Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4559

Search results for: international requirements

4559 New Formula for Revenue Recognition Likely to Change the Prescription for Pharma Industry

Authors: Shruti Hajirnis

Abstract:

In May 2014, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers that will supersede virtually all revenue recognition requirements in IFRS and US GAAP. FASB and the IASB have basically achieved convergence with these standards, with only some minor differences such as collectability threshold, interim disclosure requirements, early application and effective date, impairment loss reversal and nonpublic entity requirements. This paper discusses the impact of five-step model prescribed in new revenue standard on the entities operating in Pharma industry. It also outlines the considerations for these entities while implementing the new standard.

Keywords: revenue recognition, pharma industry, standard, requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
4558 Conflicts Identification Approach among Stakeholders in Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Suhaib

Abstract:

Requirements Analysis are the most important part of software Engineering for both system application development, and project requirements. Conflicts often arise during the requirements gathering and analysis phase. This research aims to identify conflicts during the requirements gathering phase in software development life cycle, Research, Development, and Technology converted the world into a global village. During requirements elicitation/gathering phase it’s very difficult to understand the main objective of stakeholders, after completion of requirements elicitation task final results are used for Software Requirements Specification (SRS), SRS is the highly important outcome of the requirements analysis phase. this is the foundation between the developers and stakeholders or customers, proposed methodology will be helpful to identify those conflicts in a very easy manner during the initial phase of the project.

Keywords: goal oriented requirements analysis, conflicts identification model, requirements analysis, requirements engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
4557 An Approach to Specify Software Requirements in Semantic Form

Authors: Deepa Vijay, Chellammal Surianarayanan, Gopinath Ganapathy

Abstract:

Requirements of a software project serve as a guideline for the entire project team which enable the team towards producing the right outcome. As requirements are the key in deciding the success of the project, it should be specified in an unambiguous manner. Also, the requirements should be complete and consistent. It should be interpreted in the same way by the entire software project team as the customer interprets. Specifying requirements in textual manner is common in software development. This leads to poor understanding of the requirements which results in more errors and degraded quality. There are some literatures which focus on semantic way of specifying functional requirement which ensure the consistency and completeness of requirements. Alternately in the work, a method is proposed to map the syntactic requirements with corresponding semantics in the form of ontologies. This improves the understanding of requirements, prevents errors and improves quality.

Keywords: functional requirement, ontology, requirements management, semantics

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
4556 Wake Effects of Wind Turbines and Its Impacts on Power Curve Measurements

Authors: Sajan Antony Mathew, Bhukya Ramdas

Abstract:

Abstract—The impetus of wind energy deployment over the last few decades has seen potential sites being harvested very actively for wind farm development. Due to the scarce availability of highly potential sites, the turbines are getting more optimized in its location wherein minimum spacing between the turbines are resorted without comprising on the optimization of its energy yield. The optimization of the energy yield from a wind turbine is achieved by effective micrositing techniques. These time-tested techniques which are applied from site to site on terrain conditions that meet the requirements of the International standard for power performance measurements of wind turbines result in the positioning of wind turbines for optimized energy yields. The international standard for Power Curve Measurements has rules of procedure and methodology to evaluate the terrain, obstacles and sector for measurements. There are many challenges at the sites for complying with the requirements for terrain, obstacles and sector for measurements. Studies are being attempted to carry out these measurements within the scope of the international standard as various other procedures specified in alternate standards or the integration of LIDAR for Power Curve Measurements are in the nascent stage. The paper strives to assist in the understanding of the fact that if positioning of a wind turbine at a site is based on an optimized output, then there are no wake effects seen on the power curve of an adjacent wind turbine. The paper also demonstrates that an invalid sector for measurements could be used in the analysis in alteration to the requirement as per the international standard for power performance measurements. Therefore the paper strives firstly to demonstrate that if a wind turbine is optimally positioned, no wake effects are seen and secondly the sector for measurements in such a case could include sectors which otherwise would have to be excluded as per the requirements of International standard for power performance measurements.

