Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5209

# Search results for: weight functions

##### 5209 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Abstract:

We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques. Downloads 380
##### 5208 Applying Element Free Galerkin Method on Beam and Plate

Authors: Mahdad M’hamed, Belaidi Idir

Abstract:

This paper develops a meshless approach, called Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method, which is based on the weak form Moving Least Squares (MLS) of the partial differential governing equations and employs the interpolation to construct the meshless shape functions. The variation weak form is used in the EFG where the trial and test functions are approximated bye the MLS approximation. Since the shape functions constructed by this discretization have the weight function property based on the randomly distributed points, the essential boundary conditions can be implemented easily. The local weak form of the partial differential governing equations is obtained by the weighted residual method within the simple local quadrature domain. The spline function with high continuity is used as the weight function. The presently developed EFG method is a truly meshless method, as it does not require the mesh, either for the construction of the shape functions, or for the integration of the local weak form. Several numerical examples of two-dimensional static structural analysis are presented to illustrate the performance of the present EFG method. They show that the EFG method is highly efficient for the implementation and highly accurate for the computation. The present method is used to analyze the static deflection of beams and plate hole Downloads 222
##### 5207 The Behavior of The Zeros of Bargmann Analytic Functions for Multiple-Mode Systems

Authors: Muna Tabuni

Abstract:

The paper contains an investigation of the behavior of the Zeros of Bargmann functions for one and two-mode systems. A brief introduction to Harmonic oscillator formalism for one and two-mode is given. The Bargmann analytic representation for one and two-mode has been studied. The zeros of Bargmann analytic function for one-mode are considered. The Q Husimi functions are introduced. The Bargmann functions and the Husimi functions have the same zeros. The Bargmann functions f(z) have exactly q zeros. The evolution time of the zeros are discussed. The zeros of Bargmann analytic functions for two-mode are introduced. Various examples have been given. Downloads 395
##### 5206 Body Weight Variation in Indian Heterogeneous Group-An Analytical Study

Authors: A. K. Srivastva

Abstract:

Body weight is considered as an important factor in health and fitness. It is an index of one's health. Considering significance of body weight and its wider application in various fields in general and sports in particular, it is made a point of enquiry in the present study. The purpose of the study to observe over all weight pattern of Indian youths in the age group of 15 through 20 years. Total 7500 samples pooled from ten Indian states ranging in their age 15 to 20 years were examined in six age categories. Conclusion: 1. The period between 15 to 20 year of age is a growing period and that body weight is gained during this period. 2. Statewise difference is observed in body-weight during the period, which is significant. 3. PRG indicated by higher rate of weight gain varies from state to state. 4. Sportsman possess comparatively higer level of body-weight than other student of same age group. 5. Tribal youths show comparatively better status in their weight gain than the untrained uraban dwellers. Downloads 255
##### 5205 Some Inequalities Related with Starlike Log-Harmonic Mappings

Authors: Melike Aydoğan, Dürdane Öztürk

Abstract:

Let H(D) be the linear space of all analytic functions defined on the open unit disc. A log-harmonic mappings is a solution of the nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation where w(z) ∈ H(D) is second dilatation such that |w(z)| < 1 for all z ∈ D. The aim of this paper is to define some inequalities of starlike logharmonic functions of order α(0 ≤ α ≤ 1). Downloads 436
##### 5204 RAFU Functions in Robotics and Automation

Authors: Alicia C. Sanchez

Abstract:

This paper investigates the implementation of RAFU functions (radical functions) in robotics and automation. Specifically, the main goal is to show how these functions may be useful in lane-keeping control and the lateral control of autonomous machines, vehicles, robots or the like. From the knowledge of several points of a certain route, the RAFU functions are used to achieve the lateral control purpose and maintain the lane-keeping errors within the fixed limits. The stability that these functions provide, their ease of approaching any continuous trajectory and the control of the possible error made on the approximation may be useful in practice. Downloads 137
##### 5203 Subclasses of Bi-Univalent Functions Associated with Hohlov Operator

Abstract:

