Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 749

Search results for: Gabor filter

749 2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Ali Cheraghian, Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Yongsheng Gao


In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.

Keywords: Gabor filter, discrete cosine transform, 2.5d face recognition, pose

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
748 Dynamic Gabor Filter Facial Features-Based Recognition of Emotion in Video Sequences

Authors: T. Hari Prasath, P. Ithaya Rani


In the world of visual technology, recognizing emotions from the face images is a challenging task. Several related methods have not utilized the dynamic facial features effectively for high performance. This paper proposes a method for emotions recognition using dynamic facial features with high performance. Initially, local features are captured by Gabor filter with different scale and orientations in each frame for finding the position and scale of face part from different backgrounds. The Gabor features are sent to the ensemble classifier for detecting Gabor facial features. The region of dynamic features is captured from the Gabor facial features in the consecutive frames which represent the dynamic variations of facial appearances. In each region of dynamic features is normalized using Z-score normalization method which is further encoded into binary pattern features with the help of threshold values. The binary features are passed to Multi-class AdaBoost classifier algorithm with the well-trained database contain happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, and neutral expressions to classify the discriminative dynamic features for emotions recognition. The developed method is deployed on the Ryerson Multimedia Research Lab and Cohn-Kanade databases and they show significant performance improvement owing to their dynamic features when compared with the existing methods.

Keywords: detecting face, Gabor filter, multi-class AdaBoost classifier, Z-score normalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
747 Feature Extraction Based on Contourlet Transform and Log Gabor Filter for Detection of Ulcers in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Nimisha Elsa Koshy, Varun P. Gopi, V. I. Thajudin Ahamed


The entire visualization of GastroIntestinal (GI) tract is not possible with conventional endoscopic exams. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a low risk, painless, noninvasive procedure for diagnosing diseases such as bleeding, polyps, ulcers, and Crohns disease within the human digestive tract, especially the small intestine that was unreachable using the traditional endoscopic methods. However, analysis of massive images of WCE detection is tedious and time consuming to physicians. Hence, researchers have developed software methods to detect these diseases automatically. Thus, the effectiveness of WCE can be improved. In this paper, a novel textural feature extraction method is proposed based on Contourlet transform and Log Gabor filter to distinguish ulcer regions from normal regions. The results show that the proposed method performs well with a high accuracy rate of 94.16% using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in HSV colour space.

Keywords: contourlet transform, log gabor filter, ulcer, wireless capsule endoscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
746 Automatic Detection and Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: A. Biran, P. Sobhe Bidari, A. Almazroe, V. Lakshminarayanan, K. Raahemifar


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a severe retinal disease which is caused by diabetes mellitus. It leads to blindness when it progress to proliferative level. Early indications of DR are the appearance of microaneurysms, hemorrhages and hard exudates. In this paper, an automatic algorithm for detection of DR has been proposed. The algorithm is based on combination of several image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Also, Support Vector Machine (SVM) Classifier is used to classify retinal images to normal or abnormal cases including non-proliferative or proliferative DR. The proposed method has been tested on images selected from Structured Analysis of the Retinal (STARE) database using MATLAB code. The method is perfectly able to detect DR. The sensitivity specificity and accuracy of this approach are 90%, 87.5%, and 91.4% respectively.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, fundus images, STARE, Gabor filter, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
745 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis


In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
744 Operation Parameters of Vacuum Cleaned Filters

Authors: Wilhelm Hoeflinger, Thomas Laminger, Johannes Wolfslehner


For vacuum cleaned dust filters, used e. g. in textile industry, there exist no calculation methods to determine design parameters (e. g. traverse speed of the nozzle, filter area...). In this work a method to calculate the optimum traverse speed of the nozzle of an industrial-size flat dust filter at a given mean pressure drop and filter face velocity was elaborated. Well-known equations for the design of a cleanable multi-chamber bag-house-filter were modified in order to take into account a continuously regeneration of a dust filter by a nozzle. Thereby, the specific filter medium resistance and the specific cake resistance values are needed which can be derived from filter tests under constant operation conditions. A lab-scale filter test rig was used to derive the specific filter media resistance value and the specific cake resistance value for vacuum cleaned filter operation. Three different filter media were tested and the determined parameters were compared to each other.