Keywords: micrositing, optimization, power performance, wake effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
4555 Teaching Students Collaborative Requirements Engineering: Case Study of Red:Wire

Authors: Dagmar Monett, Sven-Erik Kujat, Marvin Hartmann

Abstract:

This paper discusses the use of a template-based approach for documenting high-quality requirements as part of course projects in an undergraduate Software Engineering course. In order to ease some of the Requirements Engineering activities that are performed when defining requirements by using the template, a new CASE tool, RED:WIRE, was first developed and later tested by students attending the course. Two questionnaires were conceived around a study that aims to analyze the new tool’s learnability as well as other obtained results concerning its usability in particular and the Requirements Engineering skills developed by the students in general.

Keywords: CASE tool, requirements engineering, SOPHIST template, undergraduate course

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
4554 Demystifying the Legitimacy of the International Court of Justice

Authors: Roger-Claude Liwanga

Abstract:

Over the last seven decades, there has been a proliferation of international tribunals. Yet, they have not received unanimous approval, raising a question about their legitimacy. A legitimate international tribunal is one whose authority to adjudicate international disputes is perceived as justified. Using the case study of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), this article highlights the three criteria that should be considered in assessing the legitimacy of an international tribunal, which include legal, sociological, and moral elements. It also contends that the ICJ cannot claim 'full' legitimacy if any of these components of legitimacy is missing in its decisions. The article further suggests that the legitimacy of the ICJ has a dynamic nature, as litigating parties may constantly change their perception of the court’s authority at any time before, during, or after the judicial process. The article equally describes other factors that can contribute to maintaining the international court’s legitimacy, including fairness and unbiasedness, sound interpretation of international legal norms, and transparency.

Keywords: international tribunals, legitimacy, human rights, international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
4553 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: criminal law, international crimes, international criminal law, international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
4552 Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements

Authors: T. Mrna, R. Doubrava

Abstract:

This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.

Keywords: airworthiness requirements, composite, damage tolerance, low and high velocity impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
4551 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

Abstract:

The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: international crimes, international criminal justice, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
4550 Students as Global Citizens: Lessons from the International Study Tour

Authors: Ana Hol

Abstract:

Study and work operations are being transformed with the uses of technologies and are consequently becoming global. This paper outlines lessons learned based on the international study tour that Australian Bachelor of Information Systems students undertook. This research identifies that for the study tour to be successful, students need to gain skills that global citizens require. For example, students will need to gain an understanding of local cultures, local customs and habits. Furthermore, students would also need to gain an understanding of how a field of their future career expertise operates in the host country, how study and business are conducted internationally, which tools and technologies are currently being utilized on a global scale, what trends drive future developments world-wide and how business negotiations and collaborations are being undertaken across borders. Furthermore, this research provides a guide to educators who are planning, guiding and running study tours as it outlines the requirements of having a pre-tour preparatory session, carefully planned and executed tour itineraries and post-tour sessions during which students can reflect on their experiences and lessons learned so that they can apply them to future international business visits and ventures.

Keywords: global education, international experiences, international study tours, students as global citizens, student centered education,

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
4549 The Role of State Practices and Custom in Outer Space Law

Authors: Biswanath Gupta, Raju Kd

Abstract:

Space law is the new entry in the basket of international law in the latter half of the 20th Century. In the last hundred and fifty years, courts and scholars developed a consensus that, the custom is an important source of international law. Article 38(1) (b) of the statute of the International Court of Justice recognized international custom as a source of international law. State practices and usages have a greater role to play in formulating customary international law. This paper examines those state practices which can be qualified to become international customary law. Since, 1979 (after Moon Treaty) no hard law have been developed in the area of space exploration. It tries to link between state practices and custom in space exploration and development of customary international law in space activities. The paper uses doctrinal method of legal research for examining the current questions of international law. The paper explores different international legal documents such as General Assembly Resolutions, Treaty principles, working papers of UN, cases relating to customary international law and writing of jurists relating to space law and customary international law. It is argued that, principles such as common heritage of mankind, non-military zone, sovereign equality, nuclear weapon free zone and protection of outer space environment, etc. developed state practices among the international community which can be qualified to become international customary law.

