Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1854

Search results for: radius error

1854 The Non-Existence of Perfect 2-Error Correcting Lee Codes of Word Length 7 over Z

Authors: Catarina Cruz, Ana Breda

Abstract:

Tiling problems have been capturing the attention of many mathematicians due to their real-life applications. In this study, we deal with tilings of Zⁿ by Lee spheres, where n is a positive integer number, being these tilings related with error correcting codes on the transmission of information over a noisy channel. We focus our attention on the question ‘for what values of n and r does the n-dimensional Lee sphere of radius r tile Zⁿ?’. It seems that the n-dimensional Lee sphere of radius r does not tile Zⁿ for n ≥ 3 and r ≥ 2. Here, we prove that is not possible to tile Z⁷ with Lee spheres of radius 2 presenting a proof based on a combinatorial method and faithful to the geometric idea of the problem. The non-existence of such tilings has been studied by several authors being considered the most difficult cases those in which the radius of the Lee spheres is equal to 2. The relation between these tilings and error correcting codes is established considering the center of a Lee sphere as a codeword and the other elements of the sphere as words which are decoded by the central codeword. When the Lee spheres of radius r centered at elements of a set M ⊂ Zⁿ tile Zⁿ, M is a perfect r-error correcting Lee code of word length n over Z, denoted by PL(n, r). Our strategy to prove the non-existence of PL(7, 2) codes are based on the assumption of the existence of such code M. Without loss of generality, we suppose that O ∈ M, where O = (0, ..., 0). In this sense and taking into account that we are dealing with Lee spheres of radius 2, O covers all words which are distant two or fewer units from it. By the definition of PL(7, 2) code, each word which is distant three units from O must be covered by a unique codeword of M. These words have to be covered by codewords which dist five units from O. We prove the non-existence of PL(7, 2) codes showing that it is not possible to cover all the referred words without superposition of Lee spheres whose centers are distant five units from O, contradicting the definition of PL(7, 2) code. We achieve this contradiction by combining the cardinality of particular subsets of codewords which are distant five units from O. There exists an extensive literature on codes in the Lee metric. Here, we present a new approach to prove the non-existence of PL(7, 2) codes.

Keywords: Golomb-Welch conjecture, Lee metric, perfect Lee codes, tilings

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1853 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Authors: Maria Hussin, Malik Zawwar Hussain, Mubashrah Saddiqa

Abstract:

We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques.

Keywords: control points, rational trigonometric Bézier curves, radius error, shape measure, weight functions

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1852 A Pole Radius Varying Notch Filter with Transient Suppression for Electrocardiogram

Authors: Ramesh Rajagopalan, Adam Dahlstrom

Abstract:

Noise removal techniques play a vital role in the performance of electrocardiographic (ECG) signal processing systems. ECG signals can be corrupted by various kinds of noise such as baseline wander noise, electromyographic interference, and power-line interference. One of the significant challenges in ECG signal processing is the degradation caused by additive 50 or 60 Hz power-line interference. This work investigates the removal of power line interference and suppression of transient response for filtering noise corrupted ECG signals. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) notch filter with time varying pole radius for improving the transient behavior. The temporary change in the pole radius of the filter diminishes the transient behavior. Simulation results show that the proposed IIR filter with time varying pole radius outperforms traditional IIR notch filters in terms of mean square error and transient suppression.

Keywords: notch filter, ECG, transient, pole radius

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1851 Effects of Manufacture and Assembly Errors on the Output Error of Globoidal Cam Mechanisms

Authors: Shuting Ji, Yueming Zhang, Jing Zhao

Abstract:

The output error of the globoidal cam mechanism can be considered as a relevant indicator of mechanism performance, because it determines kinematic and dynamical behavior of mechanical transmission. Based on the differential geometry and the rigid body transformations, the mathematical model of surface geometry of the globoidal cam is established. Then we present the analytical expression of the output error (including the transmission error and the displacement error along the output axis) by considering different manufacture and assembly errors. The effects of the center distance error, the perpendicular error between input and output axes and the rotational angle error of the globoidal cam on the output error are systematically analyzed. A globoidal cam mechanism which is widely used in automatic tool changer of CNC machines is applied for illustration. Our results show that the perpendicular error and the rotational angle error have little effects on the transmission error but have great effects on the displacement error along the output axis. This study plays an important role in the design, manufacture and assembly of the globoidal cam mechanism.

