related MetS pathologies, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and upper GI cancer, the disturbance of the normal GI microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) and the formation of an irritative biofilm could contribute to a perpetual inflammatory upper GIT and colon mucosal damage, stimulating CSCs or recruiting BMDSCs and affecting oncogenes and immune surveillance processes. Further large-scale relative studies with a pathophysiological perspective are necessary to demonstrate in-depth this relationship.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, colorectal cancer, colorectal adenomas, gastrointestinal oncogenesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
15 Evaluation of P16, Human Papillomavirus Capsid Protein L1 and Ki67 in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions: Potential Utility in Diagnosis and Prognosis

Authors: Hanan Alsaeid Alshenawy

Abstract:

Background: Cervical dysplasia, which is potentially precancerous, has increased in young women. Detection of cervical is important for reducing morbidity and mortality in cervical cancer. This study analyzes the immunohistochemical expression of p16, HPV L1 capsid protein and Ki67 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and correlates them with lesion grade to develop a set of markers for diagnosis and detect the prognosis of cervical cancer precursors. Methods: 75 specimens were analyzed including 15 cases CIN 1, 28 CIN 2, 20 CIN 3, and 12 cervical squamous carcinoma, besides 10 normal cervical tissues. They were stained for p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for each marker. Results: p16 expression increased during the progression from CIN 1 to carcinoma. HPV L1 positivity was detected in CIN 2 and decreased gradually as the CIN grade increased but disappear in carcinoma. Strong Ki-67 expression was observed with high grades CIN and carcinoma. p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 were sensitive but with variable specificity in detecting CIN lesions. Conclusions: p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 are useful set of markers in establishing the risk of high-grade CIN. They complete each other to reach accurate diagnosis and prognosis.

Keywords: p16, HPV L1, Ki67, CIN, cervical carcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
14 Investigation of Possible Precancerous Viral Markers in Dental Follicles of Asymptomatic Impacted Teeth

Authors: Serap Keskin Tunç, Cennet Neslihan Eroğlu, Sevinç Şahin, Selda Seçkin

Abstract:

It has been suggested that various viruses may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancerous oral lesions in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of both possible precancerous viral markers (HPV, HHV8, HSV1, HSV2, and EBV), and p53 and Ki-67 in the dental follicles of asymptomatic impacted teeth. A hundred healthy volunteers, older than 18 years old, included in the study. Dental follicles of extracted impacted teeth were excised and fixated in 10% formaldehyde. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations using HPV (containing HPV 8 and HPV 11), p16 (containing HPV 16), HHV8, HSV1, HSV2, EBV, p53 and Ki-67 antibodies were carried out. Also, the immunohistochemical results were correlated with the clinicopathological feature by Chi-square test statistically No dysplasia or neoplasm was observed. 62% of the cases were positive for p16, 32% were positive for EBV, 26% were positive for HSV1, immunohistochemically. All cases were immunonegative for HPV, HSV2, and HHV8. There was statistically significant correlation between overexpression of p53 with both EBV and p16 positivity (p<0.05). Direct correlation between higher expression of Ki-67 between EBV immunopositivity was detected (p<0.05). Thus, these viruses may be suggested to show trophism to the dental follicles acting as a reservoir. In conclusion, all dental follicles of extracted impacted teeth should be examined histopathologically in order to detect and prevent possible viral oncogenesis.

Keywords: dental follicles, Ki67, p53, precancerous markers viral markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
13 Sequence Analysis of the Effect of HPV-16 E1 Variation on Cervical Carcinogenesis

Authors: Fern Baedyananda, Arkom Chaiwongkot, Somchai Niruthisard, Nakarin Kitkumthorn, Parvapan Bhattarakosol

Abstract:

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause transformation of the host cells by down-regulating and inhibiting host regulatory proteins such as p53 and pRb by overexpressing the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. However, the E1 protein which is the only enzyme encoded by HPV has also been shown to cause DNA instability leading to the integration of the virus into the host genome and triggering carcinogenic events. A 63bp duplication in the E1 helicase region has been detected in European patients. However, the clinical prognosis of these patients is still controversial. This study was performed to determine the presence of the HPV-16 E1 63bp duplication in patient cervical samples in Thai women and determine the sequence of the variant in the Thai population. Detection of the HPV-16 E1 duplication in the helicase region was performed in 90 patient cell samples across normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I-III, and squamous cervical carcinoma stages by PCR. The PCR products were purified and sequenced to determine the presence of duplication variants.The variant form was found in 10% of all CIN 1 patients. In this study, the presence of the 63 bp duplication variant in the Thai population was found to be present and was further characterized. Interestingly, all samples that exhibited the variant form of HPV-16 E1 were classified as CIN I. Presence of the variant, constricted to mild dysplasia signifies the importance of HPV-16 E1 in carcinogenesis.