The coefficients estimate problem for Taylor-Maclaurin series is still an open problem especially for a function in the subclass of bi-univalent functions. A function f ϵ A is said to be bi-univalent in the open unit disk D if both f and f-1 are univalent in D. The symbol A denotes the class of all analytic functions f in D and it is normalized by the conditions f(0) = f’(0) – 1=0. The class of bi-univalent is denoted by  The subordination concept is used in determining second and third Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients. The upper bound for second and third coefficients is estimated for functions in the subclasses of bi-univalent functions which are subordinated to the function φ. An analytic function f is subordinate to an analytic function g if there is an analytic function w defined on D with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1 satisfying f(z) = g[w(z)]. In this paper, two subclasses of bi-univalent functions associated with Hohlov operator are introduced. The bound for second and third coefficients of functions in these subclasses is determined using subordination. The findings would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors. Downloads 202
##### 5202 Geometric Properties of Some q-Bessel Functions

Authors: İbrahim Aktaş, Árpád Baricz

Abstract:

In this paper, the radii of star likeness of the Jackson and Hahn-Exton q-Bessel functions are considered, and for each of them three different normalizations is applied. By applying Euler-Rayleigh inequalities for the first positive zeros of these functions tight lower, and upper bounds for the radii of starlikeness of these functions are obtained. The Laguerre-Pólya class of real entire functions plays an important role in this study. In particular, we obtain some new bounds for the first positive zero of the derivative of the classical Bessel function of the first kind. Downloads 199
##### 5201 Weight Comparison of Oil and Dry Type Distribution Transformers

Authors: Murat Toren, Mehmet Çelebi

Abstract:

Reducing the weight of transformers while providing good performance, cost reduction and increased efficiency is important. Weight is one of the most significant factors in all electrical machines, and as such, many transformer design parameters are related to weight calculations. This study presents a comparison of the weight of oil type transformers and dry type transformer weight. Oil type transformers are mainly used in industry; however, dry type transformers are becoming more widespread in recent years. MATLAB is typically used for designing transformers and design parameters (rated voltages, core loss, etc.) along with design in ANSYS Maxwell. Similar to other studies, this study presented that the dry type transformer option is limited. Moreover, the commonly-used 50 kVA distribution transformers in the industry are oil type and dry type transformers are designed and considered in terms of weight. Currently, the preference for low-cost oil-type transformers would change if costs for dry-type transformer were more competitive. The aim of this study was to compare the weight of transformers, which is a substantial cost factor, and to provide an evaluation about increasing the use of dry type transformers. Downloads 253
##### 5200 Weight Gain After Total Thyroidectomy

Abstract:

Background: Patients who undergo thyroidectomy due to thyroid cancer often complain weight gain, although they are on suppressive thyroid hormone treatment. The aim of this study is to know whether thyroid cancer patients gain the weight after thyroidectomy and weight change is dependent on estrogen state or use of rhTSH. Material and Method: We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. Two hundred two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were included. As a control group, patients with thyroid nodule and euthyroidism were matched for age, gender, menopausal status. The weight changes occurring over first one year and thyroid function were assessed. Results: Mean age was 51±12 years and patients was composed with 38% of premenopausal, 15 % perimenopausal women, 37% of postmenopausal women and 20% of men. Patients with thyroid cancer gained 2.2 kg during the first year. It’ was not significantly different with control. However, weigh change in perimenopausal and post menopausal women gained more weight than control (P <0.05). Age, baseline body weight and weight gain were not correlated. Discussion: Patient who had undergone thyroidectomy gained more weight than their control, especially in peri- and postmenopausal women. Patients in this age should be monitored for their weight carefully. Downloads 321
##### 5199 Environmental Pollution Impact on Lung Functions and Cognitive Functions Among School Adolescence

Authors: Sultan Ayoub Meo

Abstract:

Environmental pollution is a highly challenging global concern of the 21st century and is a major cause of various communicable and non-communicable diseases. We investigate the impact of air pollution on "lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and cognitive function"in a group of one hundred young students studying in a traffic-polluted school. The students wereselected based on their age, gender, height, weight, and ethnicity. After the clinical history, one hundred students were recruited from the schoolnear and away from the polluted areas. The lung and cognitive functions were recorded. The results revealed that lung and cognitive function parameters were reduced in groups of students studying in a school located in a traffic-polluted area compared to thosestudying in a schoolsituated away from the traffic-polluted area. Environmental pollution impairs students' lung and cognitive functions studying in schools located within traffic-polluted areas. The health officials and policymakers establish strategies to minimize environmental pollution and its allied health hazards. Prof. Sultan Ayoub Meo, MD, Ph.D Professor, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Email. [email protected] / [email protected] Downloads 19
##### 5198 Approximation of Analytic Functions of Several Variables by Linear K-Positive Operators in the Closed Domain

Authors: Tulin Coskun

Abstract:

We investigate the approximation of analytic functions of several variables in polydisc by the sequences of linear k-positive operators in Gadjiev sence. The approximation of analytic functions of complex variable by linear k-positive operators was tackled, and k-positive operators and formulated theorems of Korovkin's type for these operators in the space of analytic functions on the unit disc were introduced in the past. Recently, very general results on convergence of the sequences of linear k-positive operators on a simply connected bounded domain within the space of analytic functions were proved. In this presentation, we extend some of these results to the approximation of analytic functions of several complex variables by sequences of linear k-positive operators. Downloads 252
##### 5197 Genetics of Birth and Weaning Weight of Holstein, Friesians in Sudan

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to estimate the means and genetic parameters of birth and weaning weight of calves of pure Holstein-Friesian cows raised in Sudan. The traits studied were:*Weight at birth *Weight at weaning. The study also included some of the important factors that affected these traits. The data were analyzed using Harvey’s Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood programme. The results obtained showed that the overall mean weight at birth of the calves under study was 34.36±0.94kg. Male calves were found to be heavier than females; the difference between the sexes was highly significant (P<0.001). The mean weight at birth of male calves was 34.27±1.17 kg while that of females was 32.51±1.14kg. The effect of sex of calves, sire and parity of dam were highly significant (P<0.001). The overall mean of weight at weaning was 67.10 ± 5.05 kg, weight at weaning was significantly (p<0.001) effected by sex of calves, sire, year and season of birth have highly significant (P<0.001) effect on either trait. Also estimates heritabilities of birth weight was (0.033±0.015) lower than heritabilities of weaning weight (0.224±0.039), and genetic correlation was 0.563, the phenotypic correlation 0.281, and the environmental correlation 0.268.

Keywords: birth, weaning, weight, friesian

##### 5196 Unconventional Calculus Spreadsheet Functions

Authors: Chahid K. Ghaddar

Abstract:

The spreadsheet engine is exploited via a non-conventional mechanism to enable novel worksheet solver functions for computational calculus. The solver functions bypass inherent restrictions on built-in math and user defined functions by taking variable formulas as a new type of argument while retaining purity and recursion properties. The enabling mechanism permits integration of numerical algorithms into worksheet functions for solving virtually any computational problem that can be modelled by formulas and variables. Several examples are presented for computing integrals, derivatives, and systems of deferential-algebraic equations. Incorporation of the worksheet solver functions with the ubiquitous spreadsheet extend the utility of the latter as a powerful tool for computational mathematics. Downloads 270
##### 5195 Factors Associated with Weight Loss Maintenance after an Intervention Program

Authors: Filipa Cortez, Vanessa Pereira

Abstract:

Introduction: The main challenge of obesity treatment is long-term weight loss maintenance. The 3 phases method is a weight loss program that combines a low carb and moderately high-protein diet, food supplements and a weekly one-to-one consultation with a certified nutritionist. Sustained weight control is the ultimate goal of phase 3. Success criterion was the minimum loss of 10% of initial weight and its maintenance after 12 months. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance after 12 months at the end of 3 phases method. Methods: The study included 199 subjects that achieved their weight loss goal (phase 3). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were obtained at the baseline and every week until the end of the program. Therapeutic adherence was measured weekly on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Subjects were considered in compliance with nutritional recommendation and supplementation when their classification was ≥ 4. After 12 months of the method, the current weight and number of previous weight-loss attempts were collected by telephone interview. The statistical significance was assumed at p-values < 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS TM software v.21. Results: 65.3% of subjects met the success criterion. The factors which displayed a significant weight loss maintenance prediction were: greater initial percentage weight loss (OR=1.44) during the weight loss intervention and a higher number of consultations in phase 3 (OR=1.10). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the percentage weight loss during the weight loss intervention and the number of consultations in phase 3 may facilitate maintenance of weight loss after the 3 phases method. Downloads 73
##### 5194 Fuzzy Control and Pertinence Functions

