Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 415

Search results for: frameworks

415 Temperature Effects on CO₂ Intake of MIL-101 and ZIF-301

Authors: M. Ba-Shammakh

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for CO₂ capture and they have high adsorption capacity towards CO₂. In this study, two different metal organic frameworks (i.e. MIL-101 and ZIF-301) were tested for different flue gases that have different CO₂ fractions. In addition, the effect of temperature was investigated for MIL-101 and ZIF-301. The results show that MIL-101 performs well for pure CO₂ stream while its intake decreases dramatically for other flue gases that have variable CO₂ fraction ranging from 5 to 15 %. The second material (ZIF-301) showed a better result in all flue gases and higher CO₂ intake compared to MIL-101 even at high temperature.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), MIL-101, ZIF-301

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414 Programming Systems in Implementation of Process Safety at Chemical Process Industry

Authors: Maryam Shayan

Abstract:

Programming frameworks have been utilized as a part of chemical industry process safety operation and configuration to enhance its effectiveness. This paper gives a brief survey and investigation of the best in class and effects of programming frameworks in process security. A study was completed by talking staff accountable for procedure wellbeing practices in the Iranian chemical process industry and diving into writing of innovation for procedure security. This article investigates the useful and operational attributes of programming frameworks for security and endeavors to sort the product as indicated by its level of effect in the administration chain of importance. The study adds to better comprehension of the parts of Information Communication Technology in procedure security, the future patterns and conceivable gaps for innovative work.

Keywords: programming frameworks, chemical industry process, process security, administration chain, information communication technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
413 Governing Urban Water Infrasystems: A Case Study of Los Angeles in the Context of Global Frameworks

Authors: Joachim Monkelbaan, Marcia Hale

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Now that global frameworks for sustainability governance (e.g. the Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Climate Agreement and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction) are in place, the question is how these aspirations that represent major transitions can be put into practice. Water ‘infrasystems’ can play an especially significant role in strengthening regional sustainability. Infrasystems include both hard and soft infrastructure, such as pipes and technology for delivering water, as well as the institutions and governance models that direct its delivery. As such, an integrated infrasystems view is crucial for Integrative Water Management (IWM). Due to frequently contested ownership of and responsibility for water resources, these infrasystems can also play an important role in facilitating conflict and catalysing community empowerment, especially through participatory approaches to governance. In this paper, we analyze the water infrasystem of the Los Angeles region through the lens of global frameworks for sustainability governance. By complementing a solid overview of governance theories with empirical data from interviews with water actors in the LA metropolitan region (including NGOs, water managers, scientists and elected officials), this paper elucidates ways for this infrasystem to be better aligned with global sustainability frameworks. In addition, it opens up the opportunity to scrutinize the appropriateness of global frameworks when it comes to fostering sustainability action at the local level.

Keywords: governance, transitions, global frameworks, infrasystems

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
412 Performance Evaluation of Distributed Deep Learning Frameworks in Cloud Environment

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Fang-An Kuo, Chau-Yi Chou, Yu-Bin Fang

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2016 has become the year of the Artificial Intelligence explosion. AI technologies are getting more and more matured that most world well-known tech giants are making large investment to increase the capabilities in AI. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed, and deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses deep neural network to train a machine to learn  features directly from data. Deep learning realizes many machine learning applications which expand the field of AI. At the present time, deep learning frameworks have been widely deployed on servers for deep learning applications in both academia and industry. In training deep neural networks, there are many standard processes or algorithms, but the performance of different frameworks might be different. In this paper we evaluate the running performance of two state-of-the-art distributed deep learning frameworks that are running training calculation in parallel over multi GPU and multi nodes in our cloud environment. We evaluate the training performance of the frameworks with ResNet-50 convolutional neural network, and we analyze what factors that result in the performance among both distributed frameworks as well. Through the experimental analysis, we identify the overheads which could be further optimized. The main contribution is that the evaluation results provide further optimization directions in both performance tuning and algorithmic design.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, convolutional neural networks

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411 Artificial Intelligence in Global Healthcare: Need for Robust Governance Frameworks

Authors: Sandeep Reddy, Sonia Allan, Simon Coghlan, Paul Cooper

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its application in medicine has generated ample interest amongst policymakers and clinicians. Successes with AI in medical imaging interpretation and clinical decision support are paving the way for its incorporation into routine healthcare delivery. While there has been a focus on the development of ethical principles to guide its application in healthcare, challenges of this application go beyond what ethics principles can address thus requiring robust governance frameworks. Also, while ethical challenges of medical artificial intelligence are being discussed, the ethics of deploying AI in lower-income countries receive less attention than in other developed economies. This creates an imperative not only for sound ethical guidelines but also for robust governance frameworks to regulate AI in medicine around the world. In this article, we discuss what components need to be considered in developing these governance frameworks and who should lead this worldwide effort.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, global health, governance, ethics

