Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41470

Search results for: in vitro cell line study

41470 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar


The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine, nanosuspension

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41469 2-Thioimidazole Analogues: Synthesis, in silico Studies and in vitro Anticancer and Antiprotozoal Evaluation

Authors: Drashti G. Daraji, Rosa E. Moo-Puc, Hitesh D. Patel


Substituted 2-Thioimidazole analogues have been synthesized and confirmed by advanced spectroscopic techniques. Among them, ten compounds have been selected and evaluated for their in vitro anti-cancer activity at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for testing against a panel of 60 different human tumor cell lines derived from nine neoplastic cancer types. Furthermore, synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity, and none of them exhibited significant potency against antiprotozoans. It was observed that the tested all compounds seem effective on the UACC-62 melanoma cancer cell line as compared to other cancer cell lines and also exhibited the least potent in the Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell line in one-dose screening. In silico studies of these derivatives were carried out by molecular docking techniques and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) using Schrödinger software to find potent B-Raf kinase inhibitor (PDB ID: 3OG7). All the compounds have been performed for docking study; Compound D4 has a good docking score for melanoma cancer as compared with other.

Keywords: anticancer activity, cancer cell line, 2-thio imidazole, one-dose assay, molecular docking

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41468 Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Potent Antioxidant Fraction from Urtica dioica L.: In vitro and In vivo Studies

Authors: Bhuwan C. Joshi, Atish Prakash, Ajudhia N. Kalia


Ethnopharmacological relevance: The plant Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in various diseases including hepatic ailments. Traditionally, the leaves and roots of the plant are used in jaundice. Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate hepatoprotective potential of potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica L. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo model. Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (NBF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were determined by DPPH radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF) was subjected to in-vivo study. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s). Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Results and conclusion: The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Urtica. dioica L. possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC50 78.99 ± 0.17 µg/ml). The in-vitro cell line study showed EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and tissue. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF) leads to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.

Keywords: Urtica dioica L., antioxidant, HepG2 cell line, hepatoprotective

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41467 The Expression of Toll-Like Receptors Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Betong (KU Line) Chicken

Authors: Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Anutian Suklek, Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn, Autchara Kayan


Toll-like receptors (TLR) are conserved microbial sensing receptors located on cell surface that are able to detect different pathogens. The aim of the present study is to examine the expression of TLR gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of Betong (KU line) chicken. Blood samples were collected from healthy 12 Betong (KU line) chicken. PBMCs were isolated and maintained in RPMI1640 with 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. The expression of TLRs gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results showed that PBMCs viability from Betong (KU line) chicken was 95.38 ± 1.06%. From the study of TLRs gene expression, results indicated that there are expressions of TLR1.1 TLR1.2 TLR2.1 TLR2.2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR 7 TLR15 and TLR21 in PBMCs of Betong (KU line) chicken. In conclusion, PBMCs isolated from blood of Betong (KU line) chicken had a high cell viability ( > 95%). The expression of TLRs in chicken was all found in PBMCs, which indicated that PBMC isolated from the blood of Betong (KU line) chicken can be used as an in vitro immune responses study.

Keywords: toll-like receptor, Betong (KU line) chicken, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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41466 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi


Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

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41465 Comparison of Different in vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier for Study of Toxic Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles

Authors: Samir Dekali, David Crouzier


Due to their new physico-chemical properties engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly employed in numerous industrial sectors (such as electronics, textile, aerospace, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food industry, etc). These new physico-chemical properties can also represent a threat for the human health. Consumers can notably be exposed involuntarily by different routes such as inhalation, ingestion or through the skin. Several studies recently reported a possible biodistribution of these ENPs on the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Consequently, there is a great need for developing BBB in vitro models representative of the in vivo situation and capable of rapidly and accurately assessing ENPs toxic effects and their potential translocation through this barrier. In this study, several in vitro models established with micro-endothelial brain cell lines of different origins (bEnd.3 mouse cell line or a new human cell line) co-cultivated or not with astrocytic cells (C6 rat or C8-B4 mouse cell lines) on Transwells® were compared using different endpoints: trans-endothelial resistance, permeability of the Lucifer yellow and protein junction labeling. Impact of NIST diesel exhaust particles on BBB cell viability is also discussed.

Keywords: nanoparticles, blood-brain barrier, diesel exhaust particles, toxicology

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41464 Sider Bee Honey: Antitumor Effect in Some Experimental Tumor Cell Lines

Authors: Aliaa M. Issa, Mahmoud N. ElRouby, Sahar A. S. Ahmad, Mahmoud M. El-Merzabani