Authors: Luiz F. J. Maia

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach to fuzzy control, with the use of new pertinence functions, applied in the case of an inverted pendulum. Appropriate definitions of pertinence functions to fuzzy sets make possible the implementation of the controller with only one control rule, resulting in a smooth control surface. The fuzzy control system can be implemented with analog devices, affording a true real-time performance. Downloads 322
##### 5193 A New Approach for Generalized First Derivative of Nonsmooth Functions Using Optimization

Abstract:

In this paper, we define an optimization problem corresponding to smooth and nonsmooth functions which its optimal solution is the first derivative of these functions in a domain. For this purpose, a linear programming problem corresponding to optimization problem is obtained. The optimal solution of this linear programming problem is the approximate generalized first derivative. In fact, we approximate generalized first derivative of nonsmooth functions as tailor series. We show the efficiency of our approach by some smooth and nonsmooth functions in some examples. Downloads 470
##### 5192 Prediction of Slaughter Body Weight in Rabbits: Multivariate Approach through Path Coefficient and Principal Component Analysis

Authors: K. A. Bindu, T. V. Raja, P. M. Rojan, A. Siby

Abstract:

The multivariate path coefficient approach was employed to study the effects of various production and reproduction traits on the slaughter body weight of rabbits. Information on 562 rabbits maintained at the university rabbit farm attached to the Centre for Advanced Studies in Animal Genetics, and Breeding, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala State, India was utilized. The manifest variables used in the study were age and weight of dam, birth weight, litter size at birth and weaning, weight at first, second and third months. The linear multiple regression analysis was performed by keeping the slaughter weight as the dependent variable and the remaining as independent variables. The model explained 48.60 percentage of the total variation present in the market weight of the rabbits. Even though the model used was significant, the standardized beta coefficients for the independent variables viz., age and weight of the dam, birth weight and litter sizes at birth and weaning were less than one indicating their negligible influence on the slaughter weight. However, the standardized beta coefficient of the second-month body weight was maximum followed by the first-month weight indicating their major role on the market weight. All the other factors influence indirectly only through these two variables. Hence it was concluded that the slaughter body weight can be predicted using the first and second-month body weights. The principal components were also developed so as to achieve more accuracy in the prediction of market weight of rabbits. Downloads 79
##### 5191 Numerical Solution for Integro-Differential Equations by Using Quartic B-Spline Wavelet and Operational Matrices

Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Yaser Rostami

Abstract:

In this paper, semi-orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and wavelets and their dual functions are presented to approximate the solutions of integro-differential equations.The B-spline scaling functions and wavelets, their properties and the operational matrices of derivative for this function are presented to reduce the solution of integro-differential equations to the solution of algebraic equations. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their dual, then we will show that by using them we have better approximation results for the solution of integro-differential equations in comparison with less degrees of scaling functions. Downloads 254
##### 5190 Weight Status, Body Appreciation Correlated with Husbands' Satisfaction in Saudi Women

Authors: Hala Hzam Al Otaibi

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is more common among Saudi women compared to men, with 75–88% of adult women suffering from overweight or obesity and most of them married. Weight status and body appreciation are an important factor in maintaining or loss weight behaviors and for husbands satisfaction. Aims: To assess weight status, body appreciation and related factors, including age, level of education, occupation status husbands satisfaction in adult women. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 326 married women, aged 18 to 60 years old in Eastern of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected by face to face interview, height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and husbands satisfied were evaluated through questioning. Results: The majority of women has a university education, not employed and less than 40 years old (66.5%, 69.9%, 67.5%; respectively). Fifty-four percent of women overweight/obese and the rest were normal weight, BAS mean score was lower in younger women (>40 years) 7.39+2.20 and obese women (6.83+2.16) which is reflected lower body appreciation. Husbands' satisfaction regarding the weight status shows 47.6% of normal weight believed their husbands were dissatisfied with their weight and consider them as overweight/obese, 28.3% of overweight/obese thought their husbands satisfied with their weight and consider them as normal weight. Body appreciation correlated with age (r.139,p<0.05) and no correlation found for level of education and employed status. Husbands satisfaction strongly correlated with body appreciation (r.189,p<0.01) and weight status (r .570,p <0.01). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that women had a low body appreciation related to age, weight status and husbands' dissatisfaction. Future interventions aimed to weight reduction, it is important to consider husband satisfaction, as well as we need more assessment of weight satisfaction in younger women. Downloads 293
##### 5189 High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros

Authors: Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares

Abstract:

The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily. Downloads 169
##### 5188 A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Zambian Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge of Functions

Abstract:

The relevance of what is content is taught in tertiary teacher training has long been in question. This study attempts to understand how advanced mathematics courses equip student teachers to teach functions at secondary school level. This paper reports on an investigation that was conducted in an African university, where preservice teachers were purposefully selected for participation in individual semi-structured interviews after completing a test on functions as taught at secondary school. They were asked to justify their reasoning in the test and to explain functions in a way that might bring about understanding of the topic in someone who did not know how functions work. These were final year preservice mathematics teachers who had studied advanced mathematics courses for three years. More than 50% of the students were not able to explain concepts or to justify their reasoning about secondary school functions in a coherent way. The results of this study suggest that the study of advanced mathematics does not automatically enable students to teach secondary school functions, and that, although these students were able to do advanced mathematics, they were unable to explain the working of functions in a way that would allow them to teach this topic successfully. Downloads 175
##### 5187 The Effect of Gross Vehicle Weight on the Stability of Heavy Vehicle during Cornering

Abstract:

One of the functions of the commercial heavy vehicle is to safely and efficiently transport goods and people. Due to its size and carrying capacity, it is important to study the vehicle dynamic stability during cornering. Study has shown that there are a number of overloaded heavy vehicles or permissible gross vehicle weight (GVW) violations recorded at selected areas in Malaysia assigned by its type and category. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the correlation and effect of the GVW on heavy vehicle stability during cornering event using simulation. Various selected heavy vehicle types and category are simulated using IPG/Truck Maker® with different GVW and road condition (coefficient of friction of road surface), while the speed, driver characteristic, center of gravity of load and road geometry are constant. Based on the analysis, the relationship between GVW and lateral acceleration were established. As expected, on the same value of coefficient of friction, the maximum lateral acceleration would be increased as the GVW increases. Downloads 460
##### 5186 Bernstein Type Polynomials for Solving Differential Equations and Their Applications

Authors: Yilmaz Simsek

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the Bernstein-type basis functions with their generating functions. We give various properties of these polynomials with the aid of their generating functions. These polynomials and generating functions have many valuable applications in mathematics, in probability, in statistics and also in mathematical physics. By using the Bernstein-Galerkin and the Bernstein-Petrov-Galerkin methods, we give some applications of the Bernstein-type polynomials for solving high even-order differential equations with their numerical computations. We also give Bezier-type curves related to the Bernstein-type basis functions. We investigate fundamental properties of these curves. These curves have many applications in mathematics, in computer geometric design and other related areas. Moreover, we simulate these polynomials with their plots for some selected numerical values. Downloads 195
##### 5185 Anemia Maternal in Pregnancy as a Risk Factor of Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review

Abstract:

This systematic review research is aimed to find out anemia maternal during pregnancy as a risk factor of low birth weight. This research was done by searching some journals which have associated to maternal anemia during pregnancy with low birth weight that had been published in journal accreditation and scopus index. Study literature that researcher had been done by March – April 2016 through online library of UI. The journals that had been selected according to inclusive criteria and exclusive criteria had been through the critial appraisal process. This systematic review towards 4 journals that had been selected and published showed the significant result statistically that anemia maternal is one of the risk factors which causes low birth weight. Anemia maternal on the first-trimester pregnancy showed significant association with low birth weight. Moderate anemia and severe anemia also showed significant association with low birth weight. Meanwhile, mild anemia doesn’t have an association with low birth weight. The conclusion of this study is anemia maternal (as an independent risk factor) have an influence towards low birth weight. Downloads 198
##### 5184 A Fuzzy Satisfactory Optimization Method Based on Stress Analysis for a Hybrid Composite Flywheel