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410 Impacts of Applying Automated Vehicle Location Systems to Public Bus Transport Management

Authors: Vani Chintapally

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The expansion of modest and minimized Global Positioning System (GPS) beneficiaries has prompted most Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) frameworks today depending solely on satellite-based finding frameworks, as GPS is the most stable usage of these. This paper shows the attributes of a proposed framework for following and dissecting open transport in a run of the mill medium-sized city and complexities the qualities of such a framework to those of broadly useful AVL frameworks. Particular properties of the courses broke down by the AVL framework utilized for the examination of open transport in our study incorporate cyclic vehicle courses, the requirement for particular execution reports, and so forth. This paper particularly manages vehicle movement forecasts and the estimation of station landing time, combined with consequently produced reports on timetable conformance and other execution measures. Another side of the watched issue is proficient exchange of information from the vehicles to the control focus. The pervasiveness of GSM bundle information exchange advancements combined with decreased information exchange expenses have brought on today's AVL frameworks to depend predominantly on parcel information exchange administrations from portable administrators as the correspondences channel in the middle of vehicles and the control focus. This methodology brings numerous security issues up in this conceivably touchy application field.

Keywords: automatic vehicle location (AVL), expectation of landing times, AVL security, data administrations, wise transport frameworks (ITS), guide coordinating

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409 Defining Methodology for Multi Model Software Process Improvement Framework

Authors: Aedah Abd Rahman

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Software organisations may implement single or multiple frameworks in order to remain competitive. There are wide selection of generic Software Process Improvement (SPI) frameworks, best practices and standards implemented with different focuses and goals. Issues and difficulties emerge in the SPI practices from the context of software development and IT Service Management (ITSM). This research looks into the integration of multiple frameworks from the perspective of software development and ITSM. The research question of this study is how to define steps of methodology to solve the multi model software process improvement problem. The objective of this study is to define the research approach and methodologies to produce a more integrated and efficient Multi Model Process Improvement (MMPI) solution. A multi-step methodology is used which contains the case study, framework mapping and Delphi study. The research outcome has proven the usefulness and appropriateness of the proposed framework in SPI and quality practice in Malaysian software industries. This mixed method research approach is used to tackle problems from every angle in the context of software development and services. This methodology is used to facilitate the implementation and management of multi model environment of SPI frameworks in multiple domains.

Keywords: Delphi study, methodology, multi model software process improvement, service management

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
408 Evaluation of Information Technology Governance Frameworks for Better Governance in South Africa

Authors: Memory Ranga, Phillip Pretorious

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The South African Government has invested a lot of money in Information Technology Governance (ITG) within the Government departments. The ITG framework was spearheaded by the Department of Public Service and Administration (DPSA). This led to the development of a governing ITG DPSA framework and later the Government Wide Enterprise Architecture (GWEA) Framework for assisting the departments to implement ITG. In addition to this, the government departments have adopted the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT) for ITG processes. Despite all these available frameworks, departments fail to fully capitalise and improve the ITG processes mainly as these are too generic and difficult to apply for specific governance needs. There has been less research done to evaluate the progress on ITG initiatives within the government departments. This paper aims to evaluate the existing ITG frameworks within selected government departments in South Africa. A quantitative research approach was used in this study. Data was collected through an online questionnaire targeting ICT Managers and Directors from government departments. The study is undertaken within a case study and only the Eastern Cape Province was selected for the research. Document review mainly on ITG framework and best practices was also used. Data was analysed using the Google Analytic tools and SPSS. A one–sample Chi-Squared Test was used to verity the evaluation findings. Findings show that there is evidence that the current guiding National governance framework (DPSA) is out dated and does not accommodate the new changes in other governance frameworks. The Eastern Cape Government Departments have spent huge amount of money on ITG but not yet able to identify the benefits of the ITG initiatives. The guiding framework is rigid and does to address some of the departmental needs making it difficult to be flexible and apply the DPSA framework. Furthermore, despite the large budget on ITG, the departments still find themselves with many challenges and unable to improve some of the processes and services. All the engaged Eastern Cape departments have adopted the COBIT framework, but none has been conducting COBIT maturity Assessment which is a functionality of COBIT. There is evidence of too many the ITG frameworks and underutilisation of these frameworks. The study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the ITG frameworks that have been adopted by the South African Government Departments in the Eastern Cape Province. The evaluation guides and recommends the government departments to rethink and adopt ITG frameworks that could be customised to accommodate their needs. The adoption and application of ITG by government departments should assist in better governance and service delivery to the citizens.