Keywords: design of dust filter, dust removing, filter regeneration, operation parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
743 Compact Microstrip Ultra-Wideband Bandstop Filter With Quasi-Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Hussein Shaman, Faris Almansour


This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband

Keywords: microstrip filter, bandstop filter, UWB filter, transmission line filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
742 Hybrid Approach for Face Recognition Combining Gabor Wavelet and Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: A: Annis Fathima, V. Vaidehi, S. Ajitha


Face recognition system finds many applications in surveillance and human computer interaction systems. As the applications using face recognition systems are of much importance and demand more accuracy, more robustness in the face recognition system is expected with less computation time. In this paper, a hybrid approach for face recognition combining Gabor Wavelet and Linear Discriminant Analysis (HGWLDA) is proposed. The normalized input grayscale image is approximated and reduced in dimension to lower the processing overhead for Gabor filters. This image is convolved with bank of Gabor filters with varying scales and orientations. LDA, a subspace analysis techniques are used to reduce the intra-class space and maximize the inter-class space. The techniques used are 2-dimensional Linear Discriminant Analysis (2D-LDA), 2-dimensional bidirectional LDA ((2D)2LDA), Weighted 2-dimensional bidirectional Linear Discriminant Analysis (Wt (2D)2 LDA). LDA reduces the feature dimension by extracting the features with greater variance. k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) classifier is used to classify and recognize the test image by comparing its feature with each of the training set features. The HGWLDA approach is robust against illumination conditions as the Gabor features are illumination invariant. This approach also aims at a better recognition rate using less number of features for varying expressions. The performance of the proposed HGWLDA approaches is evaluated using AT&T database, MIT-India face database and faces94 database. It is found that the proposed HGWLDA approach provides better results than the existing Gabor approach.

Keywords: face recognition, Gabor wavelet, LDA, k-NN classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
741 A Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Fault Detection

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite observations and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noise-free systems. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, numerical examples are performed for the discretized DC motor system having the multiple sensor faults.

Keywords: residual generation filter, finite memory structure, kalman filter, fast detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
740 Study on Filter for Semiconductor of Minimizing Damage by X-Ray Laminography

Authors: Chan Jong Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Ki Hyun Park, Koan Sik Joo


This research used the MCNPX simulation program to evaluate the utility of a filter that was developed to minimize the damage to a semiconductor device during defect testing with X-ray. The X-ray generator was designed using the MCNPX code, and the X-ray absorption spectrum of the semiconductor device was obtained based on the designed X-ray generator code. To evaluate the utility of the filter, the X-ray absorption rates of the semiconductor device were calculated and compared for Ag, Rh, Mo and V filters with thicknesses of 25μm, 50μm, and 75μm. The results showed that the X-ray absorption rate varied with the type and thickness of the filter, ranging from 8.74% to 49.28%. The Rh filter showed the highest X-ray absorption rates of 29.8%, 15.18% and 8.74% for the above-mentioned filter thicknesses. As shown above, the characteristics of the X-ray absorption with respect to the type and thickness of the filter were identified using MCNPX simulation. With these results, both time and expense could be saved in the production of the desired filter. In the future, this filter will be produced, and its performance will be evaluated.

Keywords: X-ray, MCNPX, filter, semiconductor, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
739 Automatic Target Recognition in SAR Images Based on Sparse Representation Technique

Authors: Ahmet Karagoz, Irfan Karagoz


Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a radar mechanism that can be integrated into manned and unmanned aerial vehicles to create high-resolution images in all weather conditions, regardless of day and night. In this study, SAR images of military vehicles with different azimuth and descent angles are pre-processed at the first stage. The main purpose here is to reduce the high speckle noise found in SAR images. For this, the Wiener adaptive filter, the mean filter, and the median filters are used to reduce the amount of speckle noise in the images without causing loss of data. During the image segmentation phase, pixel values are ordered so that the target vehicle region is separated from other regions containing unnecessary information. The target image is parsed with the brightest 20% pixel value of 255 and the other pixel values of 0. In addition, by using appropriate parameters of statistical region merging algorithm, segmentation comparison is performed. In the step of feature extraction, the feature vectors belonging to the vehicles are obtained by using Gabor filters with different orientation, frequency and angle values. A number of Gabor filters are created by changing the orientation, frequency and angle parameters of the Gabor filters to extract important features of the images that form the distinctive parts. Finally, images are classified by sparse representation method. In the study, l₁ norm analysis of sparse representation is used. A joint database of the feature vectors generated by the target images of military vehicle types is obtained side by side and this database is transformed into the matrix form. In order to classify the vehicles in a similar way, the test images of each vehicle is converted to the vector form and l₁ norm analysis of the sparse representation method is applied through the existing database matrix form. As a result, correct recognition has been performed by matching the target images of military vehicles with the test images by means of the sparse representation method. 97% classification success of SAR images of different military vehicle types is obtained.

