Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Jean-Yves Didier

32 Relevant LMA Features for Human Motion Recognition

Authors: Insaf Ajili, Malik Mallem, Jean-Yves Didier

Abstract:

Motion recognition from videos is actually a very complex task due to the high variability of motions. This paper describes the challenges of human motion recognition, especially motion representation step with relevant features. Our descriptor vector is inspired from Laban Movement Analysis method. We propose discriminative features using the Random Forest algorithm in order to remove redundant features and make learning algorithms operate faster and more effectively. We validate our method on MSRC-12 and UTKinect datasets.

Keywords: discriminative LMA features, features reduction, human motion recognition, random forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
31 Cars Redistribution Optimization Problem in the Free-Float Car-Sharing

Authors: Amine Ait-Ouahmed, Didier Josselin, Fen Zhou

Abstract:

Free-Float car-sharing is an one-way car-sharing service where cars are available anytime and anywhere in the streets such that no dedicated stations are needed. This means that after driving a car you can park it anywhere. This car-sharing system creates an imbalance car distribution in the cites which can be regulated by staff agents through the redistribution of cars. In this paper, we aim to solve the car-reservation and agents traveling problem so that the number of successful cars’ reservations could be maximized. Beside, we also tend to minimize the distance traveled by agents for cars redistribution. To this end, we present a mixed integer linear programming formulation for the car-sharing problem.

Keywords: one-way car-sharing, vehicle redistribution, car reservation, linear programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
30 Thermal Modelling and Experimental Comparison for a Moving Pantograph Strip

Authors: Nicolas Delcey, Philippe Baucour, Didier Chamagne, Geneviève Wimmer, Auditeau Gérard, Bausseron Thomas, Bouger Odile, Blanvillain Gérard

Abstract:

This paper proposes a thermal study of the catenary/pantograph interface for a train in motion. A 2.5D complex model of the pantograph strip has been defined and created by a coupling between a 1D and a 2D model. Experimental and simulation results are presented and with a comparison allow validating the 2.5D model. Some physical phenomena are described and presented with the help of the model such as the stagger motion thermal effect, particular heats and the effect of the material characteristics. Finally it is possible to predict the critical thermal configuration during a train trip.

Keywords: electro-thermal studies, mathematical optimizations, multi-physical approach, numerical model, pantograph strip wear

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29 Analysis of Some Solutions to Protect the Western Tombolo of Giens

Authors: Yves Lacroix, Van Van Than, Didier Léandri, Pierre Liardet

Abstract:

The tombolo of Giens is located in the town of Hyères (France). We recall the history of coastal erosion, and prominent factors affecting the evolution of the western tombolo. We then discuss the possibility of stabilizing the western tombolo. Our argumentation relies on a coupled model integrating swells, currents, water levels and sediment transport. We present the conclusions of the simulations of various scenarios, including pre-existing propositions from coastal engineering offices. We conclude that beach replenishment seems to be necessary but not sufficient for the stabilization of the beach. Breakwaters reveal effective particularly in the most exposed northern area. Some solutions fulfill conditions so as to be elected as satisfactory. We give a comparative analysis of the efficiency of 14 alternatives for the protection of the tombolo.

Keywords: breakwaters, coupled models, replenishment, silting

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28 Ontology for a Voice Transcription of OpenStreetMap Data: The Case of Space Apprehension by Visually Impaired Persons

Authors: Said Boularouk, Didier Josselin, Eitan Altman

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vocal ontology of OpenStreetMap data for the apprehension of space by visually impaired people. Indeed, the platform based on produsage gives a freedom to data producers to choose the descriptors of geocoded locations. Unfortunately, this freedom, called also folksonomy leads to complicate subsequent searches of data. We try to solve this issue in a simple but usable method to extract data from OSM databases in order to send them to visually impaired people using Text To Speech technology. We focus on how to help people suffering from visual disability to plan their itinerary, to comprehend a map by querying computer and getting information about surrounding environment in a mono-modal human-computer dialogue.

Keywords: TTS, ontology, open street map, visually impaired

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
27 Effect of Scalping on the Mechanical Behavior of Coarse Soils

Authors: Nadine Ali Hassan, Ngoc Son Nguyen, Didier Marot, Fateh Bendahmane

Abstract:

This paper aims at presenting a study of the effect of scalping methods on the mechanical properties of coarse soils by resorting to numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM) and experimental triaxial tests. Two reconstitution methods are used, designated as scalping method and substitution method. Triaxial compression tests are first simulated on a granular materials with a grap graded particle size distribution by using the DEM. We study the effect of these reconstitution methods on the stress-strain behavior of coarse soils with different fine contents and with different ways to control the densities of the scalped and substituted materials. Experimental triaxial tests are performed on original mixtures of sands and gravels with different fine contents and on their corresponding scalped and substituted samples. Numerical results are qualitatively compared to experimental ones. Agreements and discrepancies between these results are also discussed.

Keywords: coarse soils, mechanical behavior, scalping, replacement, triaxial devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
26 Realization of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units-Sensor-Fusion Harness to Control Therapeutic Smartphone Applications

Authors: Svilen Dimitrov, Manthan Pancholi, Norbert Schmitz, Didier Stricker

Abstract:

This paper presents the end-to-end development of a wearable motion sensing harness consisting of computational unit and four inertial measurement units to control three smartphone therapeutic games for children. The inertial data is processed in real time to obtain lower body motion information like knee raises, feet taps and squads. By providing a Wi-Fi connection interface the sensor harness acts wireless remote control for smartphone applications. By performing various lower body movements the users provoke corresponding game state changes. In contrary to the current similar offers, like Nintendo Wii Remote, Xbox Kinect and Playstation Move, this product, consisting of the sensor harness and the applications on top of it, are fully wearable, which means they do not rely on the user to be bound to concrete soft- or hardwareequipped space.