Sider honey is a type of honey produced by bees feeding on the nectar of Sider tree, Ziziphus spina-christi (L) Desf . Honey is an effective agent for preventing, inhibiting and treating the growth of human and animal cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different dilutions from crude Sider honey and different duration times of exposure on the growth of six tumor cell lines (human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa; human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG-2; human larynx carcinoma cell line, Hep-2; brain tumor cell line, U251) as well as one animal cancerous cell line (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells line, EAC) and one normal cell line, Homo sapiens, human, (WISH) CCL-25. Different concentrations and treatment durations with Sider honey were tested on the growth of several cancer cell lines types. Histopathological changes in the tumor masses, animal survival, apoptosis and necrosis of the used cancer cell lines (using flow cytometry) were evaluated. Sider honey was administers either to the tumor mass itself by intratumoral injection or via drinking water. One-way ANOVA test was used for the analysis of (the means + standard error) of the optical density obtained from the Elisa reader and flow cytometry. The study revealed that different concentrations of Sider honey affected the growth patterns of all the studied cancer cell lines as well as their histopathological changes, and it depended on the cell line nature and the concentration of honey used. It is obvious that the relative animal survival percentage (bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, EAC cells) was proportionally increased with the increase in the used honey concentrations. The study of apoptosis and necrosis using the flow cytometry technique emphasized the viability results. In conclusion, Sider honey was effective as antitumor agent, in the used concentrations.

Keywords: antitumor, honey, sider, tumor cell lines

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41463 The Role of Moringa oleifera Extract Leaves in Inducing Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: V. Yurina, H. Sujuti, E. Rahmani, A. R. Nopitasari


Breast cancer has the highest prevalence cancer in women. Moringa leaves (M. oleifera) contain quercetin, kaempferol, and benzyl isothiocyanate which can enhance induction of apoptosis. This research aimed to study the role of the leaf extract of Moringa to increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. This research used in vitro experimental, post-test only, control group design on breast cancer cells MCF-7 in vitro. Moringa leaves were extracted by maceration method with ethanol 70%. Cells were treated with drumstick leaves extract on 1100, 2200, and 4400 μg/ml for Hsp27 and caspase-9 expression (immunocytochemistry) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) test. The results of this study found that the IC50 2200 µg/ml. Moringa leaves extract can significantly increase the expression of caspase-9 (p<0.05) and decreased Hsp 27 expression (p<0.05). Moreover it can increase apoptosis (p<0.05) significantly in MCF-7 cells. The conclusion of this study is Moringa leaves extract is able to increase the expression of caspase-9, decrease Hsp27 expression and increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell-line MCF-7.

Keywords: apoptosis, breast cancer, caspase-9, Hsp27, Moringa oleifera

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41462 The Influence of Polysaccharide Isolated from Morinda citrifolia Fruit to the Growth of Vero, He-La and T47D Cell Lines against Doxorubicin in vitro

Authors: Ediati Budi Cahyono, Triana Hertiani, Nauval Arrazy Asawimanda, Wahyu Puji Pratomo


Background: Doxorubicin is widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug despite having many side effects. It may cause macrophage dysfunction and decreasing proliferation of lymphocyte. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit which has rich of polysaccharide content has potential as antitumor and immunostimulant effect. The isolation of polysaccharide from Noni fruit has been optimized according to four different methods based on macrophage and lymphocyte activities. We found the highest polysaccharide content from one of the four methods isolation. A method of polysaccharide isolation which has the highest immunostimulant effect was used for further observation as co-chemotherapy. The aim of the study: was to evaluate the isolated polysaccharide from the method of choice as co-chemotherapy of doxorubicin for the growth of Vero, He-La, and T47D cell lines in vitro. The method: in vitro growth assay of Vero, He-La, and T47D cell lines was done using MTT-reduction method, and apoptosis test was done by double staining method to evaluate the induction apoptotic effect of the combination. Every group was treated with doxorubicin and isolated polysaccharide from method of choice with 4 variances of concentrations (25 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml and 200 µg/ml) a long with negative control (doxorubicin only) and normal control (without doxorubicin or polysaccharide administration). Results: The combination of polysaccharide fraction in the concentration of 100μg/ml with 2μmol of doxorubicin against He-La and T47D cell lines influenced the highest cytotoxic effect by suppressing cell viability comparing with doxorubicin only. The combination of polysaccharide fraction in the concentration of 100μg/ml with 2μmol of doxorubicin-induced apoptotic effect the He-La cell line comparing with doxorubicin only. The result of the study: it can be concluded that the combination of polysaccharide fraction and doxorubicin effect more selective toward He-La and T47D cell lines than to Vero cell line. It can be suggested isolated polysaccharide from the method of choice has co-chemotherapy activity against doxorubicin.

Keywords: polysaccharide, noni fruit, doxorubicin, cancer cell lines, vero cell line

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41461 Design and Facile Synthesis of New Amino Acid Derivatives with Anti-Tumor and Antimicrobial Activities

Authors: Hoda Sabry Othman, Randa Helmy Swellem, Galal Abd El-Moein Nawwar


N-cyanoacetyl glycine is a reactive polyfunctional precursor for synthesis of new difficult accessible compounds including pyridones, thiazolopyridine and others. The key step of this protocol is the formation of different ylidines which underwent Michael addition with carbon nucleophiles affording various heterocyclic compounds. Selected compounds underwent pharmacological evaluation, in vitro against two cell lines; breast cell line (MCF-7),and liver cell line(HEPG2). Compounds 14, 15a and 16 showed IC50 values 8.93, 8.18 and 8.03 (µ/ml) respectively for breast cell line (MCF-7), while the standard drug (Tamoxifen) revealed IC50 8.31. With respect to the liver cell line (HEPG2), compounds 14 and 15a revealed IC50 18.4 and 13.6(µ/ml) respectively while the IC50 of the standard drug(5-Flurouracil) is 25(µ/ml). The antimicrobial activity was also screened and revealed that oxime 7 and ylidine 9f showed a broad-spectrum activity.