Keywords: information technology governance, COBIT, evaluate, framework, governance, DPSA framework

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407 Gender Responsiveness of Water, Sanitation Policies and Legal Frameworks at Makerere University

Authors: Harriet Kebirungi, Majaliwa Jackson-Gilbert Mwanjalolo, S. Livingstone Luboobi, Richard Joseph Kimwaga, Consolata Kabonesa

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This paper assessed gender responsiveness of water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks at Makerere University, Uganda. The objectives of the study were to i) examine the gender responsiveness of water and sanitation related policies and frameworks implemented at Makerere University; and ii) assess the challenges faced by the University in customizing national water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks into University policies. A cross-sectional gender-focused study design was adopted. A checklist was developed to analyze national water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks and University based policies. In addition, primary data was obtained from Key informants at the Ministry of Water and Environment and Makerere University. A gender responsive five-step analytical framework was used to analyze the collected data. Key findings indicated that the policies did not adequately address issues of gender, water and sanitation and the policies were gender neutral consistently. The national policy formulation process was found to be gender blind and not backed by situation analysis of different stakeholders including higher education institutions like Universities. At Makerere University, due to lack of customized and gender responsive water and sanitation policy and implementation framework, there were gender differences and deficiencies in access to and utilization of water and sanitation facilities. The University should take advantage of existing expertise within them to customize existing national water policies and gender, and water and sanitation sub-sector strategy. This will help the University to design gender responsive, culturally acceptable and environmental friendly water and sanitation systems that provide adequate water and sanitation facilities that address the needs and interests of male and female students.

Keywords: gender, Makerere University, policies, water, sanitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
406 A Virtual Reality Cybersecurity Training Knowledge-Based Ontology

Authors: Shaila Rana, Wasim Alhamdani

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Effective cybersecurity learning relies on an engaging, interactive, and entertaining activity that fosters positive learning outcomes. VR cybersecurity training may promote these aforementioned variables. However, a methodological approach and framework have not yet been created to allow trainers and educators to employ VR cybersecurity training methods to promote positive learning outcomes to the author’s best knowledge. Thus, this paper aims to create an approach that cybersecurity trainers can follow to create a VR cybersecurity training module. This methodology utilizes concepts from other cybersecurity training frameworks, such as NICE and CyTrONE. Other cybersecurity training frameworks do not incorporate the use of VR. VR training proposes unique challenges that cannot be addressed in current cybersecurity training frameworks. Subsequently, this ontology utilizes concepts unique to developing VR training to create a relevant methodology for creating VR cybersecurity training modules. The outcome of this research is to create a methodology that is relevant and useful for designing VR cybersecurity training modules.

Keywords: virtual reality cybersecurity training, VR cybersecurity training, traditional cybersecurity training, ontology

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405 Modeling and Simulation Frameworks for Cloud Computing Environment: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Abul Bashar

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The recent surge in the adoption of cloud computing systems by various organizations has brought forth the challenge of evaluating their performance. One of the major issues faced by the cloud service providers and customers is to assess the ability of cloud computing systems to provide the desired services in accordance to the QoS and SLA constraints. To this end, an opportunity exists to develop means to ensure that the desired performance levels of such systems are met under simulated environments. This will eventually minimize the service disruptions and performance degradation issues during the commissioning and operational phase of cloud computing infrastructure. However, it is observed that several simulators and modelers are available for simulating the cloud computing systems. Therefore, this paper presents a critical evaluation of the state-of-the-art modeling and simulation frameworks applicable to cloud computing systems. It compares the prominent simulation frameworks in terms of the API features, programming flexibility, operating system requirements, supported services, licensing needs and popularity. Subsequently, it provides recommendations regarding the choice of the most appropriate framework for researchers, administrators and managers of cloud computing systems.

Keywords: cloud computing, modeling framework, performance evaluation, simulation tools

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404 The shaping of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Water Vapor Adsorption

Authors: Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Jiun-Jen Chen, Yuhao Kang

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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn scientists’ attention for decades due to its high specific surface area, tunable pore size, and relatively low temperature for regeneration. Bearing with those mentioned properties, MOFs has been widely used in various applications, such as adsorption/separation and catalysis. However, the current challenge for practical use of MOFs is to effectively shape these crystalline powder material into controllable forms such as pellets, granules, and monoliths with sufficient mechanical and chemical stability, while maintaining the excellent properties of MOFs powders. Herein, we have successfully synthesized an Al-based MOF powder which exhibits a high water capacity at relatively low humidity conditions and relatively low temperature for regeneration. Then the synthesized Al-MOF was shaped into granules with particle size of 2-4 mm by (1) tumbling granulation, (2) High shear mixing granulation, and (3) Extrusion techniques. Finally, the water vapor adsorption rate and crush strength of Al-MOF granules by different shaping techniques were measured and compared.