Keywords: wearable harness, inertial measurement units, smartphone therapeutic games, motion tracking, lower-body activity monitoring

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25 Soil Sensibility Characterization of Granular Soils Due to Suffusion

Authors: Abdul Rochim, Didier Marot, Luc Sibille

Abstract:

This paper studies the characterization of soil sensibility due to suffusion process by carrying out a series of one-dimensional downward seepage flow tests realized with an erodimeter. Tests were performed under controlled hydraulic gradient in sandy gravel soils. We propose the analysis based on energy induced by the seepage flow to characterize the hydraulic loading and the cumulative eroded dry mass to characterize the soil response. With this approach, the effect of hydraulic loading histories and initial fines contents to soil sensibility are presented. It is found that for given soils, erosion coefficients are different if tests are performed under different hydraulic loading histories. For given initial fines fraction contents, the sensibility may be grouped in the same classification. The lower fines content soils tend to require larger flow energy to the onset of erosion. These results demonstrate that this approach is effective to characterize suffusion sensibility for granular soils.

Keywords: erodimeter, sandy gravel, suffusion, water seepage energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
24 A Computational Study on Solvent Effects on the Keto-Enol Tautomeric Equilibrium of Dimedone and Acetylacetone 1,3- Dicabonyls

Authors: Imad Eddine Charif, Sidi Mohamed Mekelleche, Didier Villemin

Abstract:

The solvent effects on the keto-enol tautomeric equilibriums of acetylacetone and dimedone are theoretically investigated at the correlated Becke-3-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) computational levels. The present study shows that the most stable keto tautomer of acetylacetone corresponds to the trans-diketo, E,Z form; while the most stable enol tautomer corresponds to the closed cis-enol,Z,Z form. The keto tautomer of dimedone prefers the trans diketo, E, E form; while the most stable enol tautomer corresponds to trans-enol form. The calculated free Gibbs enthalpies indicate that, in polar solvents, the keto-enol equilibrium of acetylacetone is shifted toward the keto tautomer; whereas the keto-enol equilibrium of dimedone is shifted towards the enol tautomer. The experimental trends of the change of equilibrium constants with respect to the change of solvent polarity are well reproduced by both B3LYP and MP2 calculations.

Keywords: acetylacetone, dimedone, solvent effects, keto-enol equilibrium, theoretical calculations

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23 Seismic Activity in the Lake Kivu Basin: Implication for Seismic Risk Management

Authors: Didier Birimwiragi Namogo

Abstract:

The Kivu Lake Basin is located in the Western Branch of the East African Rift. In this basin is located a multitude of active faults, on which earthquakes occur regularly. The most recent earthquakes date from 2008, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2019. The cities of Bukabu and Goma in DR Congo and Giseyi in Rwanda are the most impacted by this intense seismic activity in the region. The magnitude of the strongest earthquakes in the region is 6.1. The 2008 earthquake was particularly destructive, killing several people in DR Congo and Rwanda. This work aims to complete the distribution of seismicity in the region, deduce areas of weakness and establish a hazard map that can assist in seismic risk management. Using the local seismic network of the Goma Volcano Observatory, the earthquakes were relocated, and their focus mechanism was studied. The results show that most of these earthquakes occur on active faults described by Villeneuve in 1938. The alignment of the earthquakes shows a pace that follows directly the directions of the faults described by this author. The study of the focus mechanism of these earthquakes, also shows that these are in particular normal faults whose stresses show an extensive activity. Such study can be used for the establishment of seismic risk management tools.

Keywords: earthquakes, hazard map, faults, focus mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
22 Effect of Magnesium Inoculation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Spheroidal Cast Iron Knuckle: A Focus on the Steering Arm

Authors: Steven Mavhungu, Didier Nyembwe, Daniel Sekotlong

Abstract:

The steering knuckle is an integral component of the suspension and stability control system of modern vehicles. Good mechanical properties with an emphasis on the fatigue properties are essential for this component as it is subjected to cyclical load of significant magnitude during service. These properties are a function of the microstructure achieved in the component during the various manufacturing processes including forging and casting. The strut mount of the knuckle is required to meet specified microstructure and mechanical properties. However, in line with the recent trend of stringent quality requirements of cast components, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have had to extend the specifications to other sections of the knuckle. This paper evaluates the effect of cored wire inoculation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the steering arm of a typical spheroidal cast iron component. The investigation shows that the use of a cored wire having higher rare earth content formulation could possibly lead to a homogeneous matrix containing consistent graphite nodule morphology. However, this was found not to be the condition for better mechanical properties along the knuckle arm in line with required specifications. The findings in this paper contribute to a better understanding of steering knuckle properties to allow its production for safer automobile applications.

Keywords: inoculation, magnesium cored wire, spheroidal graphie, steering knuckle

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21 Experimental Quantification and Modeling of Dissolved Gas during Hydrate Crystallization: CO₂ Hydrate Case

Authors: Amokrane Boufares, Elise Provost, Veronique Osswald, Pascal Clain, Anthony Delahaye, Laurence Fournaison, Didier Dalmazzone

Abstract:

Gas hydrates have long been considered as problematic for flow assurance in natural gas and oil transportation. On the other hand, they are now seen as future promising materials for various applications (i.e. desalination of seawater, natural gas and hydrogen storage, gas sequestration, gas combustion separation and cold storage and transport). Nonetheless, a better understanding of the crystallization mechanism of gas hydrate and of their formation kinetics is still needed for a better comprehension and control of the process. To that purpose, measuring the real-time evolution of the dissolved gas concentration in the aqueous phase during hydrate formation is required. In this work, CO₂ hydrates were formed in a stirred reactor equipped with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) probe coupled to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer. A method was first developed to continuously measure in-situ the CO₂ concentration in the liquid phase during solubilization, supersaturation, hydrate crystallization and dissociation steps. Thereafter, the measured concentration data were compared with those of equilibrium concentrations. It was observed that the equilibrium is instantly reached in the liquid phase due to the fast consumption of dissolved gas by the hydrate crystallization. Consequently, it was shown that hydrate crystallization kinetics is limited by the gas transfer at the gas-liquid interface. Finally, we noticed that the liquid-hydrate equilibrium during the hydrate crystallization is governed by the temperature of the experiment under the tested conditions.