Keywords: carcinogenesis, cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, HPV-16 E1

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
12 Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Dysplasia and Cancer Samples from Twin Cities in Pakistan

Authors: Sana Gul, Sheeba Murad, Aneela Javed

Abstract:

Introduction: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is small DNA virus mostly infecting mucosa and cutaneous keratinocytes. So far, more than 200 Human papillomaviruses are known. HPV have been divided into high- and low-risk on the basis of their oncogenic potential. High risk HPV is considered to be the main etiological cause for cervical cancer. Objective: Current study was designed to screen the local cervical cancer patients from the twin cities of Pakistan for the occurance of high risk HPV. Methodology: A total of 67 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cervical cancer biopsies were obtained from the government hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Cervical cancer biopsies were examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the amplification of a region in the HPV-L1 gene for the general detection of the Papilloma virus and for the genotype specific detection of high risk HPV 16 and 18 using the GP5/GP6 primers and genotype specific primers respectively. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 59 out of 67 samples analyzed. 30 samples showed the presence of HPV16 while 22 samples were positive for HPV 18 . HPV subtype could not be determined in 7 samples. Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, Pakistan, human papillomavirus, HPV 16

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
11 The Identification of Combined Genomic Expressions as a Diagnostic Factor for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Ki-Yeo Kim

Abstract:

Trends in genetics are transforming in order to identify differential coexpressions of correlated gene expression rather than the significant individual gene. Moreover, it is known that a combined biomarker pattern improves the discrimination of a specific cancer. The identification of the combined biomarker is also necessary for the early detection of invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To identify the combined biomarker that could improve the discrimination of OSCC, we explored an appropriate number of genes in a combined gene set in order to attain the highest level of accuracy. After detecting a significant gene set, including the pre-defined number of genes, a combined expression was identified using the weights of genes in a gene set. We used the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the weight calculation. In this process, we used three public microarray datasets. One dataset was used for identifying the combined biomarker, and the other two datasets were used for validation. The discrimination accuracy was measured by the out-of-bag (OOB) error. There was no relation between the significance and the discrimination accuracy in each individual gene. The identified gene set included both significant and insignificant genes. One of the most significant gene sets in the classification of normal and OSCC included MMP1, SOCS3 and ACOX1. Furthermore, in the case of oral dysplasia and OSCC discrimination, two combined biomarkers were identified. The combined genomic expression achieved better performance in the discrimination of different conditions than in a single significant gene. Therefore, it could be expected that accurate diagnosis for cancer could be possible with a combined biomarker.

Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma, combined biomarker, microarray dataset, correlated genes

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
10 Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancer in Women of the North of Chihuahua, Mexico

Authors: Estefania Ponce-Amaya, Ana Lidia Arellano-Ortiz, Cecilia Diaz-Hernandez, Jose Alberto Lopez-Diaz, Antonio De La Mora-Covarrubias, Claudia Lucia Vargas-Requena, Mauricio Salcedo-Vargas, Florinda Jimenez-Vega

Abstract:

Cervical Cancer (CC) is the second leading cause of death among women worldwide and it had been associated with a persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). The goal of the current study was to identify the prevalence of HPV infection in women with abnormal Pap smear who were attended at Dysplasia Clinic of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods: Cervical samples from 146 patients, who attended the Colposcopy Clinic at Sanitary Jurisdiction II of Cd Juarez, were collected for histopathology and molecular study. DNA was isolated for the HPV detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using MY09/011 and GP5/6 primers. The associated risk factors were assessed by a questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, using EpiINFO V7 software. Results: HPV infection was present in 142 patients (97.3 %). The prevalence of HPV infection was distributed in a 96% of all evaluated groups, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HISIL) and CC. We found a statistical significance (α = <0.05) between gestation and number of births as risk factors. The median values showed an ascending tend according with the lesion progression. However, CC showed a statistically significant difference with respect to the pre-carcinogenic stages. Conclusions: In these Mexican patients exists a high prevalence of HPV infection, and for that reason, we are studying the most prevalent HPV genotypes in this population.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, prevalence hpv, squamous intraepithelial lesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
9 Treatment of Histopathological Symptoms in N-Nitrosopyrrolidine Induced Changes in Lung Tissue by Isolated Flavonoid from Indigofera tinctoria