Keywords: antitumor, cyanoacetyl glycine, heterocycles, pyridones

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41460 Chemical Composition of Essential Oil and in vitro Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of the Hydroalcolic Extract from Coronilla varia

Authors: A. A. Dehpour, B. Eslami, S. Rezaie, S. F. Hashemian, F. Shafie, M. Kiaie


The aims of study were investigation on chemical composition essential oil and the effect of extract of Coronilla varia on antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activity. The essential oils of Coronilla varia is obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by (GC/MS) for determining their chemical composition and identification of their components. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was determined by disc diffusion method. The effect of hydroalcolic extracts from Cornilla varia investigated on MCF7 cancer cell line by MTT assay. The major components were Caryophyllene Oxide (60.19%), Alphacadinol (4.13%) and Homoadantaneca Robexylic Acid (3.31%). The extracts from Coronilla varia had interesting activity against Proteus mirabilis in the concentration of 700 µg/disc and did not show any activity against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Entrobacter cloacae. The positive control, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Cenphalothin had shown zone of inhibition resistant all bacteria. Corohilla varia ethanol extract could inhibit the proliferation of MCF7 cell line in RPMI 1640 medium. IC50 5(mg/ml) was the optimum concentration of extract from Coronilla varia inhibition of cell line growth. The MCF7 cancer cell line and Proteus mirabilis were more sensitive to Coronilla varia ethanol extract.

Keywords: Coronilla varia, essential oil, antibacterial, anticancer, hela cell line

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41459 Facile Synthesis of Novel Substituted Aryl-Thiazole (SAT) Analogs via One-Pot Multicomponent Reaction as Potent Cytotoxic Agents against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Salma Mirza, Syeda Asma Naqvi, Khalid Mohammed Khan, M. Iqbal Choudhary


In this study twenty-five (25) newly synthesized compounds substituted aryl thiazoles (SAT) 1-25 were synthesized, and in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four cancer cell lines namely, MCF-7 (ER+ve breast), MDA-MB-231 (ER-ve breast), HCT116 (colorectal), and, HeLa (cervical) and compared with the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin with IC50 value of 1.56 ± 0.05 μM. Among them, compounds 1, 4-8 and 19 were found to be active against all four cell lines. Compound 20 was found to be selectively active against MCF7 cells with IC50 value of 40.21 ± 4.15 µM, whereas compound 19 was active against only MCF7 and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 46.72 ± 1.8 and 19.86 ± 0.11 μM, respectively. These results suggest that aryl thiazoles 1 and 4 deserve to be investigated further in vivo as anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: anticancer agents, breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231), colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-116), cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Thiazole derivatives

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41458 Combined Proteomic and Metabolomic Analysis Approaches to Investigate the Modification in the Proteome and Metabolome of in vitro Models Treated with Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs)

Authors: H. Chassaigne, S. Gioria, J. Lobo Vicente, D. Carpi, P. Barboro, G. Tomasi, A. Kinsner-Ovaskainen, F. Rossi


Emerging approaches in the area of exposure to nanomaterials and assessment of human health effects combine the use of in vitro systems and analytical techniques to study the perturbation of the proteome and/or the metabolome. We investigated the modification in the cytoplasmic compartment of the Balb/3T3 cell line exposed to gold nanoparticles. On one hand, the proteomic approach is quite standardized even if it requires precautions when dealing with in vitro systems. On the other hand, metabolomic analysis is challenging due to the chemical diversity of cellular metabolites that complicate data elaboration and interpretation. Differentially expressed proteins were found to cover a range of functions including stress response, cell metabolism, cell growth and cytoskeleton organization. In addition, de-regulated metabolites were annotated using the HMDB database. The "omics" fields hold huge promises in the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems. The combination of proteomics and metabolomics data is possible however challenging.

Keywords: data processing, gold nanoparticles, in vitro systems, metabolomics, proteomics

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41457 Evaluation of ROS Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Tuber Extract of Dioscorea Bulbifera on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Debasmita Dubey, Rajesh Kumar Meher, Smruti Pragya Samal, Pradeep Kumar Naik


Background: To determine antioxidant properties and anticancer activity by ROS and mitochondrial transmembrane potential mediated apoptosis against MCF7, MDA-MB-231, cell line. Methods: Leaf sample was extracted using methanol by microwave digestion technique. The antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract were determined by a DPPH scavenging assay. In vitro anticancer activity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, apoptosis activity and DNA fragmentation study, as well as intracellular ROS activity of most potential leaf extract, were also determined by using the MDA-MB-231cell line. In vivo animal toxicity study was carried out using mice model. Results: Methanolic leaf extract has shown the highest antioxidant, as well as anticancer activity, is based on the assay conducted. For the identification of active phytochemicals from methanolic extract, High-resolution mass spectroscopy-LCMS was used. In vitro cytotoxicity study against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell line and IC 50 value was found to be 37.5µg/ml. From histopathological studies, no toxicity in liver and kidney tissue was identified. Conclusion: This plant tuber can be used as a regular diet to reduce the chance of breast cancer. Further, more studies should be conducted to isolate and identify the responsible compound.