Keywords: automatic target recognition, sparse representation, image classification, SAR images

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
738 A Packet Loss Probability Estimation Filter Using Most Recent Finite Traffic Measurements

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


A packet loss probability (PLP) estimation filter with finite memory structure is proposed to estimate the packet rate mean and variance of the input traffic process in real-time while removing undesired system and measurement noises. The proposed PLP estimation filter is developed under a weighted least square criterion using only the finite traffic measurements on the most recent window. The proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to have several inherent properties such as unbiasedness, deadbeat, robustness. A guideline for choosing appropriate window length is described since it can affect significantly the estimation performance. Using computer simulations, the proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to be superior to the Kalman filter for the temporarily uncertain system. One possible explanation for this is that the proposed PLP estimation filter can have greater convergence time of a filtered estimate as the window length M decreases.

Keywords: packet loss probability estimation, finite memory filter, infinite memory filter, Kalman filter

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737 The Effect of Compensating Filter on Image Quality in Lateral Projection of Thoracolumbar Radiography

Authors: Noor Arda Adrina Daud, Mohd Hanafi Ali


The compensating filter is placed between the patient and X-ray tube to compensate various density and thickness of human body. The main purpose of this project is to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoracolumbar radiography. The study was performed by an X-ray unit where different thicknesses of aluminum were used as compensating filter. Specifically the relationship between thickness of aluminum, density and noise were evaluated. Results show different thickness of aluminum compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoracolumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The aluminum wedge compensating filter was designed resulting in an acceptable image quality.

Keywords: compensating filter, aluminum, image quality, lateral, thoracolumbar

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736 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani


Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.

Keywords: empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
735 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen


Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: frequency transformation, bilinear z-transformation, pre-warping frequency, digital filters, analog filters, pascal’s triangle

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
734 Design of Wide-Range Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Digital Filters

Authors: Jong-Jy Shyu, Soo-Chang Pei, Yun-Da Huang


In this paper, design of wide-range variable fractional-delay (WR-VFD) finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters is proposed. With respect to the conventional VFD filter which is designed such that its delay is adjustable within one unit, the proposed VFD FIR filter is designed such that its delay can be tunable within a wider range. By the traces of coefficients of the fractional-delay FIR filter, it is found that the conventional method of polynomial substitution for filter coefficients no longer satisfies the design demand, and the circuits perform the sinc function (sinc converter) are added to overcome this problem. In this paper, least-squares method is adopted to design WR-VFD FIR filter. Throughout this paper, several examples will be proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented methods.

Keywords: digital filter, FIR filter, variable fractional-delay (VFD) filter, least-squares approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
733 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder


The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
732 Binarized-Weight Bilateral Filter for Low Computational Cost Image Smoothing

Authors: Yu Zhang, Kohei Inoue, Kiichi Urahama


We propose a simplified bilateral filter with binarized coefficients for accelerating it. Its computational cost is further decreased by sampling pixels. This computationally low cost filter is useful for smoothing or denoising images by using mobile devices with limited computational power.

Keywords: bilateral filter, binarized-weight bilateral filter, image smoothing, image denoising, pixel sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
731 Effect of Filter Paper Technique in Measuring Hydraulic Capacity of Unsaturated Expansive Soil

Authors: Kenechi Kurtis Onochie


This paper shows the use of filter paper technique in the measurement of matric suction of unsaturated expansive soil around the Haspolat region of Lefkosa, North Cyprus in other to establish the soil water characteristics curve (SWCC) or soil water retention curve (SWRC). The dry filter paper approach which is standardized by ASTM, 2003, D 5298-03 in which the filter paper is initially dry was adopted. The whatman No. 42 filter paper was used in the matric suction measurement. The maximum dry density of the soil was obtained as 2.66kg/cm³ and the optimum moisture content as 21%. The soil was discovered to have high air entry value of 1847.46KPa indicating finer particles and 25% hydraulic capacity using filter paper technique. The filter paper technique proved to be very useful for measuring the hydraulic capacity of unsaturated expansive soil.