Keywords: customary international law, state practice, space law, treaty

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
4548 Supporting the ESL Student in a Tertiary Setting: Carrot and Stick

Authors: Ralph Barnes

Abstract:

The internationalization and globalization of education are now a huge, multi-million dollar industry. The movement of international students across the globe has provided a rich vein of revenue for universities and institutions of higher learning to exploit and harvest. A concerted effort has been made by universities worldwide to court students from overseas, with some countries relying up to one-third of student fees, coming from international students. Australian universities and English Language Centres are coming under increased government scrutiny in respect to such areas as the academic progression of international students, management and understanding of student visa requirements and the design of higher education courses and effective assessment regimes. As such, universities and other higher education institutions are restructuring themselves more as service providers rather than as strictly education providers. In this paper, the high-touch, tailored academic model currently followed by some Australian educational institutions to support international students, is examined and challenged. Academic support services offered to international students need to be coordinated, sustained and reviewed regularly, in order to assess their effectiveness. Maintaining the delivery of high-quality educational programs and learning outcomes for this high income-generating student cohort is vital, in order to continue the successful academic and social engagement by international students across the Australian university and higher education landscape.

Keywords: ESL, engagement, tertiary, learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
4547 An Extended Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning: Impact of New International Business Processes

Authors: D. De Matías Batalla

Abstract:

This paper develops and extended eclectic paradigm to fit the firm internationalization process with the real international business world. The approach is based on Dunning´s, introducing new concepts like mode of entry, international joint venture o international mergers and acquisitions. At the same time is presented a model to describe the Spanish international mergers and acquisitions in order to determinate the most important factor that influence in this type of foreign direct investment.

Keywords: dunning, eclectic paradigm, foreign direct investment, IJV, international business, international management, multinational firms, firm internationalization process, M&A

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
4546 The History of Chartered Certified Accountants: The Case of Tunisia

Authors: Mariam Dammak, Yosra Makni Fourati, Rania Mnejja

Abstract:

This paper aims to highlight the conditions and the context of the birth and the implementation of the Chartered Certified Accountants in Tunisian universities. For this purpose, we present an historical overview of the establishment of institutions that started the courses of Chartered accounting, including the Institute of Higher Commercial Studies (IHEC) of Carthage, the Higher Institute of Management (ISG) of Tunis, the Faculty of Economics and Management (FSEG) of Sfax and later the Higher Institute of Accounting and Administration of Enterprises (ISCAE) of Tunis. Then, it would be relevant to examine the changes, carried out by the Tunisian government, of the regulations in force relating to this academic path, from its birth during the 1970s until nowadays. We conducted a documentary study (archival documents, official documents, etc.) accompanied by semi-structured interviews with key actors (accountants, academics, officials of the Ministry of Higher Education) who marked the history of the studies of Tunisian charted accounting. Addressing this research question in Tunisia may contribute to the literature in three ways. First, previous researches dealing with the history of charted accounting-education are scared. Second, this paper allows us to understand the circumstances and context of the birth and teaching of accounting in Tunisia. Eventually, it helps to position the accounting curriculum in relation to international requirements. In fact, the training of accountants is closely related to the practice of the profession, regulated by the Order of Chartered Accountants in Tunisia (OECT). This Order is a member of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), since its creation in the 80s, has obligations to align with international requirements, particularly those relating to higher education, set up in 2005 and updated in 2015 (International Standard Education: IES).

Keywords: accounting history, chartered certified accountants, higher accounting education, Tunisian context

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
4545 Power, Pluralism, and History: Norms in International Societies

Authors: Nicole Cervenka

Abstract:

On the question of norms in international politics, scholars are divided over whether norms are a tool for power politics or a genuine reflection of an emergent international society. The line is drawn between rationalism and idealism, but this dialectical relationship needs to be broken down if we hope to come to a comprehensive understanding of how norms play out in international society. The concept of an elusive international society is a simplification of a more pluralistic, cosmopolitan, and diverse collection of international societies. The English School effectively overcomes realist-idealist dichotomies and provides a pluralistic, comprehensive explanation and description of international societies through its application to two distinct areas: human rights as well as security and war. We argue that international norms have always been present in human rights, war, and international security, forming international societies that can be complimentary or oppositional, beneficial or problematic. Power politics are present, but they can only be regarded as partially explanatory of the role of norms in international politics, which must also include history, international law, the media, NGOs, and others to fully represent the normative influences in international societies. A side-by-side comparison of international norms of war/security and human rights show how much international societies converge. World War II was a turning point in terms of international law, these forces of international society have deeper historical roots. Norms of human rights and war/security are often norms of restraint, guiding appropriate treatment of individuals. This can at times give primacy to the individual over the sovereign state. However, state power politics and hegemony are still intact. It cannot be said that there is an emergent international society—international societies are part of broader historical backdrops. Furthermore, states and, more generally, power politics, are important components in international societies, but international norms are far from mere tools of power politics. They define a more diverse, complicated, and ever-present conception of international societies.