Keywords: gas hydrate, dissolved gas, crystallization, infrared spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
20 Analysys of Some Solutions to Protect the Tombolo of Giens

Authors: Yves Lacroix, Van Van Than, Didier Léandri, Pierre Liardet

Abstract:

The western Tombolo of the Giens peninsula in southern France, known as Almanarre beach, is subject to coastal erosion. We are trying to use computer simulation in order to propose solutions to stop this erosion. Our aim was first to determine the main factors for this erosion and successfully apply a coupled hydro-sedimentological numerical model based on observations and measurements that have been performed on the site for decades. We have gathered all available information and data about waves, winds, currents, tides, bathymetry, coastal line, and sediments concerning the site. These have been divided into two sets: one devoted to calibrating a numerical model using Mike 21 software, the other to serve as a reference in order to numerically compare the present situation to what it could be if we implemented different types of underwater constructions. This paper presents the first part of the study: selecting and melting different sources into a coherent data basis, identifying the main erosion factors, and calibrating the coupled software model against the selected reference period. Our results bring calibration of the numerical model with good fitting coefficients. They also show that the winter South-Western storm events conjugated to depressive weather conditions constitute a major factor of erosion, mainly due to wave impact in the northern part of the Almanarre beach. Together, current and wind impact is shown negligible.

Keywords: Almanarre beach, coastal erosion, hydro-sedimentological, numerical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
19 Efficient Production of Cell-Adhesive Motif From Human Fibronectin Domains to Design a Bio-Functionalized Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

Authors: Amina Ben Abla, Sylvie Changotade, Geraldine Rohman, Guilhem Boeuf, Cyrine Dridi, Ahmed Elmarjou, Florence Dufour, Didier Lutomski, Abdellatif Elm’semi

Abstract:

Understanding cell adhesion and interaction with the extracellular matrix is essential for biomedical and biotechnological applications, including the development of biomaterials. In recent years, numerous biomaterials have emerged and were used in the field of tissue engineering. Nevertheless, the lack of interaction of biomaterials with cells still limits their bio-integration. Thus, the design of bioactive biomaterials to improve cell attachment and proliferation is of growing interest. In this study, bio-functionalized material was developed combining a synthetic polymer scaffold surface with selected domains of type III human fibronectin (FNIII-DOM) to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Bioadhesive ligand includes cell-binding domains of human fibronectin, a major ECM protein that interacts with a variety of integrins cell-surface receptors, and ECM proteins through specific binding domains were engineered. FNIII-DOM was produced in bacterial system E. coli in 5L fermentor with a high yield level reaching 20mg/L. Bioactivity of the produced fragment was validated by studying cellular adhesion of human cells. The adsorption and immobilization of FNIII-DOM onto the polymer scaffold were evaluated in order to develop an innovative biomaterial.

Keywords: biomaterials, cellular adhesion, fibronectin, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
18 Bank Competition: On the Relationship with Revenue Diversification and Funding Strategy from Selected ASEAN Countries

Authors: Oktofa Y. Sudrajad, Didier V. Caillie

Abstract:

Association of Southeast Asian Countries Nations (ASEAN) is moving forward to the next level of regional integration by the initiation of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) which is already started in 2015, 8 years after its declaration for the creation of AEC in 2007. This commitment imposes financial integration in the region is one of the main agenda which will be achieved until 2025. Therefore, the commitment to financial integration including banking integration will bring new landscape in the competition and business model in this region. This study investigates the effect of competition on bank business model using a sample of 324 banks from seven members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). We use market power approach and Boone indicator as competition measures, while income diversification and bank funding strategies are employed as bank business model representation. Moreover, we also evaluate bank business model based by grouping the banks based on the main banking characteristics. We use unbalanced bank-specific annual panel data over the period of 2003 – 2015. Our empirical analysis shows that the banking industries in ASEAN countries adapt their business model by increasing non-interest income proportion due to the level of competition increase in the sector.

Keywords: bank business model, banking competition, Boone indicator, market power

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
17 Analysis of a Coupled Hydro-Sedimentological Numerical Model for the Western Tombolo of Giens

Authors: Yves Lacroix, Van Van Than, Didier Léandri, Pierre Liardet

Abstract:

The western Tombolo of the Giens peninsula in southern France, known as Almanarre beach, is subject to coastal erosion. We are trying to use computer simulation in order to propose solutions to stop this erosion. Our aim was first to determine the main factors for this erosion and successfully apply a coupled hydro-sedimentological numerical model based on observations and measurements that have been performed on the site for decades. We have gathered all available information and data about waves, winds, currents, tides, bathymetry, coastal line, and sediments concerning the site. These have been divided into two sets: one devoted to calibrating a numerical model using Mike 21 software, the other to serve as a reference in order to numerically compare the present situation to what it could be if we implemented different types of underwater constructions. This paper presents the first part of the study: selecting and melting different sources into a coherent data basis, identifying the main erosion factors, and calibrating the coupled software model against the selected reference period. Our results bring calibration of the numerical model with good fitting coefficients. They also show that the winter South-Western storm events conjugated to depressive weather conditions constitute a major factor of erosion, mainly due to wave impact in the northern part of the Almanarre beach. Together, current and wind impact is shown negligible.