Keywords: granulation, granules, metal-organic frameworks, water vapor adsorption

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403 An enhanced Framework for Regional Tourism Sustainable Adaptation to Climate Change

Authors: Joseph M. Njoroge

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The need for urgent adaptation have triggered tourism stakeholders and research community to develop generic adaptation framework(s) for national, regional and or local tourism desti-nations. Such frameworks have been proposed to guide the tourism industry in the adaptation process with an aim of reducing tourism industry’s vulnerability and to enhance their ability to cope to climate associated externalities. However research show that current approaches are far from sustainability since the adaptation options sought are usually closely associated with development needs-‘business as usual’-where the implication of adaptation to social justice and environmental integrity are often neglected. Based on this view there is a need to look at adaptation beyond addressing vulnerability and resilience to include the need for adaptation to enhance social justice and environmental integrity. This paper reviews the existing adaptation frameworks/models and evaluates their suitability in enhancing sustainable adaptation for regional tourist destinations. It is noted that existing frameworks contradicts the basic ‘principles of sustainable adaptation’. Further attempts are made to propose a Sustainable Regional Tourism Adaptation Framework (SRTAF) to assist regional tourism stakeholders in the achieving sustainable adaptation.

Keywords: sustainable adaptation, sustainability principles, sustainability portfolio, Regional Tourism

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402 Nanoscale Metal-Organic Framework Coated Carbon Nitride Nanosheet for Combination Cancer Therapy

Authors: Rui Chen, Jinfeng Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee

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In the past couple of decades, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have been highlighted as promising delivery platforms for biomedical applications, which combine many potent features such as high loading capacity, progressive biodegradability and low cytotoxicity. While NMOF has been extensively used as carriers for drugs of different modalities, so far there is no report on exploiting the advantages of NMOF for combination therapy. Herein, we prepared core-shell nanoparticles, where each nanoparticle contains a single graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet encapsulated by a zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) shell. The g-C3N4 nanosheets are effective visible-light photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). When hosting DOX (doxorubicin), the as-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles could realize combinational photo-chemo therapy and provide dual-color fluorescence imaging. Therefore, we expect NMOFs-based core-shell nanoparticles could provide a new way to achieve much-enhanced cancer therapy.

Keywords: carbon nitride, combination therapy, drug delivery, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks

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401 The Postcognitivist Era in Cognitive Psychology

Authors: C. Jameke

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During the cognitivist era in cognitive psychology, a theory of internal rules and symbolic representations was posited as an account of human cognition. This type of cognitive architecture had its heyday during the 1970s and 80s, but it has now been largely abandoned in favour of subsymbolic architectures (e.g. connectionism), non-representational frameworks (e.g. dynamical systems theory), and statistical approaches such as Bayesian theory. In this presentation I describe this changing landscape of research, and comment on the increasing influence of neuroscience on cognitive psychology. I then briefly review a few recent developments in connectionism, and neurocomputation relevant to cognitive psychology, and critically discuss the assumption made by some researchers in these frameworks that higher-level aspects of human cognition are simply emergent properties of massively large distributed neural networks

Keywords: connectionism, emergentism, postocgnitivist, representations, subsymbolic archiitecture

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400 Researching Apache Hama: A Pure BSP Computing Framework

Authors: Kamran Siddique, Yangwoo Kim, Zahid Akhtar

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In recent years, the technological advancements have led to a deluge of data from distinctive domains and the need for development of solutions based on parallel and distributed computing has still long way to go. That is why, the research and development of massive computing frameworks is continuously growing. At this particular stage, highlighting a potential research area along with key insights could be an asset for researchers in the field. Therefore, this paper explores one of the emerging distributed computing frameworks, Apache Hama. It is a Top Level Project under the Apache Software Foundation, based on Bulk Synchronous Processing (BSP). We present an unbiased and critical interrogation session about Apache Hama and conclude research directions in order to assist interested researchers.

Keywords: apache hama, bulk synchronous parallel, BSP, distributed computing

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399 Managing Information Technology: An Overview of Information Technology Governance

Authors: Mehdi Asgarkhani

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Today, investment on Information Technology (IT) solutions in most organizations is the largest component of capital expenditure. As capital investment on IT continues to grow, IT managers and strategists are expected to develop and put in practice effective decision making models (frameworks) that improve decision-making processes for the use of IT in organizations and optimize the investment on IT solutions. To be exact, there is an expectation that organizations not only maximize the benefits of adopting IT solutions but also avoid the many pitfalls that are associated with rapid introduction of technological change. Different organizations depending on size, complexity of solutions required and processes used for financial management and budgeting may use different techniques for managing strategic investment on IT solutions. Decision making processes for strategic use of IT within organizations are often referred to as IT Governance (or Corporate IT Governance). This paper examines IT governance - as a tool for best practice in decision making about IT strategies. Discussions in this paper represent phase I of a project which was initiated to investigate trends in strategic decision making on IT strategies. Phase I is concerned mainly with review of literature and a number of case studies, establishing that the practice of IT governance, depending on the complexity of IT solutions, organization's size and organization's stage of maturity, varies significantly – from informal approaches to sophisticated formal frameworks.