Keywords: English school, international societies, norms, pluralism

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
4544 Rating the Importance of Customer Requirements for Green Product Using Analytic Hierarchy Process Methodology

Authors: Lara F. Horani, Shurong Tong

Abstract:

Identification of customer requirements and their preferences are the starting points in the process of product design. Most of design methodologies focus on traditional requirements. But in the previous decade, the green products and the environment requirements have increasingly attracted the attention with the constant increase in the level of consumer awareness towards environmental problems (such as green-house effect, global warming, pollution and energy crisis, and waste management). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements is an essential and crucial process. This paper used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach to evaluate and rate the customer requirements for green products. With respect to the ultimate goal of customer satisfaction, surveys are conducted using a five-point scale analysis. With the help of this scale, one can derive the weight vectors. This approach can improve the imprecise ranking of customer requirements inherited from studies based on the conventional AHP. Furthermore, the AHP with extent analysis is simple and easy to implement to prioritize customer requirements. The research is based on collected data through a questionnaire survey conducted over a sample of 160 people belonging to different age, marital status, education and income groups in order to identify the customer preferences for green product requirements.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process (AHP), green product, customer requirements for green design, importance weights for the customer requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
4543 Evaluation of JCI Accreditation for Medical Technology in Saudi Arabian Hospitals: A Study Case of PSMMC

Authors: Hamad Albadr

Abstract:

Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation process intent to improve the safety and quality of care in the international community through the provision of education, publications, consultation, and evaluation services. These standards apply to the entire organization as well as to each department, unit, or service within the organization. Medical Technology that contains both medical equipment and devices, is an essential part of health care. Appropriate management of equipment maintenance for ensuring medical technology safe, the equipment life is maximized, and the total costs are minimized. JCI medical technology evaluation and accreditation use standards, intents, and measurable elements. The paper focuses on evaluation of JCI standards for medical technology in Saudi Arabian hospitals: a Study Case of PSMMC that define the performance expectation, structures, or functions that must be in place for a hospital to be accredited by JCI through measurable elements that indicate a score during the survey process that identify the requirements for full compliance with the standard specially through Facility Management and Safety (FMS) section that require the hospital establishes and implements a program for inspecting, testing, and maintaining medical technology and documenting the results, to ensure that medical technology is available for use and functioning properly, the hospital performs and documents; an inventory of medical technology; regular inspections of medical technology; testing of medical technology according to its use and manufacturers’ requirements; and performance of preventive maintenance.

Keywords: joint commission international (JCI) accreditation, medical technology, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian hospitals

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
4542 Outbound Tourism in Developed Countries: Analysis of the Trends, Behavior and the Transformation of the Moroccan Demand for International Travels

Authors: M. Boukhrouk, R. Ed-Dali

Abstract:

Outbound tourism in Morocco, as in the majority of developing countries, reveals some of the aspects of inequality between the north and the south. Considered by some researchers as one of the facets of the development crisis, access to tourism and especially international tourism is a chance for a small minority with financial means, while the vast portions of the population dream rather of immigrating to a developed country for the sake of improving their standard of living. The right to travel is also limited by visa requirements, procedures in host countries, security and technical measures and creates discrimination in the practice of tourism. These conditions do not seem to be favorable to the democratization of the practice of international tourism for the populations of the southern countries. This paper is a contribution to the reading of the trends of outbound tourism in developing countries through the example of Morocco. It highlights the different aspects of Moroccan outbound tourism, destinations and the behavior of tourists through an analysis of the offer of a sample of 50 travel agencies. In the same vein, it offers a reading grid of the possibilities offered for the development of outbound tourism and the various existing obstacles to the democratization of international outbound tourism in the southern countries. This reading reveals the transformation in the behavior of Moroccan international tourists as well as the profound changes in Moroccan society, through a model of statistical analysis.