Keywords: human breast adenocarcinoma, ROS, mitochondrial transmembrane, apoptosis

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41456 Hexane Extract of Thymus serpyllum L.: GC-MS Profile, Antioxidant Potential and Anticancer Impact on HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma) Cell Line

Authors: Salma Baig, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmad, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah Azizan, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Elham Rouhollahi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla


Free radical damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to etiology of many chronic diseases, cancer being one of them. Recent studies have been successful in ROS targeted therapies via antioxidants using mouse models in cancer therapeutics. The present study was designed to scrutinize anticancer activity, antioxidant activity of 5 different extracts of Thymus serpyllum in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HepG2, HCT-116, PC3, and A549. Identification of the phytochemicals present in the most active extract of Thymus serpyllum was conducted using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry and antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay. Anticancer impact of the extract in terms of IC50 was evaluated using MTT cell viability assay. Results revealed that the hexane extract showed the best anticancer activity in HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma Cell Line) with an IC50 value of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml followed by 25 µg/ml in HCT-116 (Colon Cancer Cell Line), 30 µm/ml in MCF-7 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 35 µg/ml in MDA-MB-231 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 57 µg/ml in PC3 (Prostate Cancer Cell Line) and 60 µg/ml in A549 (Lung Carcinoma Cell Line). GC-MS profile of the hexane extract showed the presence of 31 compounds with carvacrol, thymol and thymoquione being the major compounds. Phenolics such as Vitamin E, terpinen-4-ol, borneol and phytol were also identified. Hence, here we present the first report on cytotoxicity of hexane extract of Thymus serpyllum extract in HepG2 cell line with a robust anticancer activity with an IC50 of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml.

Keywords: Thymus serpyllum L., hexane extract, GC-MS profile, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, HepG2 cell line

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41455 Cytogenetic Characterization of the VERO Cell Line Based on Comparisons with the Subline; Implication for Authorization and Quality Control of Animal Cell Lines

Authors: Fumio Kasai, Noriko Hirayama, Jorge Pereira, Azusa Ohtani, Masashi Iemura, Malcolm A. Ferguson Smith, Arihiro Kohara


The VERO cell line was established in 1962 from normal tissue of an African green monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops (2n=60), and has been commonly used worldwide for screening for toxins or as a cell substrate for the production of viral vaccines. The VERO genome was sequenced in 2014; however, its cytogenetic features have not been fully characterized as it contains several chromosome abnormalities and different karyotypes coexist in the cell line. In this study, the VERO cell line (JCRB0111) was compared with one of the sublines. In contrast to 59 chromosomes as the modal chromosome number in the VERO cell line, the subline had two peaks of 56 and 58 chromosomes. M-FISH analysis using human probes revealed that the VERO cell line was characterized by a translocation t(2;25) found in all metaphases, which was absent in the subline. Different abnormalities detected only in the subline show that the cell line is heterogeneous, indicating that the subline has the potential to change its genomic characteristics during cell culture. The various alterations in the two independent lineages suggest that genomic changes in both VERO cells can be accounted for by progressive rearrangements during their evolution in culture. Both t(5;X) and t(8;14) observed in all metaphases of the two cell lines might have a key role in VERO cells and could be used as genetic markers to identify VERO cells. The flow karyotype shows distinct differences from normal. Further analysis of sorted abnormal chromosomes may uncover other characteristics of VERO cells. Because of the absence of STR data, cytogenetic data are important in characterizing animal cell lines and can be an indicator of their quality control.

Keywords: VERO, cell culture passage, chromosome rearrangement, heterogeneous cells

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41454 Evaluation of Naringenin Role in Inhibiton of Lung Tumor Progression in Mice

Authors: Vishnu Varthan Vaithiyalingamjagannathan, M. N. Sathishkumar, K. S. Lakhsmi, D. Satheeshkumar, Srividyaammayappanrajam