Keywords: SWCC, matric suction, filter paper, expansive soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
730 Additive White Gaussian Noise Filtering from ECG by Wiener Filter and Median Filter: A Comparative Study

Authors: Hossein Javidnia, Salehe Taheri


The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the recording of the heart’s electrical potential versus time. ECG signals are often contaminated with noise such as baseline wander and muscle noise. As these signals have been widely used in clinical studies to detect heart diseases, it is essential to filter these noises. In this paper we compare performance of Wiener Filtering and Median Filtering methods to filter Additive White Gaussian (AWG) noise with the determined signal to noise ratio (SNR) ranging from 3 to 5 dB applied to long-term ECG recordings samples. Root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) between the filtered ECG and original ECG was used as the filter performance indicator. Experimental results show that Wiener filter has better noise filtering performance than Median filter.

Keywords: ECG noise filtering, Wiener filtering, median filtering, Gaussian noise, filtering performance

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729 FPGA Based IIR Filter Design Using MAC Algorithm

Authors: Rajesh Mehra, Bharti Thakur


In this paper, an IIR filter has been designed and simulated on an FPGA. The implementation is based on MAC algorithm which uses multiply-and-accumulate operations IIR filter design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the look up table of the FPGA device. The designed filter has been synthesized on DSP slice based FPGA to perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful to enhance the speed performance. The developed IIR filter is designed and simulated with Matlab and synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool (XST), and implemented on Virtex 5 and Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA devices. The IIR filter implemented on Virtex 5 FPGA can operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5 MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA. The Virtex 5 based implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.

Keywords: Butterworth filter, DSP, IIR, MAC, FPGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
728 Linear MIMO Model Identification Using an Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Matthew C. Best


Linear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic models can be identified, with no a priori knowledge of model structure or order, using a new Generalised Identifying Filter (GIF). Based on an Extended Kalman Filter, the new filter identifies the model iteratively, in a continuous modal canonical form, using only input and output time histories. The filter’s self-propagating state error covariance matrix allows easy determination of convergence and conditioning, and by progressively increasing model order, the best fitting reduced-order model can be identified. The method is shown to be resistant to noise and can easily be extended to identification of smoothly nonlinear systems.

Keywords: system identification, Kalman filter, linear model, MIMO, model order reduction

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727 Bird-Adapted Filter for Avian Species and Individual Identification Systems Improvement

Authors: Ladislav Ptacek, Jan Vanek, Jan Eisner, Alexandra Pruchova, Pavel Linhart, Ludek Muller, Dana Jirotkova


One of the essential steps of avian song processing is signal filtering. Currently, the standard methods of filtering are the Mel Bank Filter or linear filter distribution. In this article, a new type of bank filter called the Bird-Adapted Filter is introduced; whereby the signal filtering is modifiable, based upon a new mathematical description of audiograms for particular bird species or order, which was named the Avian Audiogram Unified Equation. According to the method, filters may be deliberately distributed by frequency. The filters are more concentrated in bands of higher sensitivity where there is expected to be more information transmitted and vice versa. Further, it is demonstrated a comparison of various filters for automatic individual recognition of chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). The average Equal Error Rate (EER) value for Linear bank filter was 16.23%, for Mel Bank Filter 18.71%, the Bird-Adapted Filter gave 14.29%, and Bird-Adapted Filter with 1/3 modification was 12.95%. This approach would be useful for practical use in automatic systems for avian species and individual identification. Since the Bird-Adapted Filter filtration is based on the measured audiograms of particular species or orders, selecting the distribution according to the avian vocalization provides the most precise filter distribution to date.

Keywords: avian audiogram, bird individual identification, bird song processing, bird species recognition, filter bank

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
726 Fast Accurate Detection of Frequency Jumps Using Kalman Filter with Non Linear Improvements

Authors: Mahmoud E. Mohamed, Ahmed F. Shalash, Hanan A. Kamal


In communication systems, frequency jump is a serious problem caused by the oscillators used. Kalman filters are used to detect that jump, Despite the tradeoff between the noise level and the speed of the detection. In this paper, An improvement is introduced in the Kalman filter, Through a nonlinear change in the bandwidth of the filter. Simulation results show a considerable improvement in the filter speed with a very low noise level. Additionally, The effect on the response to false alarms is also presented and false alarm rate show improvement.