Keywords: demand, Hajj, Morocco, outbound tourism, tendency, Umrah

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
4541 Requirements Gathering for Improved Software Usability and the Potential for Usage-Centred Design

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

Abstract:

Usability is an important software quality that is often neglected at the design stage. Although methods exist to incorporate elements of usability engineering, there is a need for more balanced usability focused methods that can enhance the experience of software usability for users. In this regard, the potential for Usage-Centered Design is explored with respect to requirements gathering and is shown to lead to high software usability besides other benefits. It achieves this through its focus on usage, defining essential use cases, by conducting task modeling, encouraging user collaboration, refining requirements, and so on. The requirements gathering process in UgCD is described in detail.

Keywords: requirements gathering, usability, usage-centred design, computer science

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4540 The Doctrine of Military Necessity under Customary International Law: A Breach of International Humanitarian Law

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

This paper examines an essential and complex part of International humanitarian law standards of military necessity. Military necessity is an unpredictable phenomenon. The unpredictability of this regulation likewise originates from the fact that is one of the most fundamental, yet most misjudged and distorted standards of international law of armed conflict. This rule has been censured as essentially wrong in light of its non-compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law in recent past. The author noted in this study that military necessity runs counter to humanitarian exigencies. These have generated debate among researchers for them to propose that for international law to be considered more important, it is indispensable that the procedures and substance of custom be illuminated and made accessible to every one of the individuals who may utilize it or be influenced by it. However, a significant number of analysts have attributed particular weaknesses to this doctrine. This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Significantly, the recommendation made in this paper, if completely adopted, shall go a long way in guaranteeing a better application of the principles of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: military necessity, international law, international humanitarian law, customary law

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
4539 Requirements Management in Agile

Authors: Ravneet Kaur

Abstract:

The concept of Agile Requirements Engineering and Management is not new. However, the struggle to figure out how traditional Requirements Management Process fits within an Agile framework remains complex. This paper talks about a process that can merge the organization’s traditional Requirements Management Process nicely into the Agile Software Development Process. This process provides Traceability of the Product Backlog to the external documents on one hand and User Stories on the other hand. It also gives sufficient evidence that the system will deliver the right functionality with good quality in the form of various statistics and reports. In the nutshell, by overlaying a process on top of Agile, without disturbing the Agility, we are able to get synergic benefits in terms of productivity, profitability, its reporting, and end to end visibility to all Stakeholders. The framework can be used for just-in-time requirements definition or to build a repository of requirements for future use. The goal is to make sure that the business (specifically, the product owner) can clearly articulate what needs to be built and define what is of high quality. To accomplish this, the requirements cycle follows a Scrum-like process that mirrors the development cycle but stays two to three steps ahead. The goal is to create a process by which requirements can be thoroughly vetted, organized, and communicated in a manner that is iterative, timely, and quality-focused. Agile is quickly becoming the most popular way of developing software because it fosters continuous improvement, time-boxed development cycles, and more quickly delivering value to the end users. That value will be driven to a large extent by the quality and clarity of requirements that feed the software development process. An agile, lean, and timely approach to requirements as the starting point will help to ensure that the process is optimized.

Keywords: requirements management, Agile

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4538 An Examination of the Challenges of Domestication of International Laws and Human Rights Laws in Nigeria

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

This study evolved from the need to look at and evaluate the difficulties in the domestication of International Laws and Human Rights Laws in Nigeria. Essentially, the paper-based its examination on documentary evidence and depended much on secondary sources, for example, textbooks, journals, articles, periodicals and research reports emanating from suggestions of international law experts, jurists and human rights lawyers on the development challenges in domesticating international laws and human rights laws in Nigeria. These data were analyzed by the application of content analysis and careful observation of the current municipal laws which has posed great challenges in the domestication of International laws. This paper might follow the historical backdrop of the practices in the use of International law in Nigeria and should likewise consider the challenges inherent in these practices. The paper suggests that a sustainable domestication of International Laws and its application in Nigerian courts will ensure a better enforcement of human rights within the domestic jurisdiction.