Background:Naringenin, aglycone flavonoid possess certain activities like anti-oxidant, anti-estrogenic, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, anti-obesity,anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and also have anti-cancer characteristics like carcinogenic inactivation, cell cycle arrest, anti-proliferation, apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis and enhances anti-oxidant activity. Methodology:The inhibitory effect of Naringenin in lung tumor progression estimated with adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines (in vitro) and C57BL/6 mice injected with 5 X 106A549 cell lines (in vivo) in a tri-dose manner (Naringenin 100mg/kg,150mg/kg, and 200mg/kg) compared with standard chemotherapy drug cisplatin (7mg/kg). Results:The results of the present study revealed a dose-dependent activity in Naringenin and combination with cisplatin at a higher dose which showed decreased tumor progression in mice. In vitro studies carried out for estimation of cell survival and Nitric Oxide (NO) level, shows dose dependent action of Naringenin with IC50 value of 42µg/ml. In vivo studies were carried out in C57BL/6 mice. Naringenin satisfied the condition of an anti-cancer molecule with its characteristics in fragmentation assay, Zymography assay, anti-oxidant, and myeloperoxidase studies, than cisplatin which failed in anti-oxidant and myeloperoxidase effect. Both in vitro and in vivo establishes dose dependent decrease in NO levels. But whereas, Naringenin showed adverse results in Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymatic levels with increase in dose levels. Conclusion:From the present study, Naringenin could suppress the lung tumor progression when given individually and also in combinatorial with standard chemotherapy drug.

Keywords: naringenin, in vitro, cell line, anticancer

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41453 Study into the Interactions of Primary Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells and HTCEPI Using Tissue Engineered Cornea

Authors: Masoud Sakhinia, Sajjad Ahmad


Introduction: Though knowledge of the compositional makeup and structure of the limbal niche has progressed exponentially during the past decade, much is yet to be understood. Identifying the precise profile and role of the stromal makeup which spans the ocular surface may inform researchers of the most optimum conditions needed to effectively expand LESCs in vitro, whilst preserving their differentiation status and phenotype. Limbal fibroblasts, as opposed to corneal fibroblasts are thought to form an important component of the microenvironment where LESCs reside. Methods: The corneal stroma was tissue engineered in vitro using both limbal and corneal fibroblasts embedded within a tissue engineered 3D collagen matrix. The effect of these two different fibroblasts on LESCs and hTCEpi corneal epithelial cell line were then subsequently determined using phase contrast microscopy, histolological analysis and PCR for specific stem cell markers. The study aimed to develop an in vitro model which could be used to determine whether limbal, as opposed to corneal fibroblasts, maintained the stem cell phenotype of LESCs and hTCEpi cell line. Results: Tissue culture analysis was inconclusive and required further quantitative analysis for remarks on cell proliferation within the varying stroma. Histological analysis of the tissue-engineered cornea showed a comparable structure to that of the human cornea, though with limited epithelial stratification. PCR results for epithelial cell markers of cells cultured on limbal fibroblasts showed reduced expression of CK3, a negative marker for LESC’s, whilst also exhibiting a relatively low expression level of P63, a marker for undifferentiated LESCs. Conclusion: We have shown the potential for the construction of a tissue engineered human cornea using a 3D collagen matrix and described some preliminary results in the analysis of the effects of varying stroma consisting of limbal and corneal fibroblasts, respectively, on the proliferation of stem cell phenotype of primary LESCs and hTCEpi corneal epithelial cells. Although no definitive marker exists to conclusively illustrate the presence of LESCs, the combination of positive and negative stem cell markers in our study were inconclusive. Though it is less traslational to the human corneal model, the use of conditioned medium from that of limbal and corneal fibroblasts may provide a more simple avenue. Moreover, combinations of extracellular matrices could be used as a surrogate in these culture models.

Keywords: cornea, Limbal Stem Cells, tissue engineering, PCR

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41452 Effect of Copper Complexes on Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line and Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Katarína Koňariková, Georgios A. Perdikaris, Lucia Andrezálová, Zdeňka Ďuračková, Lucia Laubertová, Helena Gbelcová, Ingrid Žitňanová


Introduction: The continuous demand for new anti-cancer drugs has stimulated chemotherapeutic research based on the use of essential metalloelements with the aim to develop potential drugs with lower toxicity and higher antiproliferative activity against tumors. Copper(II) and its complexes play an important role as suitable species for antiproliferative tests. Objectives: The central objective of the current study was to investigate the potential in vitro anti-proliferative effects of N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes and molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by tested complexes. In our project we tested N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes ZK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK0 - ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O); MK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol); MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] at concentration range 0.001-100 µmol/L against human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 and human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Methods: Viability was assessed by direct counting of 0.4% trypan blue dye-excluding cells after 24, 48 and 72 hour cultivations with or without copper complex and by MTT assay. To analyze the type of cell death and its mechanism induced by our copper complex we used different methods. To distinguish apoptosis from necrosis we used electrophoretic analysis, to study the activity of caspases 8 and 9 – luminometric analysis and caspase activity 3 colorimetric assay. Results: The observed anti-proliferative effect of the copper complexes appeared to be dose-, time- and cell line- dependent. Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) than to ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)). Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex than human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7. IC50 decreased with time of incubation (24, 48 and 72h) for HT-29, but increased for MCF-7. By electrophoresis we found apoptotic cell death induced by our copper complexes in HT-29 at concentrations 1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol/L after 48h (ZK1) and 72h (MK0, MK1) and in MCF-7 we did not find apoptosis. We also studied molecular mechanism of apoptosis in HT-29 induced by copper complexes. We found active caspase 9 in HT-29 after ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)) influence and active caspase 8 after MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) influence. Conclusion: Our copper complexes showed cytotoxic activities against human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro. Apoptosis was activated by mitochondrial pathway (intrinsic pathway) in case of ZK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol) and MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] copper complexes and by death receptors (extrinsic pathway) in case of MK0 [Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O copper complex in HT-29.