Keywords: Kalman filter, innovation, false detection, improvement

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725 A Simple Adaptive Atomic Decomposition Voice Activity Detector Implemented by Matching Pursuit

Authors: Thomas Bryan, Veton Kepuska, Ivica Kostanic


A simple adaptive voice activity detector (VAD) is implemented using Gabor and gammatone atomic decomposition of speech for high Gaussian noise environments. Matching pursuit is used for atomic decomposition, and is shown to achieve optimal speech detection capability at high data compression rates for low signal to noise ratios. The most active dictionary elements found by matching pursuit are used for the signal reconstruction so that the algorithm adapts to the individual speakers dominant time-frequency characteristics. Speech has a high peak to average ratio enabling matching pursuit greedy heuristic of highest inner products to isolate high energy speech components in high noise environments. Gabor and gammatone atoms are both investigated with identical logarithmically spaced center frequencies, and similar bandwidths. The algorithm performs equally well for both Gabor and gammatone atoms with no significant statistical differences. The algorithm achieves 70% accuracy at a 0 dB SNR, 90% accuracy at a 5 dB SNR and 98% accuracy at a 20dB SNR using 30dB SNR as a reference for voice activity.

Keywords: atomic decomposition, gabor, gammatone, matching pursuit, voice activity detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
724 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi


Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines, ultra-wideband

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
723 Cold Flow Investigation of Silicon Carbide Cylindrical Filter Element

Authors: Mohammad Alhajeri


This paper reports a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of cylindrical filter. Silicon carbide cylindrical filter elements have proven to be an effective mean of removing particulates to levels exceeding the new source performance standard. The CFD code is used here to understand the deposition process and the factors that affect the particles distribution over the filter element surface. Different approach cross flow velocity to filter face velocity ratios and different face velocities (ranging from 2 to 5 cm/s) are used in this study. Particles in the diameter range 1 to 100 microns are tracked through the domain. The radius of convergence (or the critical trajectory) is compared and plotted as a function of many parameters.

Keywords: filtration, CFD, CCF, hot gas filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
722 Compact Microstrip Ultra Wideband Bandstop Filter with Quasi Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Faris H. Almansour, Hussein N. Shaman


This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband.

Keywords: ultra-wideband bandstop filters, microstrip filters, transmission line filters

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
721 An Efficient FPGA Realization of Fir Filter Using Distributed Arithmetic

Authors: M. Iruleswari, A. Jeyapaul Murugan


Most fundamental part used in many Digital Signal Processing (DSP) application is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter because of its linear phase, stability and regular structure. Designing a high-speed and hardware efficient FIR filter is a very challenging task as the complexity increases with the filter order. In most applications the higher order filters are required but the memory usage of the filter increases exponentially with the order of the filter. Using multipliers occupy a large chip area and need high computation time. Multiplier-less memory-based techniques have gained popularity over past two decades due to their high throughput processing capability and reduced dynamic power consumption. This paper describes the design and implementation of highly efficient Look-Up Table (LUT) based circuit for the implementation of FIR filter using Distributed arithmetic algorithm. It is a multiplier less FIR filter. The LUT can be subdivided into a number of LUT to reduce the memory usage of the LUT for higher order filter. Analysis on the performance of various filter orders with different address length is done using Xilinx 14.5 synthesis tool. The proposed design provides less latency, less memory usage and high throughput.

Keywords: finite impulse response, distributed arithmetic, field programmable gate array, look-up table

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720 Fractional Order Sallen-Key Filters

Authors: Ahmed Soltan, Ahmed G. Radwan, Ahmed M. Soliman


This work aims to generalize the integer order Sallen-Key filters into the fractional-order domain. The analysis in the case of two different fractional-order elements introduced where the general transfer function becomes four terms which are unusual in the conventional case. In addition, the effect of the transfer function parameters on the filter poles and hence the stability is introduced and closed forms for the filter critical frequencies are driven. Finally, different examples of the fractional order Sallen-Key filter design are presented with circuit simulations using ADS where a great matching between the numerical and simulation results is obtained.

Keywords: Sallen-Key, fractance, stability, low-pass filter, analog filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 439