Authors: Aastha Agarwal, Veena Sharma

Abstract:

N-nitrosopyrollidine or NPYR is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine which upon intoxicated causes abnormal production of Reactive Oxygen Species disrupt the endogenous antioxidant system. The study was designed to evaluate the histological changes in lung tissue of Mus musculus in NPYR administered lungs and effect of isolated flavonoid 3,6-dihydroxy-(3’,4’,7’-trimethoxyphenyl)-chromen-4-one-7-glucoside (ITC) from experimental plant Indigofera tinctorial. Post treatment with isolated compound significantly restored the abnormal symptoms and changes in pulmonary tissue. Transverse section of mouse lung in control animals appeared as a thin lace. Histologically, most of the lung was arranged as alveoli which were thin walled structures made up of single layered squamous epithelial cells. In the transverse section of lung at 100 X will clearly show the component of alveoli, surround by a thin layer of connective tissue and blood vessels. Smaller bronchioles were lined by cuboidal epithelial cells while larger bronchioles were lined by ciliated columnar epithelium layer while in NPYR intoxicated lungs signs of vast pulmonary damages and carcinogenesis as alveolar damage, necrosis, DADs or defused alveolar damages hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and next stage of carcinogenesis were revealed. Treatment with ITC showed the significant positive changes in the lung tissue due to the side hydroxyl and methoxy groups in its structure which help in combating oxidative injuries and give protection from the free radicals generated during the metabolism of NPYR in body. Thus, histopathological analysis confirms the development of the cancerous conditions in the lung tissue in mice model and the protective effects of ITC.

Keywords: flavonoid, histopathology, Indigofera tinctoria, lung

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
8 Whole Exome Sequencing Data Analysis of Rare Diseases: Non-Coding Variants and Copy Number Variations

Authors: S. Fahiminiya, J. Nadaf, F. Rauch, L. Jerome-Majewska, J. Majewski

Abstract:

Background: Sequencing of protein coding regions of human genome (Whole Exome Sequencing; WES), has demonstrated a great success in the identification of causal mutations for several rare genetic disorders in human. Generally, most of WES studies have focused on rare variants in coding exons and splicing-sites where missense substitutions lead to the alternation of protein product. Although focusing on this category of variants has revealed the mystery behind many inherited genetic diseases in recent years, a subset of them remained still inconclusive. Here, we present the result of our WES studies where analyzing only rare variants in coding regions was not conclusive but further investigation revealed the involvement of non-coding variants and copy number variations (CNV) in etiology of the diseases. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed using our standard protocols at Genome Quebec Innovation Center, Montreal, Canada. All bioinformatics analyses were done using in-house WES pipeline. Results: To date, we successfully identified several disease causing mutations within gene coding regions (e.g. SCARF2: Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome and SNAP29: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) by using WES. In addition, we showed that variants in non-coding regions and CNV have also important value and should not be ignored and/or filtered out along the way of bioinformatics analysis on WES data. For instance, in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type V and in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, we identified variants in 5'UTR, resulting in the production of longer or truncating non-functional proteins. Furthermore, CNVs were identified as the main cause of the diseases in patients with metaphyseal dysplasia with maxillary hypoplasia and brachydactyly and in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type VII. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of considering non-coding variants and CNVs during interpretation of WES data, as they can be the only cause of disease under investigation.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing data, non-coding variants, copy number variations, rare diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
7 Application of Topical Imiquimod for Treatment Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Young Women: A Preliminary Result of a Pilot Study

Authors: Phill-Seung Jung, Dae-Yeon Kim

Abstract:

Objectives: In young, especially nulliparous women, it is not easy to decide on excisional therapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We aimed to evaluate how effective topical imiquimod is in the treatment of high-grade CIN so that excisional therapy can be avoided in young women. Methods: Patients with CIN were allocated to this pilot study. They did not want excisional therapy and agreed with topical imiquimod therapy, which required once-a-week hospital visit for 8 weeks for the application of imiquimod to the cervix by a gynecologic oncologist. If the lesion got worse during treatment, it was decided to convert imiquimod therapy to excisional therapy. Results: A total of 36 patients with a median age of 29 years (range, 22–41 years) agreed to receive topical imiquimod therapy. Of these, 32 patients (88.9%) were positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV). Twenty-five patients (69.4%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 11 (30.6%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) on their initial LBC. Twenty-eight patients underwent punch biopsy, which showed CIN 1 in 7 (19.4%), CIN 2 in 11 (30.6%), and CIN 3 in 10 (27.8%) patients. Twenty patients finished the 8-week imiquimod therapy. Among them, 14 patients had CIN 2 or 3, and 6 patients had CIN 1. HR HPV was positive in 12 patients. On the last examination, 14 patients (70.0%) had negative intraepithelial lesions, 3 (15.0%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and 1 (5.0%) had LSIL. Two patients had persistent HSIL: 1 patient underwent loop electrosurgical excision procedure, resulting in CIN 3 with positive resection margin, and the other patient underwent punch biopsy, resulting in intermediate cells and restarted imiquimod therapy. Only 7 patients were negative for HR HPV. Conclusions: This study showed that topical imiquimod therapy was effective for the treatment of high-grade CIN, with a histologic regression rate of 85.7% (14/20) and HPV eradication rate of 25.0% (8/32). Based on our findings, topical imiquimod therapy might have a successful therapeutic effect in young women with CIN 2-3 so that they can avoid excisional therapy. In addition, it could be a more reassuring treatment option for CIN 1 than just follow-up after few months. To confirm its efficacy, a phase II study with larger cohort would be needed.

Keywords: Imiquimod, Cervical Intraepthelial Neoplasia, Cervical Dysplasia, Human Papillomavirus

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
6 Whole Exome Sequencing in Characterizing Mysterious Crippling Disorder in India

Authors: Swarkar Sharma, Ekta Rai, Ankit Mahajan, Parvinder Kumar, Manoj K Dhar, Sushil Razdan, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Carol Wise, Shiro Ikegawa M.D., K.K. Pandita M.D.

Abstract:

Rare disorders are poorly understood hence, remain uncharacterized or patients are misdiagnosed and get poor medical attention. A rare mysterious skeletal disorder that remained unidentified for decades and rendered many people physically challenged and disabled for life has been reported in an isolated remote village ‘Arai’ of Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir. This village is located deep in mountains and the population residing in the region is highly consanguineous. In our survey of the region, 70 affected people were reported, showing similar phenotype, in the village with a population of approximately 5000 individuals. We were able to collect samples from two multi generational extended families from the village. Through Whole Exome sequencing (WES), we identified a rare variation NM_003880.3:c.156C>A NP_003871.1:p.Cys52Ter, which results in introduction of premature stop codon in WISP3 gene. We found this variation perfectly segregating with the disease in one of the family. However, this variation was absent in other family. Interestingly, a novel splice site mutation at position c.643+1G>A of WISP3 gene, perfectly segregating with the disease was observed in the second family. Thus, exploiting WES and putting different evidences together (familial histories and genetic data, clinical features, radiological and biochemical tests and findings), the disease has finally been diagnosed as a very rare recessive hereditary skeletal disease “Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Arthropathy of Childhood” (PPAC) also known as “Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Tarda with Progressive Arthropathy” (SEDT-PA). This genetic characterization and identification of the disease causing mutations will aid in genetic counseling, critically required to curb this rare disorder and to prevent its appearance in future generations in the population. Further, understanding of the role of WISP3 gene the biological pathways should help in developing treatment for the disorder.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing, Next Generation Sequencing, rare disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
5 Barriers and Facilitators for Telehealth Use during Cervical Cancer Screening and Care: A Literature Review

Authors: Reuben Mugisha, Stella Bakibinga

Abstract:

The cervical cancer burden is a global threat, but more so in low income settings where more than 85% of mortality cases occur due to lack of sufficient screening programs. There is consequently a lack of early detection of cancer and precancerous cells among women. Studies show that 3% to 35% of deaths could have been avoided through early screening depending on prognosis, disease progression, environmental and lifestyle factors. In this study, a systematic literature review is undertaken to understand potential barriers and facilitators as documented in previous studies that focus on the application of telehealth in cervical cancer screening programs for early detection of cancer and precancerous cells. The study informs future studies especially those from low income settings about lessons learned from previous studies and how to be best prepared while planning to implement telehealth for cervical cancer screening. It further identifies the knowledge gaps in the research area and makes recommendations. Using a specified selection criterion, 15 different articles are analyzed based on the study’s aim, theory or conceptual framework used, method applied, study findings and conclusion. Results are then tabulated and presented thematically to better inform readers about emerging facts on barriers and facilitators to telehealth implementation as documented in the reviewed articles, and how they consequently lead to evidence informed conclusions that are relevant to telehealth implementation for cervical cancer screening. Preliminary findings of this study underscore that use of low cost mobile colposcope is an appealing option in cervical cancer screening, particularly when coupled with onsite treatment of suspicious lesions. These tools relay cervical images to the online databases for storage and retrieval, they permit integration of connected devices at the point of care to rapidly collect clinical data for further analysis of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Results however reveal the need for population sensitization prior to use of mobile colposcopies among patients, standardization of mobile colposcopy programs across screening partners, sufficient logistics and good connectivity, experienced experts to review image cases at the point-of-care as important facilitators to the implementation of mobile colposcope as a telehealth cervical cancer screening mechanism.

Keywords: cervical cancer screening, digital technology, hand-held colposcopy, knowledge-sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
4 Inguinal Hernia Preperitoneal Mesh and Internal Hernia with Caecal Volvulus

Authors: Daniel Tani, Goutham Sivasuthan, Reuben Ndegwa, Omar Mansour

Abstract:

We report a case of a caecal volvulus in a 52-year-old female who had an internal hernia from adhesions originating at the region of a previous inguinal hernia mesh repair. The patient described epigastric and right lower quadrant pain for the preceding two weeks that seemed to worsen with oral intake. She had previous laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repairs with mesh bilaterally; the left in 2007 and the right in 2012. Further surgical history included an open Spigelian hernia repair with mesh in the left lower quadrant and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy 20 years earlier. In addition to this, she had had a colonoscopy done three months prior, which showed no masses or polyps. The patient was hemodynamically stable on review with a soft abdomen. The right lower quadrant was exquisitely tender with a rebound. There were no palpable masses. Blood tests revealed hemoglobin of 155 g/L, a white cell count of 8 x 109/L, and a C-reactive protein of 37 mg/L. A computed tomography scan with portal venous contrast demonstrated a mechanical small bowel obstruction with the terminal ileum and caecum looped around itself in a whirlpool appearance, and the colon collapsed distally. There was a trace of free fluid in the right paracolic gutter and no abdominal free air. Hernia meshes were visible in the inguinal orifices bilaterally and at the left lower quadrant. The mesh on the right inguinal canal appeared to be displaced intraperitoneally. The patient then underwent emergency diagnostic laparoscopy. Intraoperatively, there was a caecal volvulus caused by internal herniation underneath a thick band adhesion at the right iliac fossa. This band appeared to arise from the anterior abdominal wall just posterior to the right inguinal hernia preperitoneal mesh. There was no mesh or tacks exposed and there was no recurrent hernia. A right hemicolectomy was performed with a stapled side-to-side anastomosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and she was discharged on day 6. At follow-up two weeks later, the patient was well and bowel function had returned to normal. Histopathology was negative for dysplasia or malignancy. Inguinal preperitoneal mesh has not been definitively linked to intraabdominal adhesion formation. There has been a study in 2016 that examined the formation of adhesions after ventral hernia repair as detected by MRI and laparoscopic correlation. However, this included intraperitoneal mesh, and the results were not stratified by mesh location. There was an overall 60% rate of adhesions after ventral hernia mesh. There has also been one case report in the literature that describes an adhesional small bowel obstruction that was attributed to a tack that had been placed during a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. In our case report, there was clearly a band adhesion from the preperitoneal mesh that had led to an internal hernia and caecal volvulus; however, whether the mesh had initiated the adhesion is uncertain. While inguinal hernia repair with mesh remains the gold standard, the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions may need to be a consideration in fixation techniques.