Keywords: apoptosis, copper complex, cancer, carcinoma cell line

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41451 Target Drug Delivery of Pamidronate Nanoparticles for Enhancing Osteoblastic Activity in Osteoporosis

Authors: Purnima Rawat, Divya Vohora, Sarika Gupta, Farhan J. Ahmad, Sushama Talegaonkar


Nanoparticles (NPs) that target bone tissue were developed using PLGA–mPEG (poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid)–polyethylene glycol) diblock copolymers by using pamidronate as a bone-targeting moieties. These NPs are expected to enable the transport of hydrophilic drugs. The NP was prepared by in situ polymerization method, and their in- vitro characteristics were evaluated using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in phosphate-buffered solution. The bone targeting potential of the NP was also evaluated on in-vitro pre-osteoblast MCT3E1 cell line using ALP activity, degree of mineralization and RT-PCR assay. The average particle size of the NP was 101.6 ± 3.7nm, zeta potential values were negative (-25±0.34mV) of the formulations and the entrapment efficiency was 93± 3.1 % obtained. The moiety of the PLGA–mPEG–pamidronate NPs exhibited the best apatite mineral binding ability in-vitro MCT3E1 pre-osteoblast cell line. Our results suggested that the developed nanoparticles may use as a delivery system for Pamidronate in bone repair and regeneration, warranting further evaluation of the treatment of bone disease.

Keywords: nanoparticle, pamidronate, in-situ polymerization, osteoblast

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41450 Lipid-Chitosan Hybrid Nanoparticles for Controlled Delivery of Cisplatin

Authors: Muhammad Muzamil Khan, Asadullah Madni, Nina Filipczek, Jiayi Pan, Nayab Tahir, Hassan Shah, Vladimir Torchilin


Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNP) are delivery systems for controlled drug delivery at tumor sites. The superior biocompatible properties of lipid and structural advantages of polymer can be obtained via this system for controlled drug delivery. In the present study, cisplatin-loaded lipid-chitosan hybrid nanoparticles were formulated by the single step ionic gelation method based on ionic interaction of positively charged chitosan and negatively charged lipid. Formulations with various chitosan to lipid ratio were investigated to obtain the optimal particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and controlled release pattern. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated a size range of 181-245 nm and a zeta potential range of 20-30 mV. Compatibility among the components and the stability of formulation were demonstrated with FTIR analysis and thermal studies, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy and cellular interaction of cisplatin-loaded LPHNP were investigated using in vitro cell-based assays in A2780/ADR ovarian carcinoma cell line. Additionally, the cisplatin loaded LPHNP exhibited a low toxicity profile in rats. The in-vivo pharmacokinetics study also proved a controlled delivery of cisplatin with enhanced mean residual time and half-life. Our studies suggested that the cisplatin-loaded LPHNP being a promising platform for controlled delivery of cisplatin in cancer therapy.

Keywords: cisplatin, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle, chitosan, in vitro cell line study

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41449 In vitro and in vivo Antiangiogenic Activity of Girinimbine Isolated from Murraya koenigii

Authors: Venoos Iman, Suzita Mohd Noor, Syam Mohan, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin


Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid was isolated from the stem bark and root of Murraya koenigii and its structure and purity was identified by HPLC and LC-MS. Here we report that Girinimbine strongly inhibit angiogenesis activity both in vitro and in vivo. MTT result showed that girinimbine inhibits cell proliferation of the HUVECS cell line in vitro. Result of endothelial cell invasion, migration, tube formation and wound healing assays also demonstrated significant time and does dependent inhibition by girinimbine. Moreover, girinibine mediates its anti-angiogenic activity through up- and down-regulation of angiogenic and anti-aniogenic proteins. Furthermore, anti-angiogenic potential of girinimbine was evidenced in vivo on zebrafish model. Girinimbine inhibited neo-vessels formation in zebrafish embryos during 24 hours exposure time. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively suppress angiogenesis and strongly suggest that it might be a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.