Keywords: international law, human rights, domestication, challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
4537 Changing Landscape of International Law of Governance: ‘One Belt One Road Initiative’ as a Case Study

Authors: Tikumporn Rodkhunmuang

Abstract:

The importance of ‘international law of governance’ is the means and end to deal with international affairs. This research paper seeks to first study the historical development of international law of governance from the classical period of the international legal framework of global governance until the contemporary period of its framework. Second, the international law of governance is extremely turning into the crucial point in its long history because of the changing of China's foreign policies towards ‘One Belt One Road Initiative’. Third, the proposing model of the existing international law of governance within Chinese characteristics will be the new rules and modalities of modern diplomacy and governed international affairs. Methodologically speaking, this research paper is conducting under mixed methods research, which are also included numerical analysis and theoretical considerations. As a result, this research paper is the critical point of the international legal framework of global governance that changing the diplomatic paradigm as well as turning China into a great-power in international politics. So, this research paper is useful for international legal scholars and diplomats for slightly changing their understanding of the rapidly changing their norms from western norms to the eastern norms of international law. Therefore, the outcome of the research is the modern model of China to make a diplomatic relationship with other countries in the global society.

Keywords: global governance, international law, landscape, one belt one road

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
4536 Limitations of Recent National Enactments on International Crimes: The Case of Kenya, Uganda and Sudan

Authors: Emma Charlene Lubaale

Abstract:

The International Criminal Court (ICC) operates based on the principle of complementarity. On the basis of this principle, states enjoy the primary right to prosecute international crimes, with the ICC intervening only when a state with jurisdiction over an international crime is unable or unwilling to prosecute. To ably exercise their primary right to prosecute international crimes domestically, a number of states are taking steps to criminalise international crimes in their national laws. Significant to note, many of the laws enacted are not being applied in the prosecution of the international crimes allegedly committed. Kenya, Uganda and Sudan are some notable states where commission of international crimes is documented. All these states have recently enacted laws on international crimes. Kenya enacted the International Crimes Act in 2008, Uganda enacted the International Criminal Court Act in 2010 and in 2007, Sudan made provision for international crimes under its Armed Forces Act. However, in all these three states, the enacted national laws on international crimes have thus far not featured in any of the proceedings before these states’ courts. Instead, these states have either relied on ordinary crimes to prosecute international crimes or not prosecuted international crimes altogether. This paper underscores the limitations of the enacted laws, explaining why, even with efforts taken by these states to enact national laws on international crimes, these laws cannot be relied on to advance accountability for the international crimes. Notably, the laws in Kenya and Uganda do not have retroactive application. In Sudan, despite the 2007 reforms, the structure of military justice in Sudan has the effect of placing certain categories of individuals beyond the reach of international criminal justice. For Kenya and Uganda, it is concluded that the only benefit that flows from these enactments is reliance on them to prosecute future international crimes. For Sudan, the 2007 reforms will only have the desired impact if reforms are equally made to the structure of military justice.

Keywords: complementarity, national laws, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, international crimes, limitations

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
4535 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma

Abstract:

The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
4534 User Requirements Analysis for the Development of Assistive Navigation Mobile Apps for Blind and Visually Impaired People

Authors: Paraskevi Theodorou, Apostolos Meliones

Abstract:

In the context of the development process of two assistive navigation mobile apps for blind and visually impaired people (BVI) an extensive qualitative analysis of the requirements of potential users has been conducted. The analysis was based on interviews with BVIs and aimed to elicit not only their needs with respect to autonomous navigation but also their preferences on specific features of the apps under development. The elicited requirements were structured into four main categories, namely, requirements concerning the capabilities, functionality and usability of the apps, as well as compatibility requirements with respect to other apps and services. The main categories were then further divided into nine sub-categories. This classification, along with its content, aims to become a useful tool for the researcher or the developer who is involved in the development of digital services for BVI.