Keywords: IT governance, corporate governance, IT governance frameworks, IT governance components, aligning IT with business strategies

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398 Enterprise Security Architecture: Approaches and a Framework

Authors: Amir Mohtarami, Hadi Kandjani

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The amount of business-critical information in enterprises is growing at an extraordinary rate, and the ability to catalog that information and properly protect it using traditional security mechanisms is not keeping pace. Alongside the Information Technology (IT), information security needs a holistic view in enterprise. In other words, a comprehensive architectural approach is required, focusing on the information itself, understanding what the data are, who owns it, and which business and regulatory policies should be applied to the information. Enterprise Architecture Frameworks provide useful tools to grasp different dimensions of IT in organizations. Usually this is done by the layered views on IT architecture, but not requisite security attention has been held in this frameworks. In this paper, after a brief look at the Enterprise Architecture (EA), we discuss the issue of security in the overall enterprise IT architecture. Due to the increasing importance of security, a rigorous EA program in an enterprise should be able to consider security architecture as an integral part of its processes and gives a visible roadmap and blueprint for this aim.

Keywords: enterprise architecture, architecture framework, security architecture, information systems

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397 Quantum Sieving for Hydrogen Isotope Separation

Authors: Hyunchul Oh

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One of the challenges in modern separation science and technology is the separation of hydrogen isotopes mixtures since D2 and H2 consist of almost identical size, shape and thermodynamic properties. Recently, quantum sieving of isotopes by confinement in narrow space has been proposed as an alternative technique. Despite many theoretical suggestions, however, it has been difficult to discover a feasible microporous material up to now. Among various porous materials, the novel class of microporous framework materials (COFs, ZIFs and MOFs) is considered as a promising material class for isotope sieving due to ultra-high porosity and uniform pore size which can be tailored. Hence, we investigate experimentally the fundamental correlation between D2/H2 molar ratio and pore size at optimized operating conditions by using different ultramicroporous frameworks. The D2/H2 molar ratio is strongly depending on pore size, pressure and temperature. An experimentally determined optimum pore diameter for quantum sieving lies between 3.0 and 3.4 Å which can be an important guideline for designing and developing feasible microporous frameworks for isotope separation. Afterwards, we report a novel strategy for efficient hydrogen isotope separation at technologically relevant operating pressure through the development of quantum sieving exploited by the pore aperture engineering. The strategy involves installation of flexible components in the pores of the framework to tune the pore surface.

Keywords: gas adsorption, hydrogen isotope, metal organic frameworks(MOFs), quantum sieving

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396 Development of a Management Framework for the Front-End of Process Innovation Based on a Comprehensive Literature Review and Multiple Case Study

Authors: Hubert Wittke, Ann Ledwith, Mark Southern

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Process innovation is critically important if manufacturing enterprises are to be successful in product innovation. The early stage of innovation, the front-end, is the foundation of successful innovation. Research also suggests, if a company is to be successful, a structured framework at the front-end of process innovation should be implemented. The goal of this research is to develop a front-end framework for process innovation in manufacturing enterprises. Process innovation remains under-researched, especially when compared to product innovation. It is frequently regarded as less challenging and less important than product innovation. In innovation literature, 35% of journal papers are focused on product innovation, whereas only 3% concentrates on process innovation. This paper presents a Systematic Literature Review of the frameworks and success factors that have been identified in the literature for the front-end of process innovation. Nine frameworks for process innovation and 45 papers presenting success factors are reviewed. A constant comparison technique was adopted for the synthesis of frameworks and factors. A generic framework for the front-end of process innovation remains elusive. Such a framework does not exist in practice, i.e., a functional stage-gate framework for process innovation. Limitations of the 9 frameworks reviewed include: 1) they are incomplete in terms of their structure, 2) they are based on linear-learning modes despite the fact that the front-end is an iterative trial-end-error process, 3) they involve few details of how to integrate the front-end of process innovation with product innovation and 4) they do not offer detailed solutions to incorporate planning and management of experimental work. This research contributes to the current state of knowledge by presenting a comprehensive review of existing management frameworks and associated success factors for process innovation. It also presents a more complete management framework and set of ranked success factors for the front-end of process innovation in manufacturing enterprises, which were built based on the analysis of 3 case studies. The proposed framework provides managers with a practical tool for managing the iterative early stage of process innovation. It also integrates activities involving process and product innovations. The new framework provides support for companies in planning and managing activities related to process innovation. This research identifies that for successful innovation projects, process innovation must be integrated with the early stage of the front-end of product innovation. In the front-end of process innovation, in turn, it is recommended to conduct systematic and structured analyses of emerging opportunities for product innovation.

Keywords: process innovation, product innovation, success factor, the front-end

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395 Effectiveness of Adopting Software Quality Frameworks in Software Organizations: A Qualitative Review

Authors: Sarah K. Amer, Nagwa Badr, Osman Ibrahim, Ahmed Hamad

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This paper surveys the effectiveness of software process quality assurance frameworks, with some focus on Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) - a framework that has become widely adopted in software organizations. The importance of quality improvement in software development, and the differences in the outcomes of quality framework implementation between Middle Eastern and North African (MENA-region) countries and non-MENA-region countries are discussed. The greatest challenges met in the MENA region are identified, with particular focus on Egypt and its rising software development industry.