Keywords: internal hernia, inguinal hernia mesh, caecal volvulus, adhesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
3 Abnormal Pap Smear Detection by Application of Revised Bethesda System in Commercial Sex Workers and a Control Group: A Comparative Study

Authors: Priyanka Manghani, Manthan Patel, Rahul Peddawad

Abstract:

Cervical Cancer is a major public health hurdle in the area of women’s health. The most common cause of Cervical Cancer is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Human papilloma virus has various genotypes, with HPV 16 and HPV 18 being the major etiological factor causing carcinoma of the Cervix. Early screening and detection by Papanicolaou Smears (PAP) is an effective method for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. In case of existing pre- malignant lesions /cervical dysplasia’s found with HPV 16 or 18, appropriate follow up can be done to prevent it from developing into a neoplasm. Aims and Objectives: Primary Aim; To study various abnormal cervical cytology reports as detected by Pap Smear Tests, using the Bethesda System in women at a Tertiary Care Hospital. Secondary Aim; To discuss the importance of Pap smear in Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Materials and Methods: Our study is a prospective study, based on 101 women who attended the Out-patient department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a tertiary care hospital in age group 20-40 years with chief complaints of white/foul vaginal discharge, post-coital Bleeding, low back pain, irregular menstruation, etc. 60 women, who were tested, of the total no of women, were commercial sex workers, thus being a high-risk group for HPV infection. All women underwent conventional cytology. For all the abnormal smears, further cervical biopsies were done, and the final diagnosis was done on the basis of histopathology (gold standard). Results: In all these patients, 16 patients presented with normal smears out of which 2 belonged to the category of commercial sex workers (3.33%) and 14 being from the normal/control group (34.15%). 44 women presented with inflammatory smears out of which 30 were commercial sex workers (50%) and 14 from the control Group (34.15%). A total of 11 women presented with infectious etiology with 6 being commercial sex workers (10%) and 5 (12.2%) being in the control group. A total of 8 patients presented with low-grade squamous intra epithelial lesion (LSIL) with 7 (11.7%) being commercial sex workers and 1(2.44%) patient belonging to the control group. A Total of 7 patients presented with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) with 6 (10%) being commercial sex workers and 1 (2.44%) belonging to the control group. 9 patients in total presented with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) with 6(10%) being commercial sex workers and 3 (7.32%) belonging to the control group. Squamous cell carcinoma(SCC) presence was found only in 1(1.7%) commercial sex worker. Conclusion – We conclude that HSIL, LSIL, SCC and sexually related infections are comparatively more common in vulnerable groups such as sex workers due to a variety of factors such as multiple sexual partners and poor genital hygiene. Early screening and follow up interventions are highly needed for them along with Health education for risk factors and to emphasize on the importance of Pap smear screening.

Keywords: cervical cancer, papanicolaou (pap) smear, bethesda system, neoplasm

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2 Chemopreventive Efficacy of Andrographolide in Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Model Using Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) as Endpoint Marker

Authors: Maryam Hajrezaie, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia Abdul Majid, Hapipa Mohd Ali, Pouya Hassandarvish, Maryam Zahedi Fard

Abstract:

Background: Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and is the third leading cause of death among cancers in both males and females. The incidence of colon cancer is ranked fourth among all cancers but varies in different parts of the world. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic compounds capable of inducing biological mechanisms necessary to preserve genomic fidelity. Andrographolide is the major labdane diterpenoidal constituent of the plant Andrographis paniculata (family Acanthaceae), used extensively in the traditional medicine. Extracts of the plant and their constituents are reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities of therapeutic importance. Laboratory animal model studies have provided evidence that Andrographolide play a role in inhibiting the risk of certain cancers. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of the Andrographolide in the AOM induced rat model. Methods: To evaluate inhibitory properties of andrographolide on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), five groups of 7-week-old male rats were used. Group 1 (control group) were fed with 10% Tween 20 once a day, Group 2 (cancer control) rats were intra-peritoneally injected with 15 mg/kg Azoxymethan, Gropu 3 (drug control) rats were injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethan and 5-Flourouracil, Group 4 and 5 (experimental groups) were fed with 10 and 20 mg/kg andrographolide each once a day. After 1 week, the treatment group rats received subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane, 15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 2 weeks. Control rats were continued on Tween 20 feeding once a day and experimental groups 10 and 20 mg/kg andrographolide feeding once a day for 8 weeks. All rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after the azoxymethane treatment. Colons were evaluated grossly and histopathologically for ACF. Results: Administration of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg andrographolide were found to be effectively chemoprotective, as evidenced microscopily and biochemically. Andrographolide suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 40% to 60%, respectively, when compared with control group. Pre-treatment with andrographolide, significantly reduced the impact of AOM toxicity on plasma protein and urea levels as well as on plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities. Grossly, colorectal specimens revealed that andrographolide treatments decreased the mean score of number of crypts in AOM-treated rats. Importantly, rats fed andrographolide showed 75% inhibition of foci containing four or more aberrant crypts. The results also showed a significant increase in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activities and a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Histologically all treatment groups showed a significant decrease of dysplasia as compared to control group. Immunohistochemical staining showed up-regulation of Hsp70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that Andrographolide reduce the number of ACF. According to these data, Andrographolide might be a promising chemoprotective activity, in a model of AOM-induced in ACF.

Keywords: chemopreventive, andrographolide, colon cancer, aberrant crypt foci (ACF)

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
1 Vertebral Artery Dissection Complicating Pregnancy and Puerperium: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Authors: N. Reza Pour, S. Chuah, T. Vo

Abstract:

Background: Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It can occur spontaneously or following a traumatic event. The pathogenesis is unclear. Predisposing factors include chronic hypertension, Marfan’s syndrome, fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculitis and cystic medial necrosis. Physiological changes of pregnancy have also been proposed as potential mechanisms of injury to the vessel wall. The clinical presentation varies and it can present as a headache, neck pain, diplopia, transient ischaemic attack, or an ischemic stroke. Isolated cases of VAD in pregnancy and puerperium have been reported in the literature. One case was found to have posterior circulation stroke as a result of bilateral VAD and labour was induced at 37 weeks gestation for preeclampsia. Another patient at 38 weeks with severe neck pain that persisted after induction for elevated blood pressure and arteriography showed right VAD postpartum. A single case of lethal VAD in pregnancy with subsequent massive subarachnoid haemorrhage has been reported which was confirmed by the autopsy. Case Presentation: We report two cases of vertebral artery dissection in pregnancy. The first patient was a 32-year-old primigravida presented at the 38th week of pregnancy with the onset of early labour and blood pressure (BP) of 130/70 on arrival. After 2 hours, the patient developed a severe headache with blurry vision and BP was 238/120. Despite treatment with an intravenous antihypertensive, she had eclamptic fit. Magnesium solfate was started and Emergency Caesarean Section was performed under the general anaesthesia. On the second day after the operation, she developed left-sided neck pain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) angiography confirmed a short segment left vertebral artery dissection at the level of C3. The patient was treated with aspirin and remained stable without any neurological deficit. The second patient was a 33-year-old primigavida who was admitted to the hospital at 36 weeks gestation with BP of 155/105, constant headache and visual disturbances. She was medicated with an oral antihypertensive agent. On day 4, she complained of right-sided neck pain. MRI angiogram revealed a short segment dissection of the right vertebral artery at the C2-3 level. Pregnancy was terminated on the same day with emergency Caesarean Section and anticoagulation was started subsequently. Post-operative recovery was complicated by rectus sheath haematoma requiring evacuation. She was discharged home on Aspirin without any neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Because of collateral circulation, unilateral vertebral artery dissections may go unrecognized and may be more common than suspected. The outcome for most patients is benign, reflecting the adequacy of the collateral circulation in young patients. Spontaneous VAD is usually treated with anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy for a minimum of 3-6 months to prevent future ischaemic events, allowing the dissection to heal on its own. We had two cases of VAD in the context of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with an acceptable outcome. A high level of vigilance is required particularly with preeclamptic patients presenting with head/neck pain to allow an early diagnosis. This is as we hypothesize, early and aggressive management of vertebral artery dissection may potentially prevent further complications.

Keywords: eclampsia, preeclampsia, pregnancy, Vertebral Artery Dissection

Procedia PDF Downloads 208