Keywords: Almanarre beach, coastal erosion, hydro-sedimentological, numerical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
16 Detection and Quantification of Ochratoxin A in Food by Aptasensor

Authors: Moez Elsaadani, Noel Durand, Brice Sorli, Didier Montet

Abstract:

Governments and international instances are trying to improve the food safety system to prevent, reduce or avoid the increase of food borne diseases. This food risk is one of the major concerns for the humanity. The contamination by mycotoxins is a threat to the health and life of humans and animals. One of the most common mycotoxin contaminating feed and foodstuffs is Ochratoxin A (OTA), which is a secondary metabolite, produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium strains. OTA has a chronic toxic effect and proved to be mutagenic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, immunosuppressive, and carcinogenic. On the other side, because of their high stability, specificity, affinity, and their easy chemical synthesis, aptamer based methods are applied to OTA biosensing as alternative to traditional analytical technique. In this work, five aptamers have been tested to confirm qualitatively and quantitatively their binding with OTA. In the same time, three different analytical methods were tested and compared based on their ability to detect and quantify the OTA. The best protocol that was established to quantify free OTA from linked OTA involved an ultrafiltration method in green coffee solution with. OTA was quantified by HPLC-FLD to calculate the binding percentage of all five aptamers. One aptamer (The most effective with 87% binding with OTA) has been selected to be our biorecognition element to study its electrical response (variation of electrical properties) in the presence of OTA in order to be able to make a pairing with a radio frequency identification (RFID). This device, which is characterized by its low cost, speed, and a simple wireless information transmission, will implement the knowledge on the mycotoxins molecular sensors (aptamers), an electronic device that will link the information, the quantification and make it available to operators.

Keywords: aptamer, aptasensor, detection, Ochratoxin A

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
15 Parameters Identification and Sensitivity Study for Abrasive WaterJet Milling Model

Authors: Didier Auroux, Vladimir Groza

Abstract:

This work is part of STEEP Marie-Curie ITN project, and it focuses on the identification of unknown parameters of the proposed generic Abrasive WaterJet Milling (AWJM) PDE model, that appears as an ill-posed inverse problem. The necessity of studying this problem comes from the industrial milling applications where the possibility to predict and model the final surface with high accuracy is one of the primary tasks in the absence of any knowledge of the model parameters that should be used. In this framework, we propose the identification of model parameters by minimizing a cost function, measuring the difference between experimental and numerical solutions. The adjoint approach based on corresponding Lagrangian gives the opportunity to find out the unknowns of the AWJM model and their optimal values that could be used to reproduce the required trench profile. Due to the complexity of the nonlinear problem and a large number of model parameters, we use an automatic differentiation software tool (TAPENADE) for the adjoint computations. By adding noise to the artificial data, we show that in fact the parameter identification problem is highly unstable and strictly depends on input measurements. Regularization terms could be effectively used to deal with the presence of data noise and to improve the identification correctness. Based on this approach we present results in 2D and 3D of the identification of the model parameters and of the surface prediction both with self-generated data and measurements obtained from the real production. Considering different types of model and measurement errors allows us to obtain acceptable results for manufacturing and to expect the proper identification of unknowns. This approach also gives us the ability to distribute the research on more complex cases and consider different types of model and measurement errors as well as 3D time-dependent model with variations of the jet feed speed.

Keywords: Abrasive Waterjet Milling, inverse problem, model parameters identification, regularization

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14 Legal Study on the Construction of Olympic and Paralympic Soft Law about Manipulation of Sports Competition

Authors: Clemence Collon, Didier Poracchia

Abstract:

The manipulation of sports competitions is a new type of sports integrity problem. While doping has become an organized, institutionalized struggle, the manipulation of sports competitions is gradually building up. This study aims to describe and understand how the soft Olympic and Paralympic law was gradually built. It also summarizes the legal tools for prevention, detection, and sanction developed by the international Olympic movement. Then, it analyzes the impact of this soft law on the law of the States, in particular in French law. This study is mainly based on an analysis of existing legal literature and non-binding law in the International Olympic and Paralympic movement and on the French National Olympic Committee. Interviews were carried out with experts from the Olympic movement or experts working on combating the manipulation of sports competitions; the answers are also used in this article. The International Olympic Committee has created a supranational legal base to fight against the manipulation of sports competitions. This legal basis must be respected by sports organizations. The Olympic Charter, the Olympic Code of Ethics, the Olympic Movement Code on the prevention of the manipulation of sports competitions, the rules of standards, the basic universal principles, the manuals, the declarations have been published in this perspective. This sports soft law has influences or repercussions in each state. Many states take this new form of integrity problem into account by creating state laws or measures in favor of the fight against sports manipulations. France has so far only a legal basis for manipulation related to betting on sports competitions through the infraction of sports corruption included in the penal code and also created a national platform with various actors to combat this cheating. This legal study highlights the progressive construction of the sports law rules of the Olympic movement in the fight against the manipulation of sports competitions linked to sports betting and their impact on the law of the states.