Keywords: accessibility, assistive mobile apps, blind and visually impaired people, user requirements analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
4533 Knowledge Audit Model for Requirement Elicitation Process

Authors: Laleh Taheri, Noraini C. Pa, Rusli Abdullah, Salfarina Abdullah

Abstract:

Knowledge plays an important role to the success of any organization. Software development organizations are highly knowledge-intensive organizations especially in their Requirement Elicitation Process (REP). There are several problems regarding communicating and using the knowledge in REP such as misunderstanding, being out of scope, conflicting information and changes of requirements. All of these problems occurred in transmitting the requirements knowledge during REP. Several researches have been done in REP in order to solve the problem towards requirements. Knowledge Audit (KA) approaches were proposed in order to solve managing knowledge in human resources, financial, and manufacturing. There is lack of study applying the KA in requirements elicitation process. Therefore, this paper proposes a KA model for REP in supporting to acquire good requirements.

Keywords: knowledge audit, requirement elicitation process, KA model, knowledge in requirement elicitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4532 Design Improvement of Aircraft Turbofan Engine Following Bird Ingestion Testing

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy

Abstract:

Aircraft gas turbine engines are subject to damage by airborne foreign objects such as birds and garbage dumps. In order to assess their effect on engine performance, a complete foreign object damage (FOD) test was carried out and a component failure analysis was used to verify airworthiness standards (AWS) requirements for engine certification as set by international regulations. Ingestion damage due to 1.8 Kg (4 lb.) bird strike on an engine is presented in some detail. Based on the observed damage, improvements to the engine design were suggested in two different locations: the front bearing housing and the low compressor shaft. When these improvements were implemented, the engine showed an acceptable containment capability that meets AWS requirements.

Keywords: aircraft engine, airworthiness standards, bird ingestion, foreign object damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
4531 Conducting Quality Planning, Assurance and Control According to GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) Standards and Benchmarking Data for Kuwait Food Industries

Authors: Alaa Alateeqi, Sara Aldhulaiee, Sara Alibraheem, Noura Alsaleh

Abstract:

For the past few decades or so, Kuwait's local food industry has grown remarkably due to increase in demand for processed or semi processed food products in the market. It is important that the ever increasing food manufacturing/processing units maintain the required quality standards as per regional and to some extent international quality requirements. It has been realized that all Kuwait food manufacturing units should understand and follow the international standard practices, and moreover a set of guidelines must be set for quality assurance such that any new business in this area is aware of the minimum requirements. The current study has been undertaken to identify the gaps in Kuwait food industries in following the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in terms of quality planning, control and quality assurance. GMP refers to Good Manufacturing Practices, which are a set of rules, laws or regulations that certify producing products within quality standards and ensuring that it is safe, pure and effective. The present study therefore reports about a ‘case study’ in a reputed food manufacturing unit in Kuwait; starting from assessment of the current practices followed by diagnosis, report of the diagnosis and road map and corrective measures for GMP implementation in the unit. The case study has also been able to identify the best practices and establish a benchmarking data for other companies to follow, through measuring the selected company's quality, policies, products and strategies and compare it with the established benchmarking data. A set of questionnaires and assessment mechanism has been established for companies to identify their ‘benchmarking score’ in relation to the number of non-conformities and conformities with the GMP standard requirements.

Keywords: good manufacturing practices, GMP, benchmarking, Kuwait Food Industries, food quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4530 The Education-Development Nexus: The Vision of International Organizations

Authors: Thibaut Lauwerier

Abstract:

This presentation will cover the vision of international organizations on the link between development and education. This issue is very relevant to address the general topic of the conference. 'Educating for development' is indeed at the heart of their discourse. For most of international organizations involved in education, it is important to invest in this field since it is at the service of development. The idea of this presentation is to better understand the vision of development according to these international organizations and how education can contribute to this type of development. To address this issue, we conducted a comparative study of three major international organizations (OECD, UNESCO and World Bank) influencing education policy at the international level. The data come from the strategic reports of these organizations over the period 1990-2015. The results show that the visions of development refer mainly to the neoliberal agenda, despite evolutions, even contradictions. And so, education must increase productivity, improve economic growth, etc. UNESCO, which has a less narrow conception of the development and therefore the aims of education, does not have the same means as the two other organizations to advocate for an alternative vision.

Keywords: development, education, international organizations, poilcy

Procedia PDF Downloads 95