Keywords: anti-angiogenic, carbazole alkaloid, girinimbine, zebrafish

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41448 Establishment and Characterization of a Dentigerous Cyst Cell Line

Authors: Muñiz-Lino Marcos Agustín, Vazquez Borbolla Jessica, Licéaga-Escalera Carlos


The ectomesenchymal tissues involved in tooth development and their remnants are the origin of different odontogenic lesions, including tumors and cysts of the jaws, with a wide range of clinical behaviors. Dentigerous cyst (DC) represents approximately 20% of all cases of odontogenic cysts, and it has been demonstrated that it can develop benign and malignant odontogenic tumors. DC is characterized by bone destruction of the area surrounding the crown of a tooth which has not erupted and it contain is liquid. The treatment of odontogenic tumors and cysts usually are partial or total removal of the jaw, causing important secondary co-morbidities. However, molecules implicated in DC pathogenesis as well in its development to odontogenic tumors remains unknown. A cellular model may be useful to study these molecules, but that model has not been established yet. Here, we reported the establishment of a cell culture derived from a dentigerous cyst. This cell line was named DeCy-1. In spite of its ectomesenchymal morphology, DeCy-1 cells express epithelial markers such as cytokeratins 5, 6, and 8. Furthermore, these cells express the ODAM protein, which is present in odontogenesis and in dental follicle, indicating that DeCy-1 cells derived from odontogenic epithelium. Analysis by electron microscopy of this cell line showed that it has a high vesicular activity, suggesting that DeCy-1 could secrete molecules that may be involved in DC pathogenesis. Thus, secreted proteins were analyzed by PAGE-SDS, where we observed approximately 11 bands. In addition, the capacity of these secretions to degrade proteins was analyzed by gelatin substrate zymography. A degradation band of about 62 kDa was found in these assays. Western blot assays suggested that the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) is responsible of this protease activity. Thus, our results indicate that the establishment of a cell line derived from DC is a useful in vitro model to study the biology of this odontogenic lesion and its participation in the development of odontogenic tumors.

Keywords: dentigerous cyst, MMP20, cancer, cell culture

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41447 In vitro Study on Characterization and Viability of Vero Cell Lines after Supplementation with Porcine Follicular Fluid Proteins in Culture Medium

Authors: Mayuva Youngsabanant, Suphaphorn Rabiab, Hatairuk Tungkasen, Nongnuch Gumlungpat, Mayuree Pumipaiboon


The porcine follicular fluid proteins (pFF) of healthy small size ovarian follicles (1-3 mm in diameters) of Large White pig ovaries were collected by sterile technique. They were used for testing the effect on cell viability and characterization of Vero cell lines using MTT assay. Two hundred microliter of round shape Vero cell lines were culture in 96 well plates with DMEM for 24 h. After that, they were attachment to substrate and some changed into fibroblast shape and spread over the surface after culture for 48 h. Then, Vero cell lines were treated with pFF at concentration of 2, 4, 20, 40, 200, 400, 500, and 600 µg proteins/mL for 24 h. Yields of the best results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. MTT assay reviewed an increasing in percentage of viability of Vero cell lines indicated that at concentration of 400-600 µg proteins/mL showed higher percentage of viability (115.64 ± 6.95, 106.91 ± 5.27 and 116.73 ± 20.15) than control group. They were significantly different from the control group (p < 0.05) but lower than the positive control group (DMEM with 10% heat treated fetal bovine serum). Cell lines showed normal character in fibroblast elongate shape after treated with pFF except in high concentration of pFF. This result implies that pFF of small size ovarian follicle at concentration of 400-600 µg proteins/mL could be optimized concentration for using as a supplement in Vero cell line culture medium to promote cell viability instead of growth hormone from fetal bovine serum. This merit could be applied in other cell biotechnology researches. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: cell viability, porcine follicular fluid, MTT assay, Vero cell line

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41446 Anti-Proliferative Effect of Chanterelle (Cantharellus) Mushroom Extracts on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Line U87MG

Authors: Justyna Moskwa, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Konrad Mielcarek, Maria H. Borawska


For centuries, mushrooms have been used in folk medicine; however, knowledge of the composition and properties of fungi comes from the last twenty years. Mushrooms show antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor and immune-stimulating properties; however, there is a lack of reports, on anticancer treatment of brain gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine influence of Chanterelle mushroom (Cantharellus Adans. ex Fr.) ethanolic (CHE) and water (CHW) extracts, on glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U87MG). Anti-proliferative activity of CHE and CHW in concentration (50-1000 µg/mL) was determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [³H]-thymidine incorporation after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation with U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We examined that CHE extracts in all the tested concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL) after all hours of incubation significantly decreased cell viability (p < 0.05) on U87MG cell line, which was confirmed by the significant (p < 0.05) reduction of DNA synthesis. Our results suggest that only CHE extract a cytotoxic and anti-proliferation activities on U87MG cell line.

Keywords: anticancer, food, glioblastoma, mushroom

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41445 Mentha crispa Essential Oil and Rotundifolone Analogues: Cytotoxic Effect on Glioblastoma

Authors: Damião Sousa, Hasan Turkez, Ozlem Tozlu, Tamires Lima


Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive cancer from the brain and with high prevalence and significant morbimortality. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate new therapeutic options against this pathology. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity from Mentha crispa essential oil (MCEO), its major constituent rotundifolone (ROT) and a series of six analogues on human U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The antitumor effects of the compounds on human U87MG-GBM cell line were assessed using in vitro cell viability assays. In addition, biosafety tests were performed on cultured human blood cells. The data show that MCEO, 1,2-perillaldehyde epoxide (EPER1) and perillaldehyde (PALD) were the most cytotoxic compounds against the U87MG cells, with IC50 values of 16.263, 15.087 and 14.888 μg/mL, respectively. The treatment with MCEO, EPER1 and PALD did not lead to damage in blood cells. These chemical analogues may be useful as prototypes for development of novel antitumor drugs due to their promising activities and toxicological safety.