Keywords: integrity, law and ethics, manipulation of sports competitions, olympic, sports law

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
13 Optimal Design of a PV/Diesel Hybrid System for Decentralized Areas through Economic Criteria

Authors: David B. Tsuanyo, Didier Aussel, Yao Azoumah, Pierre Neveu

Abstract:

An innovative concept called “Flexy-Energy”is developing at 2iE. This concept aims to produce electricity at lower cost by smartly mix different available energies sources in accordance to the load profile of the region. With a higher solar irradiation and due to the fact that Diesel generator are massively used in sub-Saharan rural areas, PV/Diesel hybrid systems could be a good application of this concept and a good solution to electrify this region, provided they are reliable, cost effective and economically attractive to investors. Presentation of the developed approach is the aims of this paper. The PV/Diesel hybrid system designed consists to produce electricity and/or heat from a coupling between Diesel gensets and PV panels without batteries storage, while ensuring the substitution of gasoil by bio-fuels available in the area where the system will be installed. The optimal design of this system is based on his technical performances; the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Levelized Cost of Energy are developed and use as economic criteria. The Net Present Value (NPV), the internal rate of return (IRR) and the discounted payback (DPB) are also evaluated according to dual electricity pricing (in sunny and unsunny hours). The PV/Diesel hybrid system obtained is compared to the standalone Diesel gensets. The approach carried out in this paper has been applied to Siby village in Mali (Latitude 12 ° 23'N 8 ° 20'W) with 295 kWh as daily demand. This approach provides optimal physical characteristics (size of the components, number of component) and dynamical characteristics in real time (number of Diesel generator on, their load rate, fuel specific consumptions, and PV penetration rate) of the system. The system obtained is slightly cost effective; but could be improved with optimized tariffing strategies.

Keywords: investments criteria, optimization, PV hybrid, sizing, rural electrification

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12 Improvement of Plantain Leaves Nutritive Value in Goats by Urea Treatment and Nitrogen Supplements

Authors: Marie Lesly Fontin, Audalbert Bien-Aimé, Didier Marlier, Yves Beckers

Abstract:

Fecal digestibility of mature plantain leaves was determined in castrated Creolegoatsin order to better assess them. Five diets made from plantain leaves were used in an in vivo digestibility study on 20 castrated Creole goats over three periods using a completely random design in order to assess their apparent fecal digestibility (Dg). These diets consisted of sun-dried leaves (DL), sun-dried urea treated leaves (DUTL, 5kg of urea per 100kg of raw product ensilaged during 90 days with 60 kg of water), sun-dried leaves + hoopvine (Trichostigma octandrum, L)(DLH, DL: 61.4% + Hoopvine: 38.6%), sun-dried leaves + urea (DLU, DL: 98.2%+ U: 1.8%), and fresh leaves. (FL).0.5% of salt diluted with water was added to diets before distribution to the goats. A mineral lick block was available for each goat in its digestibility cage. During each period, diets were distributed to meet the maintenance needs of the goats for 21 days, including 14 days of adaptation and 7 days of measurement. Offered and refused diets and feces were weighed every day, and samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Results showed that the urea treatment increasedCP (Crude Protein) content of DL by 44% (from 10.4% for DL to 15.0% for DUTL) and decreased their NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) content (55.5% to 52.4%). Large amounts of refused feed (around 40%) were observed in goats fed with FL, DLU, and DL diets, for which no significant difference was observed for DM (Dry Matter) intakes (40.3; 36.6 and 35.1g/kg0.75 respectively) (p>0.05). DM intakes of DUTL (59.9 g/kg0.75) were significantly (p<0.05) greater than DLH (50.2 g/kg0.75). DM Dg of DL was very low (29.2%). However, supplementation with hoopvine and urea treatment resulted in a significant increase of DM Dg (40.3% and 42.1%, respectively), but the addition of urea (DLU) had no effect on it. FL showed a DM Dg similar to DHL and DUTL diets (39.0%). OM (Organic Matter)Dg was higher for the DUTL diet (45.1%), followed by DLH (40.9%), then by DLU and FL (32.9% and 40.7% respectively) and finally by DL (29.8%). CP Dg was higher for the FL diet (65.7%) and lower for the DL diet (39.9%). NDF Dg was also increased with urea treatment (54.8% for DUTL) and with the addition of hoopvine (41.4%) compared to the DL diet (31.0% for DLH). In conclusion, urea treatment and complementation with hoopvine of plantain leaves are the best treatments among those tested for increasing the nutritive value of this foragein the castrated Creole goats.

Keywords: apparent fecal digestibility, nitrogen supplements, plantain leaves, urea treatment

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11 Multi-Objective Optimization of Run-of-River Small-Hydropower Plants Considering Both Investment Cost and Annual Energy Generation

Authors: Amèdédjihundé H. J. Hounnou, Frédéric Dubas, François-Xavier Fifatin, Didier Chamagne, Antoine Vianou

Abstract:

This paper presents the techno-economic evaluation of run-of-river small-hydropower plants. In this regard, a multi-objective optimization procedure is proposed for the optimal sizing of the hydropower plants, and NSGAII is employed as the optimization algorithm. Annual generated energy and investment cost are considered as the objective functions, and number of generator units (n) and nominal turbine flow rate (QT) constitute the decision variables. Site of Yeripao in Benin is considered as the case study. We have categorized the river of this site using its environmental characteristics: gross head, and first quartile, median, third quartile and mean of flow. Effects of each decision variable on the objective functions are analysed. The results gave Pareto Front which represents the trade-offs between annual energy generation and the investment cost of hydropower plants, as well as the recommended optimal solutions. We noted that with the increase of the annual energy generation, the investment cost rises. Thus, maximizing energy generation is contradictory with minimizing the investment cost. Moreover, we have noted that the solutions of Pareto Front are grouped according to the number of generator units (n). The results also illustrate that the costs per kWh are grouped according to the n and rise with the increase of the nominal turbine flow rate. The lowest investment costs per kWh are obtained for n equal to one and are between 0.065 and 0.180 €/kWh. Following the values of n (equal to 1, 2, 3 or 4), the investment cost and investment cost per kWh increase almost linearly with increasing the nominal turbine flowrate while annual generated. Energy increases logarithmically with increasing of the nominal turbine flowrate. This study made for the Yeripao river can be applied to other rivers with their own characteristics.