Keywords: software quality, software process improvement, software development methodologies, capability maturity model integration

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394 Afrikan Natural Medicines: An Innovation-Based Model for Medicines Production, Curriculum Development and Clinical Application

Authors: H. Chabalala, A. Grootboom, M. Tang

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The innovative development, production, and clinical utilisation of African natural medicines requires frameworks from systematisation, innovation, registration. Afrika faces challenges when it comes to these sectors. The opposite is the case as is is evident in ancient Asian (Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha) medical systems, which are interfaced into their respective national health and educational systems. Afrikan Natural Medicines (ANMs) are yet to develop systematisation frameworks, i.e. disease characterisation and medicines classification. This paper explores classical medical systems drawn from Afrikan and Chinese experts in natural medicines. An Afrikological research methodology was used to conduct in-depth interviews with 20 key respondents selected through purposeful sampling technique. Data was summarised into systematisation frameworks for classical disease theories, patient categorisation, medicine classification, aetiology and pathogenesis of disease, diagnosis and prognosis techniques and treatment methods. It was discovered that ancient Afrika had systematic medical cosmologies, remnants of which are evident in most Afrikan cultural health practices. Parallels could be drawn from classical medical concepts of antiquity, like Chinese Taoist and Indian tantric health systems. Data revealed that both the ancient and contemporary ANM systems were based on living medical cosmologies. The study showed that African Natural Healing Systems have etiological systems, general pathogenesis knowledge, differential diagnostic techniques, comprehensive prognosis and holistic treatment regimes. Systematisation models were developed out of these frameworks, and this could be used for evaluation of clinical research, medical application including development of curriculum for high-education. It was envisaged that frameworks will pave way towards the development, production and commercialisation of ANMs. This was piloted in inclusive innovation, technology transfer and commercialisation of South African natural medicines, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and health infusions. The central model presented here in will assist in curriculum development and establishment of Afrikan Medicines Hospitals and Pharmaceutical Industries.

Keywords: African Natural Medicines, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Medical Cosmology, Clinical Application

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393 Study of Lanthanoide Organic Frameworks Properties and Synthesis: Multicomponent Ligands

Authors: Ayla Roberta Galaco, Juliana Fonseca De Lima, Osvaldo Antonio Serra

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Coordination polymers, also known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or lanthanoide organic frameworks (LOFs) have been reported due of their promising applications in gas storage, separation, catalysis, luminescence, magnetism, drug delivery, and so on. As a type of organic–inorganic hybrid materials, the properties of coordination polymers could be chosen by deliberately selecting the organic and inorganic components. LOFs have received considerable attention because of their properties such as porosity, luminescence, and magnetism. Methods such as solvothermal synthesis are important as a strategy to control the structural and morphological properties as well as the composition of the target compounds. In this work the first solvothermal synthesis was employed to obtain the compound [Y0.4,Yb0.4,Er0.2(dmf)(for)(H2O)(tft)], by using terephthalic acid (tft) and oxalic acid, decomposed in formate (for), as ligands; Yttrium, Ytterbium and, Erbium as metal centers, in DMF and water for 4 days under 160 °C. The semi-rigid terephthalic acid (dicarboxylic) coordinates with Ln3+ ions and also is possible to form a polyfunctional bridge. On the other hand, oxalate anion has no high-energy vibrational groups, which benefits the excitation of Yb3+ in upconversion process. It was observed that the compounds with water molecules in the coordination sphere of the lanthanoide ions cause lower crystalline properties and change the structure of the LOF (1D, 2D, 3D). In the FTIR, the bands at 1589 and 1500 cm-1 correspond to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –COO. The band at 1383 cm-1 is assigned to the symmetric stretching vibration of –COO. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals an infinite 3D coordination framework that crystalizes in space group P21/c. The other three products, [TR(chel)(ofd)0,5(H2O)2], where TR= Eu3+, Y3, and Yb3+/Er3+ were obtained by using 1, 2-phenylenedioxydiacetic acid (ofd) and chelidonic acid (chel) as organic ligands. Thermal analysis shows that the lanthanoide organic frameworks do not collapse at temperatures below 250 °C. By the polycrystalline X-ray diffraction patterns (PXRD) it was observed that the compounds with Eu3+, Y3+, and Yb3+/Er3+ ions are isostructural. From PXRD patterns, high crystallinity can be noticed for the complexes. The final products were characterized by single X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an effective method to investigate crystalline properties of synthesized materials. The solid crystal obtained in the synthesis show peaks at 2θ < 10°, indicating the MOF formation. The chemical composition of LOFs was also confirmed by EDS.