Keywords: antitumor activity, cancer, natural products, terpenes

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41444 Rauvolfine B Isolated from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa (Apocynaceae) Induces Apoptosis through Activation of Caspase-9 Coupled with S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest

Authors: Mehran Fadaeinasab, Hamed Karimian, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Hapipah Mohd Ali


In this study, three indole alkaloids namely; rauvolfine B, macusine B, and isoreserpiline have been isolated from the dichloromethane crude extract of Rauvolfia reflexa bark (Apocynaceae). The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds has been performed using spectral methods such as UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Rauvolfine B showed anti proliferation activity on HCT-116 cancer cell line, its cytotoxicity induction was observed using MTT assay in eight different cell lines. Annexin-V is serving as a marker for apoptotic cells and the Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the detection of cell-surface Phosphatidylserine (PS). Apoptosis was confirmed by using caspase-8 and -9 assays. Cell cycle arrest was also investigated using flowcytometric analysis. rauvolfine B had exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cell line. The treatment significantly arrested HCT-116 cells in the S phase. Together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that rauvolfine B inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells and programmed cell death followed by cell cycle arrest.

Keywords: apocynacea, indole alkaloid, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest

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41443 Unexplored Anti-HCV Potential of Lichen rangiferinus: An in Vitro Study over Virus Cultures

Authors: Ila Shukla, Lubna Azmi, Shyam Sunder Gupta, C. V. Rao


Treatments against Hepatitis-C virus (HCV) are already available, but the current high cost of such treatments limit them to wealthy patients only. Hence our current study is aimed at the rectification of HCV infection by using Lichen rangiferinus (LRE) extract in in vitro cultures. Anti-HCV activity of the given extract was evaluated using the virus grown in cell culture (HCVcc). Two control inhibitors, erlotinib and telaprevir, were systematically included in each experiment. At the end of the incubation period, we evaluated cell viability and viral replication. The LRE inhibited the growth of HCV in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: Erlotinib, Hepatitis C, Lichen rangiferinus, Telaprevir

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41442 Pattern Recognition Approach Based on Metabolite Profiling Using In vitro Cancer Cell Line

Authors: Amanina Iymia Jeffree, Reena Thriumani, Mohammad Iqbal Omar, Ammar Zakaria, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim, Ali Yeon Md Shakaff


Metabolite profiling is a strategy to be approached in the pattern recognition method focused on three types of cancer cell line that driving the most to death specifically lung, breast, and colon cancer. The purpose of this study was to discriminate the VOCs pattern among cancerous and control group based on metabolite profiling. The sampling was executed utilizing the cell culture technique. All culture flasks were incubated till 72 hours and data collection started after 24 hours. Every running sample took 24 minutes to be completed accordingly. The comparative metabolite patterns were identified by the implementation of headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The optimizations of the main experimental variables such as oven temperature and time were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) to get the optimal condition. Volatiles were acknowledged through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral database and retention time libraries. To improve the reliability of significance, it is of crucial importance to eliminate background noise which data from 3rd minutes to 17th minutes were selected for statistical analysis. Targeted metabolites, of which were annotated as known compounds with the peak area greater than 0.5 percent were highlighted and subsequently treated statistically. Volatiles produced contain hundreds to thousands of compounds; therefore, it will be optimized by chemometric analysis, such as principal component analysis (PCA) as a preliminary analysis before subjected to a pattern classifier for identification of VOC samples. The volatile organic compound profiling has shown to be significantly distinguished among cancerous and control group based on metabolite profiling.

Keywords: in vitro cancer cell line, metabolite profiling, pattern recognition, volatile organic compounds

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41441 PNIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles as Delivery Vehicles for Curcumin Against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: H. Tayefih, F. farajzade ahari, F. Zarghami, V. Zeighamian, N. Zarghami, Y. Pilehvar-soltanahmadi


Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women throughout the world. Natural compounds such as curcumin hold promise to treat a variety of cancers including breast cancer. However, curcumin's therapeutic application is limited, due to its rapid degradation and poor aqueous solubility. On the other hand, previous studies have stated that drug delivery using nanoparticles might improve the therapeutic response to anticancer drugs. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (PNIPAAm–MAA) is one of the hydrogel copolymers utilized in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic potential of curcumin encapsulated within the NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticle, on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In this work, polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized through the free radical mechanism, and curcumin was encapsulated into NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles. Then, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was measured by MTT assays. The evaluation of the results showed that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA has more cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 cell line and efficiently inhibited the growth of the breast cancer cell population, compared with free curcumin. In conclusion, this study indicates that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA suppresses the growth of the MCF-7 cell line. Overall, it is concluded that encapsulating curcumin into the NIPAAm-MAA copolymer could open up new avenues for breast cancer treatment.

Keywords: PNIPAAm-MAA, breast cancer, curcumin, drug delivery

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