Keywords: hydropower plant, investment cost, multi-objective optimization, number of generator units

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10 An Efficient Motion Recognition System Based on LMA Technique and a Discrete Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Insaf Ajili, Malik Mallem, Jean-Yves Didier

Abstract:

Human motion recognition has been extensively increased in recent years due to its importance in a wide range of applications, such as human-computer interaction, intelligent surveillance, augmented reality, content-based video compression and retrieval, etc. However, it is still regarded as a challenging task especially in realistic scenarios. It can be seen as a general machine learning problem which requires an effective human motion representation and an efficient learning method. In this work, we introduce a descriptor based on Laban Movement Analysis technique, a formal and universal language for human movement, to capture both quantitative and qualitative aspects of movement. We use Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM) for training and classification motions. We improve the classification algorithm by proposing two DHMMs for each motion class to process the motion sequence in two different directions, forward and backward. Such modification allows avoiding the misclassification that can happen when recognizing similar motions. Two experiments are conducted. In the first one, we evaluate our method on a public dataset, the Microsoft Research Cambridge-12 Kinect gesture data set (MSRC-12) which is a widely used dataset for evaluating action/gesture recognition methods. In the second experiment, we build a dataset composed of 10 gestures(Introduce yourself, waving, Dance, move, turn left, turn right, stop, sit down, increase velocity, decrease velocity) performed by 20 persons. The evaluation of the system includes testing the efficiency of our descriptor vector based on LMA with basic DHMM method and comparing the recognition results of the modified DHMM with the original one. Experiment results demonstrate that our method outperforms most of existing methods that used the MSRC-12 dataset, and a near perfect classification rate in our dataset.

Keywords: human motion recognition, motion representation, Laban Movement Analysis, Discrete Hidden Markov Model

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9 Ability of Bentonite-lactobacillus Rhamnosus GAF06 Mixture to Mitigate Aflatoxin M1 Damages in Balb/C Mice

Authors: Amina Aloui, Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Abdellah Zinedine, Amar Riba, Noel Durand, Catherine Brabet, Didier Montet, Samir Abbès

Abstract:

Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed-isa globaconcern, both economically and for public health. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1. It is frequently found in milk and other dairy products. It is responsible for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and immunotoxic in humans and animals. The reduction of its bioavailabilitybecomesa great demand in order to protect human and animal health. The use of probiotic bacteria and clay are demonstrated to be able to bind AFM1 in vitro. This study aimed to investigate, in vivo, the activity of two-component mixture: L. rhamnosusGAF06 (LR) and bentonite for reducing the oxidative stress and the histological alterationsinduced by AFM1 in the liver andkidneys. For the experiment, male mice were divided into 7 groups (6 mice/group) and treated, orally, by AFM1, alone or in combination with LR and/or bentonite, for 10 days as follows: group 1 control, group 2 treated with LR alone (2.108 CFU/ml), group 3 treated with bentonite alone (1g/kg), group 4 treated with AFM1 alone (100μg/kg), group 5 co-treated with LR+AFM1, group 6 co-treated with bentonite+AFM1, group 7 co-treated with bentonite+LR+AFM1. At the end of the treatment, the mice were sacrificed, and the livers and kidneys were collected for histological assays. Intracellular antioxidant activities and lipid peroxidation were also studied. The results showed that AFM1causeddamage in liver and kidney tissues, being evidence of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity marked by necrotic cells. It increased the MDA level and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD) in both organs. In contrast, the co-treatment with AFM1 plus LR and/or bentonitesignificantly improved the hepatic and renal tissues, regulated kidney, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities. This improvement was more remarkable with the administration of LR-bentonite mixture with AFM1.LR and bentonite alone showed to be safe during the treatment. This mixture can be a promising candidate for future applications in biotechnological processes that aimed to detoxify AFM1in food and feed.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, bentonite, L. rhamnosus GAF06, oxidative stress, prevention

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8 Climatic Variations and Risk of Mycotoxins in the Wheat Sector in Morocco: Two Years of Investigation

Authors: Aicha El Jai, Abdellah Zinedine, Didier Montet, Catherine Brabet, Noel Durand

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Morocco, a Mediterranean and North African country, is recognized with its climate with annual variations in recorded temperature and precipitations. Morocco's climate is very diverse, varying with the season and region. On the coasts, the climate is Mediterranean, considered humid temperate at higher elevations, while hot and dry in the Southwestern part. The aim of the study was to investigate the multi-occurrence of Mycotoxinsin wheat Samplesharvestedfrom two different climatic areasof, Morocco during 2020 and 2021. Analytical results showed that out of 60 total wheat grain samples sampled during 2019 and 2020 seasons from two different areas in Morocco,19 (31.6%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin and that several mycotoxins co-occurred in the analyzed samples. On the other hand, wheat samples collected from the littoral area were found to be more contaminated.In this area, five mycotoxins occurred: ENB (100%), ENB1 (73.3%), FB1 (40%), ENA1 (13%), OTA (6.6%). The highest mycotoxin level was found for ENB (4940 ng/g) in a sample from the littoral area. While in the continental area, only three mycotoxins (ENB (75%), DON (25%), ENB1 (25%)) were found. One contaminated sample with OTA beyond the thirty samples harvested from the littoral area exceeded the Regulatory limits set by Moroccan and European legislations with 12ng/g. On the other hand, 100 total wheat grain samples were sampled during 2020, and 2021 seasons from two different areas in Morocco, ENB showed the highest incidence (100%) followed by ENB1 (73.3%) and FB1 with (40%), 80% of the positive samples were pre-storage samples. Concerning the continental area, ENB was mainly present with an incidence of (75%) followed by ENB1 and DON with the same incidence (25%), while (ENB + ENB1) was the only co-occurrent mycotoxin (5% of positive samples) in both areas. The highest mycotoxin level was found for ENB (493 ng/g) in a sample from the continental area, even though enniatins are emerging Fusarium mycotoxins and there are currently no regulatory limits. Results showed as well a co-presence of mycotoxins This is the first study assessing the impact of climate variations on multi-occurrence of mycotoxinsin wheat samplesharvestedfrom two different climatic areasof morocco during two years of investigation. Therefore, a polyphasic identification of toxigenic fungi is essential to seek the fungi origin of the contaminations.