Keywords: isostructural, lanthanoids, lanthanoids organic frameworks (LOFs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs), thermogravimetry, X-Ray diffraction

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392 Batman Forever: The Economics of Overlapping Rights

Authors: Franziska Kaiser, Alexander Cuntz

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When copyrighted comic characters are also protected under trademark laws, intellectual property (IP) rights can be overlapping. Arguably, registering a trademark can increase transaction costs for cross-media uses of characters, or it can help advertise across multiple sales channels. In an application to book, movie and video game publishing industries, we thus ask how creative reuse is affected in situations of overlapping rights, and whether ‘fuzzy boundaries’ of right frameworks are in fact enhancing or decreasing content sales. We use a major U.S. Supreme Court decision as a quasi-natural experiment to apply an IV estimation in our analysis. We find that overlapping rights frameworks negatively affect creative reuses. At large, when copyright-protected comic characters are additionally registered as U.S. trademarks, they are less often reprinted and enter fewer video game productions, while generating less revenue from game sales.

Keywords: copyright, fictional characters, trademark, reuse

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391 Review of Innovation Management Frameworks and Assessment Tools

Authors: Qiang Fu, Abu Saleh

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Research studies are highly fragmented when an innovation management framework is being discussed. With the aim to identify an innovation management framework/assessment tool suitable for small & medium enterprises (SMEs) in the service industry, this researcher critically reviewed existing innovation management frameworks and assessment models/tools and discovered a number of literature gaps. It is established that existing literature lacks generally agreed innovation management dimensions, commonly accepted knowledge creation through empirical studies on innovation management in SMEs, effective innovation management performance measurements, and studies on innovation management in the service industry, in particular in retail SMEs. As such, there is a dire need to develop an appropriate firm-level innovation management framework suitable for SMEs in the service industry for a future research project and further study. In addition, this researcher also discussed the significance of establishing such an innovation management framework.

Keywords: innovation management, innovation management framework, innovation management assessment tools, SMEs, service industry

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390 Analysis of Resource Consumption Accounting as a New Approach to Management Accounting

Authors: Yousef Rostami Gharainy

Abstract:

This paper presents resource consumption accounting as an imaginative way to deal with management accounting which concentrates on administrators as the essential clients of the data and gives the best information of conventional management accounting. This system underscores that association's asset reasons costs, accordingly in costing frameworks the emphasis ought to be on assets and utilization of them. Resource consumption accounting consolidates two costing methodologies, action based and German cost accounting method known as GPK. This methodology notwithstanding giving a chance to managers to decide, makes task management accounting as operational. The reason for this article is to clarify the idea of resource consumption accounting, its parts and highlights and use of this strategy in associations. In the first place we deliver to presentation of resource consumption accounting, foundation, reasons for its development and the issues that past costing frameworks confronted it. At that point we give standards and presumptions of this technique; at last we depict the execution of this strategy in associations and its preferences over other costing strategies.

Keywords: resource consumption accounting, management accounting, action based method, German cost accounting method

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389 Educating for Acceptance or Action: Bachelor of Social Work Education in Canada

Authors: Elizabeth Radian

Abstract:

In a challenging era of neoliberalism and managerialism in social services, the status of Canadian social work education at the Bachelor of Social Work level (BSW) was examined to determine how prepared students were to practice in a time of resource cutbacks and insecurity. Curricula in BSW programs was the focus as this generalist degree results in the greatest number of social work graduates in Canada, most of whom work at the front lines in service delivery. The study reviewed the practice frameworks that students in BSW programs were exposed to. Traditionally, schools of social work have embraced two major practice frameworks. The person in environment framework is a well-established practice framework taught in most schools. The framework offers some focus on smaller scale social change, tweaking existing arrangements and is more accepting of the status quo. An alternate practice framework taught in fewer schools has been described as a structural, progressive or anti oppressive framework. This latter framework challenges the status quo, is focused on social justice and social transformation, often incorporating social action strategies to ensure marginalized voices are heard. Using a content analysis methodology of keywords and phrases to delineate framework orientation, practice frameworks articulated in the curricula were determined by reviewing the mission/mandate of schools offering a BSW degree, their core course outlines and core course textbooks. Social action, as one strategy for initiating social change and transformation was considered. Initial research for 28 schools was completed in 2000, with follow up replications of the initial study in 2005 and 2014. These earlier studies displayed that the dominant practice framework taught in BSW programs was the person in environment framework. A lesser number of schools were categorized as primarily offering a structural, progressive or anti oppressive framework. The findings from the current study of 39 Canadian schools of social work are considered to determine how prominent structural, progressive and anti oppressive frameworks exist in current BSW curricula. This study can assist in contemplating the question – are we educating future practitioners for acceptance or action.