Authors: Liping Yang, Curran Crawford, Jr. Ren, Zhengyi Ren

Abstract:

Considering the cost evaluation and the stress analysis, a fuzzy satisfactory optimization (FSO) method has been developed for a hybrid composite flywheel. To evaluate the cost, the cost coefficients of the flywheel components are obtained through calculating the weighted sum of the scores of the material manufacturability, the structure character, and the material price. To express the satisfactory degree of the energy, the cost, and the mass, the satisfactory functions are proposed by using the decline function and introducing a satisfactory coefficient. To imply the different significance of the objectives, the object weight coefficients are defined. Based on the stress analysis of composite material, the circumferential and radial stresses are considered into the optimization formulation. The simulations of the FSO method with different weight coefficients and storage energy density optimization (SEDO) method of a flywheel are contrasted. The analysis results show that the FSO method can satisfy different requirements of the designer and the FSO method with suitable weight coefficients can replace the SEDO method. Downloads 254
##### 5183 Assessment of Body Mass Index among Children of Primary School in Behbahan City

Abstract:

With increase in fat and over weight in children and its undesirable effects on different organisms of the body and since many of the sicknesses are due to over weight and with losing weight these sicknesses disappear, and on the other hand with mal nutrition and under weight in children other kind of sicknesses such as derogation of body's security system, frequent infection, insufficient growth, shortness, and delay in maturity etc. are some of the signs of being under weight. Therefore recognition of signs of over weight and under weight and their prevalence in children are important. To determine this difficulty we have used the body mass index as screening tool since it is very prevalent and a good and important guide and has very good relation with body fat in children. In this study 2321 students from primary schools in Behbahan have been chosen randomly and evaluated by height and weight and their body mass index have been calculated and then recorded on the BMI percentile diagram which is for age and gender. The following results obtained: The amount of total fat, over weight and slimness are 9.3, 12.1 and 12.32 percent respectively. Therefore 21.4% of the children were over weighted. It did not show any meaningful statistical relation in fat conditions among boys and girls, but there has been a meaningful statistical relation in slimness among boys and girls.

Keywords: assessment, students, Behbahan, Body Mass Index

##### 5182 Efficiency of Virtual Reality Exercises with Nintendo Wii System on Balance and Independence in Motor Functions in Hemiparetic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the efficiency of virtual reality exercises with Nintendo Wii system on balance and independence in motor functions. This randomized controlled assessor-blinded study included 23 stroke inpatients with hemiparesis all within 12 months poststroke. Patients were randomly assigned to control group (n=11) or experimental group (n=12) via block randomization method. Control group participated in a conventional balance rehabilitation programme. Study group received a four-week balance training programme five times per week with a session duration of 20 minutes in addition to the conventional balance rehabilitation programme. Balance was assessed by the Berg’s balance scale, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, the postural assessment scale for stroke, the static balance index. Also, displacement of centre of pressure sway and centre of pressure displacement during weight shifting was calculated by Emed-SX system. Independence in motor functions was assessed by The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) ambulation and FIM transfer subscales. The outcome measures were evaluated at baseline, 4th week (posttreatment), 8th week (follow-up). Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for each of the outcome measure. Significant group time interaction was detected in the scores of the Berg’s balance scale, the functional reach test, eyes open anteroposterior and mediolateral center of pressure sway distance, eyes closed anteroposterior center of pressure sway distance, center of pressure displacement during weight shifting to effected side, unaffected side and total centre of pressure displacement during weight shifting (p < 0.05). Time effect was statistically significant in the scores of the Berg’s balance scale, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, the postural assessment scale for stroke, the static balance index, eyes open anteroposterior and mediolateral center of pressure sway distance, eyes closed mediolateral center of pressure sway distance, the center of pressure displacement during weight shifting to effected side, the functional independence measure ambulation and transfer scores (p < 0.05). Virtual reality exercises with Nintendo Wii system combined with a conventional balance rehabilitation programme enhances balance performance and independence in motor functions in stroke patients. Downloads 151