Keywords: mycotoxins, climatic variations, morocco, wheat sector

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7 Broadband Ultrasonic and Rheological Characterization of Liquids Using Longitudinal Waves

Authors: M. Abderrahmane Mograne, Didier Laux, Jean-Yves Ferrandis

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Rheological characterizations of complex liquids like polymer solutions present an important scientific interest for a lot of researchers in many fields as biology, food industry, chemistry. In order to establish master curves (elastic moduli vs frequency) which can give information about microstructure, classical rheometers or viscometers (such as Couette systems) are used. For broadband characterization of the sample, temperature is modified in a very large range leading to equivalent frequency modifications applying the Time Temperature Superposition principle. For many liquids undergoing phase transitions, this approach is not applicable. That is the reason, why the development of broadband spectroscopic methods around room temperature becomes a major concern. In literature many solutions have been proposed but, to our knowledge, there is no experimental bench giving the whole rheological characterization for frequencies about a few Hz (Hertz) to many MHz (Mega Hertz). Consequently, our goal is to investigate in a nondestructive way in very broadband frequency (A few Hz – Hundreds of MHz) rheological properties using longitudinal ultrasonic waves (L waves), a unique experimental bench and a specific container for the liquid: a test tube. More specifically, we aim to estimate the three viscosities (longitudinal, shear and bulk) and the complex elastic moduli (M*, G* and K*) respectively longitudinal, shear and bulk moduli. We have decided to use only L waves conditioned in two ways: bulk L wave in the liquid or guided L waves in the tube test walls. In this paper, we will present first results for very low frequencies using the ultrasonic tracking of a falling ball in the test tube. This will lead to the estimation of shear viscosity from a few mPa.s to a few Pa.s (Pascal second). Corrections due to the small dimensions of the tube will be applied and discussed regarding the size of the falling ball. Then the use of bulk L wave’s propagation in the liquid and the development of a specific signal processing in order to assess longitudinal velocity and attenuation will conduct to the longitudinal viscosity evaluation in the MHz frequency range. At last, the first results concerning the propagation, the generation and the processing of guided compressional waves in the test tube walls will be discussed. All these approaches and results will be compared to standard methods available and already validated in our lab.

Keywords: nondestructive measurement for liquid, piezoelectric transducer, ultrasonic longitudinal waves, viscosities

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6 High Physical Properties of Biochar Issued from Cashew Nut Shell to Adsorb Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins and Ochratoxine A) and Its Effects on Toxigenic Molds

Authors: Abderahim Ahmadou, Alfredo Napoli, Noel Durand, Didier Montet

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Biochar is a microporous and adsorbent solid carbon product obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic materials (biomass, agricultural waste). Biochar is distinguished from vegetable charcoal by its manufacture methods. Biochar is used as the amendment in soils to give them favorable characteristics under certain conditions, i.e., absorption of water and its release at low speed. Cashew nuts shell from Mali is usually discarded on land by local processors or burnt as a mean for waste management. The burning of this biomass poses serious socio-environmental problems including greenhouse gas emission and accumulation of tars and soot on houses closed to factories, leading to neighbor complaints. Some mycotoxins as aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds resulting from the secondary metabolism of molds that develop on plants in the field and during their conservation. They are found at high level on some seeds and nuts in Africa. Ochratoxin A, member of mycotoxins, is produced by various species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Human exposure to Ochratoxin A can occur through consumption of contaminated food products, particularly contaminated grain, as well as coffee, wine grapes. We showed that cashew shell biochars produced at 400, 600 and 800°C adsorbed aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) at 100% by filtration (rapid contact) as well as by stirring (long contact). The average percentage of adsorption of Ochratoxin A was 35% by filtration and 80% by stirring. The duration of the biochar-mycotoxin contact was a significant parameter. The effect of biochar was also tested on two strains of toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus (producers of Aflatoxins) and Aspergillus carbonarius (producers of Ochratoxins). The growth of the strain Aspergillus carbonarius was inhibited at up to 60% by the biochar at 600°C. An opposite effect to the inhibition was observed on Aspergillus parasiticus using the same biochar. In conclusion, we observed that biochar adsorbs mycotoxins: Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A to different degrees; 100% adsorption of aflatoxins under all conditions (filtration and stirring) and adsorption of Ochratoxin A varied depending on the type of biochar and the experiment conditions (35% by filtration and 85% by stirring). The effects of biochar at 600 °C on the toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus carbonarius, varied according to the experimental conditions and the strains. We observed an opposite effect on the growth with an inhibition of Aspergillus carbonarius up to 60% and a stimulated growth of Aspergillus parasiticus.

Keywords: biochar, cashew nut shell, mycotoxins, toxicogenic molds

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5 Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique

Authors: Cindy Sithole, Didier Nyembwe, Peter Olubambi

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The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.