Keywords: social work education and pedagogy, social change, social justice, social services

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388 Reviewing Performance Assessment Frameworks for Urban Sanitation Services in India

Authors: Gaurav Vaidya, N. R. Mandal

Abstract:

UN Summit, 2000 had resolved to provide access to sanitation to whole humanity as part of ‘Millennium Development Goals -2015’. However, more than one third of world’s population still did not have the access to basic sanitation facilities by 2015. Therefore, it will be a gigantic challenge to achieve goal-6 of ‘UN Sustainable Development Goal’ to ensure availability and sustainable management of sanitation for all by the year 2030. Countries attempt to find out own ways of meeting this challenge of providing access to safe sanitation and as part of monitoring the actions have prepared varied types of ‘performance assessment frameworks (PAF)’. India introduced Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) in 2010 to set targets and achieve the goals of NUSP. Further, a method of reviewing performance was introduced as ‘Swachh Sarvekshan’ (Cleanliness Surveys) in 2016 and in 2017 guidelines for the same was revised. This study, as a first step, reviews the documents in use in India with a conclusion that the frameworks adopted are based on target setting, financial allocation and performance in achieving the targets set. However, it does not focus upon sanitation needs holistically i.e., areas and aspects not targeted through projects are not covered in the performance assessment. In this context, as a second step, this study reviews literature available on performance assessment frameworks for urban sanitation in selected other countries and compares the same with that in India. The outcome of the comparative review resulted in identification of unaddressed aspects as well as inadequacy of parameters in Indian context. Thirdly, in an attempt to restructure the performance assessment process and develop an index in urban sanitation, researches done in other urban services such as health and education were studied focusing on methods of measuring under-performance. As a fourth step, a tentative modified framework is suggested with the help of understanding drawn from above for urban sanitation using stages of Urban Sanitation Service Chain Management (SSCM) and modified set of parameters drawn from the literature review in the first and second steps. This paper reviews existing literature on SSCM procedures, Performance Index in sanitation and other urban services and identifies a tentative list of parameters and a framework for measuring under-performance in sanitation services. This may aid in preparation of a Service Delivery Under-performance Index (SDUI) in future.

Keywords: assessment, performance, sanitation, services

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387 Biases in Macroprudential Supervision and Their Legal Implications

Authors: Anat Keller

Abstract:

Given that macro-prudential supervision is a relatively new policy area and its empirical and analytical research are still in their infancy, its theoretical foundations are also lagging behind. This paper contributes to the developing discussion on effective legal and institutional macroprudential supervision frameworks. In the first part of the paper, it is argued that effectiveness as a key benchmark poses some challenges in the context of macroprudential supervision such as the difficulty in proving causality between supervisory actions and the achievement of the supervisor’s mission. The paper suggests that effectiveness in the macroprudential context should, therefore, be assessed at the supervisory decision-making process (to be differentiated from the supervisory outcomes). The second part of the essay examines whether insights from behavioural economics can point to biases in the macroprudential decision-making process. These biases include, inter alia, preference bias, groupthink bias and inaction bias. It is argued that these biases are exacerbated in the multilateral setting of the macroprudential supervision framework in the EU. The paper then examines how legal and institutional frameworks should be designed to acknowledge and perhaps contain these identified biases. The paper suggests that the effectiveness of macroprudential policy will largely depend on the existence of clear and robust transparency and accountability arrangements. Accountability arrangements can be used as a vehicle for identifying and addressing potential biases in the macro-prudential framework, in particular, inaction bias. Inclusiveness of the public in the supervisory process in the form of transparency and awareness of the logic behind policy decisions may assist in minimising their potential unpopularity thus promoting their effectiveness. Furthermore, a governance structure which facilitates coordination of the macroprudential supervisor with other policymakers and incorporates outside perspectives and opinions could ‘break-down’ groupthink bias as well as inaction bias.

Keywords: behavioural economics and biases, effectiveness of macroprudential supervision, legal and institutional macroprudential frameworks, macroprudential decision-making process

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386 Harmonising the Circular Economy: An Analysis of 160 Papers

Authors: M. Novak, J. Dufourmount, D. Wildi, A. Sutherland, L. Sosa, J. Zimmer, E. Szabo

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The circular economy has grounded itself amongst scholars and practitioners operating across governments and enterprises. The aim of this paper is to augment the circular economy concept by identifying common core and enabling circular business models. To this aim, we have analysed over 150 papers regarding circular activities and identified 8 clusters of business models and enablers. We have mapped and harmonised the most prominent frameworks conceptualising the circular economy. Our findings indicate that circular economy core business models include regenerative in addition to reduce, reuse and recycle activities. We further find enabling activities in design, digital technologies, knowledge development and sharing, multistakeholder collaborations, and extended corporate responsibility initiatives in various forms. We critically contrast the application of these business models across the European and African contexts. Overall, we find that seemingly varied circular economy definitions distill the same conceptual business models. We hope to contribute towards the coherence of the circular economy concept, and the continuous development of practical guidance to select and implement circular strategies.

Keywords: Circular economy, content analysis, business models, definitions, enablers, frameworks

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