Keywords: defects, foundries, quality improvement, sand moulding, six sigma (DMAIC)

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4 Nitrate Photoremoval in Water Using Nanocatalysts Based on Ag / Pt over TiO2

Authors: Ana M. Antolín, Sandra Contreras, Francesc Medina, Didier Tichit

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Introduction: High levels of nitrates (> 50 ppm NO3-) in drinking water are potentially risky to human health. In the recent years, the trend of nitrate concentration in groundwater is rising in the EU and other countries. Conventional catalytic nitrate reduction processes into N2 and H2O lead to some toxic intermediates and by-products, such as NO2-, NH4+, and NOx gases. Alternatively, photocatalytic nitrate removal using solar irradiation and heterogeneous catalysts is a very promising and ecofriendly technique. It has been scarcely performed and more research on highly efficient catalysts is still needed. In this work, different nanocatalysts supported on Aeroxide Titania P25 (P25) have been prepared varying: 0.5-4 % wt. Ag); Pt (2, 4 % wt.); Pt precursor (H2PtCl6/K2PtCl6); and impregnation order of both metals. Pt was chosen in order to increase the selectivity to N2 and decrease that to NO2-. Catalysts were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, X-Ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM and X Ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The aim was to determine the influence of the composition and the preparation method of the catalysts on the conversion and selectivity in the nitrate reduction, as well as going through an overall and better understanding of the process. Nanocatalysts synthesis: For the mono and bimetallic catalysts preparation, wise-drop wetness impregnation of the precursors (AgNO3, H2PtCl6, K2PtCl6) followed by a reduction step (NaBH4) was used to obtain the metal colloids. Results and conclusions: Denitration experiments were performed in a 350 mL PTFE batch reactor under inert standard operational conditions, ultraviolet irradiations (λ=254 nm (UV-C); λ=365 nm (UV-A)), and presence/absence of hydrogen gas as a reducing agent, contrary to most studies using oxalic or formic acid. Samples were analyzed by Ionic Chromatography. Blank experiments using respectively P25 (dark conditions), hydrogen only and UV irradiations without hydrogen demonstrated a clear influence of the presence of hydrogen on nitrate reduction. Also, they demonstrated that UV irradiation increased the selectivity to N2. Interestingly, the best activity was obtained under ultraviolet lamps, especially at a closer wavelength to visible light irradiation (λ = 365 nm) and H2. 2% Ag/P25 leaded to the highest NO3- conversion among the monometallic catalysts. However, nitrite quantities have to be diminished. On the other hand, practically no nitrate conversion was observed with the monometallics based on Pt/P25. Therefore, the amount of 2% Ag was chosen for the bimetallic catalysts. Regarding the bimetallic catalysts, it is observed that the metal impregnation order, amount and Pt precursor highly affects the results. Higher selectivity to the desirable N2 gas is obtained when Pt was firstly added, especially with K2PtCl6 as Pt precursor. This suggests that when Pt is secondly added, it covers the Ag particles, which are the most active in this reaction. It could be concluded that Ag allows the nitrate reduction step to nitrite, and Pt the nitrite reduction step toward the desirable N2 gas.

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogenation, nanocatalyst, nitrate removal, photocatalysis

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3 Epidemiological Data of Schistosoma haematobium Bilharzia in Rural and Urban Localities in the Republic of Congo

Authors: Jean Akiana, Digne Merveille Nganga Bouanga, Nardiouf Sjelin Nsana, Wilfrid Sapromet Ngoubili, Chyvanelle Ndous Akiridzo, Vishnou Reize Ampiri, Henri-Joseph Parra, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov, Cheikh Sadhibou Sokhna

Abstract:

Schistosoma haematobium schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in which the level of human exposure, incidence, and fatality attributed to it remains, unfortunately, high worldwide. The erection of hydroelectric infrastructures constitute a major factor in the emergence of this disease. In the context of the Republic of the Congo, which considers industrialization and modernization as two essential pillars of development, building the hydroelectric dams of Liouesso (19 Mw) and the feasibility studies of the dams of Chollet (600MW) in the Sangha, of Sounda (1000MW) in Kouilou and Kouembali (150MW) on Lefini is necessary to increase the country's energy capacities. Likewise, the urbanization of former endemic localities should take into account the maintenance of contamination points. However, health impact studies on schistosomiasis epidemiology in general and urinary bilharzia, in particular, have never been carried out in these areas, neither before nor after the erection of those dams. Participants benefited from an investigative questionnaire, urinalysis both by dipstick and urine filtrate examined under a microscope. Assessment of the genetic diversity of schistosoma species populations was considered as well as PCR analysis to confirm the test strip and microscopy tests. 405 participants were registered in five localities. The sampling was made up of a balanced population in terms of male/female ratio, which is around 1. The prevalence rate was 45% (55/123) in Nkayi, 10.40% (11/106) in Loudima, 1 case in Mbomo (West Cuvette), which would probably be imported, zero in Liouesso and Kabo. The highest oviuria (number of eggs per volume of urine) is 150 S. haematobium eggs/10ml in Nkayi, apart from the case of imported Mbomo, imported from Gabon, which has 160 S. haematobium eggs/10ml. The lowest oviuria was 2 S. haematobium eggs/10ml. Prevalence rates are still high in semi-urban areas (Nkayi). As praziquantel treatments are available and effective, it is important to step up mass treatment campaigns in high risk areas already largely initiated by the National Schistosomiasis Control Program. Prevalence rates are still high in semi-urban areas (Nkayi). As praziquantel treatments are available and effective, it is important to step up mass treatment campaigns in high risk areas already largely initiated by the National Schistosomiasis Control Program.

Keywords: Bilharzia, Schistosoma haematobium, oviuria, urbanization, Congo

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