Keywords: globoidal cam mechanism, manufacture error, transmission error, automatic tool changer

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1850 Applying the Crystal Model Approach on Light Nuclei for Calculating Radii and Density Distribution

Authors: A. Amar

Abstract:

A new model, namely the crystal model, has been modified to calculate the radius and density distribution of light nuclei up to ⁸Be. The crystal model has been modified according to solid-state physics, which uses the analogy between nucleon distribution and atoms distribution in the crystal. The model has analytical analysis to calculate the radius where the density distribution of light nuclei has obtained from analogy of crystal lattice. The distribution of nucleons over crystal has been discussed in a general form. The equation that has been used to calculate binding energy was taken from the solid-state model of repulsive and attractive force. The numbers of the protons were taken to control repulsive force, where the atomic number was responsible for the attractive force. The parameter has been calculated from the crystal model was found to be proportional to the radius of the nucleus. The density distribution of light nuclei was taken as a summation of two clusters distribution as in ⁶Li=alpha+deuteron configuration. A test has been done on the data obtained for radius and density distribution using double folding for d+⁶,⁷Li with M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction. Good agreement has been obtained for both the radius and density distribution of light nuclei. The model failed to calculate the radius of ⁹Be, so modifications should be done to overcome discrepancy.

Keywords: nuclear physics, nuclear lattice, study nucleus as crystal, light nuclei till to ⁸Be

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1849 Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Shot Peening Forming and Surface Properties of AALY12

Authors: Shi-hong Lu, Chao-xun Liu, Yi-feng Zhu

Abstract:

Ultrasonic shot peening (USP) on AALY12 sheet was studied. Several parameters (arc heights, surface roughness, surface topography and microhardness) with different USP process parameters were measured. The research proposes that the radius of curvature of shot peened sheet increases with time and electric current decreasing, while it increases with pin diameter increasing, and radius of curvature reaches a saturation level after a specific processing time and electric current. An empirical model of the relationship between radius of curvature and pin diameter, electric current, time was also obtained. The research shows that the increment of surface and vertical microhardness of material is more obvious with longer time and higher value of electric current, which can be up to 20% and 28% respectively.

Keywords: USP forming, surface properties, radius of curvature, residual stress

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1848 Relevancy Measures of Errors in Displacements of Finite Elements Analysis Results

Authors: A. B. Bolkhir, A. Elshafie, T. K. Yousif

Abstract:

This paper highlights the methods of error estimation in finite element analysis (FEA) results. It indicates that the modeling error could be eliminated by performing finite element analysis with successively finer meshes or by extrapolating response predictions from an orderly sequence of relatively low degree of freedom analysis results. In addition, the paper eliminates the round-off error by running the code at a higher precision. The paper provides application in finite element analysis results. It draws a conclusion based on results of application of methods of error estimation.

Keywords: finite element analysis (FEA), discretization error, round-off error, mesh refinement, richardson extrapolation, monotonic convergence

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1847 Conservative Treatment Versus Percutaneous Wire Fixation in treatment of Distal Radial Fracture in Elderly

Authors: Abdelfatah Elsenosy, Mahmoud Ebrahim

Abstract:

Background: Distal radius fractures are commonly encountered in orthopedic practice, especially in elderly patients. A number of clinical papers have supported the idea that anatomic restoration of the distal end of the radius is essential to gain superior results. Aim and objectives: The aim of the study is to systematically review the literature for the management of distal end radius in elderly persons (conservative treatment versus percutaneous wire fixation) as regards radiological and functional outcomes. Subjects and methods: Studies were identified from the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until 2019 using combinations of the following search terms: distal radius fracture, conservative treatment, non-operative treatment, and nonsurgical treatment, surgical treatment, operative, elderly, and older. Reference lists of relevant studies were manually searched. Results: There was no statistical significance difference between CI and PKF groups’ frequency of complication in all of the selected studies. Based on the results, we recommend more analysis regarding every parameter of the radiographic and functional results and specific complications related to each fixation need to be accomplished, which requires more Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high quality. Conclusion: Surgical treatment seems to be more effective distal radius fracture compared with conservative treatment when the radiographic outcomes were analyzed, and no significant differences were detected in the functional outcomes and complication rate.

Keywords: radius, fracture, surgical, RCTs, conservative, radiographic, outcomes, orthopedic

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1846 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulation

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1845 Mixed Integer Programming-Based One-Class Classification Method for Process Monitoring

Authors: Younghoon Kim, Seoung Bum Kim

Abstract:

One-class classification plays an important role in detecting outlier and abnormality from normal observations. In the previous research, several attempts were made to extend the scope of application of the one-class classification techniques to statistical process control problems. For most previous approaches, such as support vector data description (SVDD) control chart, the design of the control limits is commonly based on the assumption that the proportion of abnormal observations is approximately equal to an expected Type I error rate in Phase I process. Because of the limitation of the one-class classification techniques based on convex optimization, we cannot make the proportion of abnormal observations exactly equal to expected Type I error rate: controlling Type I error rate requires to optimize constraints with integer decision variables, but convex optimization cannot satisfy the requirement. This limitation would be undesirable in theoretical and practical perspective to construct effective control charts. In this work, to address the limitation of previous approaches, we propose the one-class classification algorithm based on the mixed integer programming technique, which can solve problems formulated with continuous and integer decision variables. The proposed method minimizes the radius of a spherically shaped boundary subject to the number of normal data to be equal to a constant value specified by users. By modifying this constant value, users can exactly control the proportion of normal data described by the spherically shaped boundary. Thus, the proportion of abnormal observations can be made theoretically equal to an expected Type I error rate in Phase I process. Moreover, analogous to SVDD, the boundary can be made to describe complex structures by using some kernel functions. New multivariate control chart applying the effectiveness of the algorithm is proposed. This chart uses a monitoring statistic to characterize the degree of being an abnormal point as obtained through the proposed one-class classification. The control limit of the proposed chart is established by the radius of the boundary. The usefulness of the proposed method was demonstrated through experiments with simulated and real process data from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display.

Keywords: control chart, mixed integer programming, one-class classification, support vector data description

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1844 High Capacity Reversible Watermarking through Interpolated Error Shifting

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error precompensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighbouring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error precompensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.

Keywords: reversible watermarking, high capacity, high quality, interpolated error shifting, error precompensation

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1843 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang

Abstract:

To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detections is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15um/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method

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1842 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo

Abstract:

Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

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1841 Using Derivative Free Method to Improve the Error Estimation of Numerical Quadrature

Authors: Chin-Yun Chen

Abstract:

Numerical integration is an essential tool for deriving different physical quantities in engineering and science. The effectiveness of a numerical integrator depends on different factors, where the crucial one is the error estimation. This work presents an error estimator that combines a derivative free method to improve the performance of verified numerical quadrature.

Keywords: numerical quadrature, error estimation, derivative free method, interval computation

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1840 Medical Error: Concept and Description According to Brazilian Physicians

Authors: Vitor S. Mendonca, Maria Luisa S. Schmidt

Abstract:

The Brazilian medical profession is viewed as being error-free, so healthcare professionals who commit an error are condemned there. Medical errors occur frequently in the Brazilian healthcare system, so identifying better options for handling this issue has become of interest primarily for physicians. The purpose of this study is to better understand the tensions involved in the fear of making an error due to the harm and risk this would represent for those involved. A qualitative study was performed by means of the narratives of the lived experiences of ten acting physicians in the State of Sao Paulo. The concept and characterization of errors were discussed, together with the fear of making an error, the near misses or error in itself, how to deal with errors and what to do to avoid them. The analysis indicates an excessive pressure in the medical profession for error-free practices, with a well-established physician-patient relationship to facilitate the management of medical errors. The error occurs, but a lack of information and discussion often leads to its concealment due to fear or possible judgment by society or peers. The establishment of programs that encourage appropriate medical conduct in the event of an error requires coherent answers for humanization in Brazilian medical science. It is necessary to improve the discussion about medical errors and disseminate models of communication and notification of errors in Brazil.

Keywords: medical error, narrative, physician-patient relationship, qualitative research

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1839 Variation of Refractive Errors among Right and Left Eyes in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Authors: F. B. Masok, S. S Songdeg, R. R. Dawam

Abstract:

Vision is an important process for learning and communication as man depends greatly on vision to sense his environment. Prevalence and variation of refractive errors conducted between December 2010 and May 2011 in Jos, revealed that 735 (77.50%) out 950 subjects examined for refractive error had various refractive errors. Myopia was observed in 373 (49.79%) of the subjects, the error in the right eyes was 263 (55.60%) while the error in the left was 210(44.39%). The mean myopic error was found to be -1.54± 3.32. Hyperopia was observed in 385 (40.53%) of the sampled population comprising 203(52.73%) of the right eyes and 182(47.27%). The mean hyperopic error was found to be +1.74± 3.13. Astigmatism accounted for 359 (38.84%) of the subjects, out of which 193(53.76%) were in the right eyes while 168(46.79%) were in the left eyes. Presbyopia was found in 404(42.53%) of the subjects, of this figure, 164(40.59%) were in the right eyes while 240(59.41%) were in left eyes. The number of right eyes and left eyes with refractive errors was observed in some age groups to increase with age and later had its peak within 60 – 69 age groups. This pattern of refractive errors could be attributed to exposure to various forms of light particularly the ultraviolet rays (e.g rays from television and computer screen). There was no remarkable differences between the mean Myopic error and mean Hyperopic error in the right eyes and in the left eyes which suggest the right eye and the left eye are similar.

Keywords: left eye, refractive errors, right eye, variation

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1838 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang

Abstract:

Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. This study developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, This study purposes an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter

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1837 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed

Abstract:

An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

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1836 A Study on the Influence of Planet Pin Parallelism Error to Load Sharing Factor

Authors: Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Yong Yang, Gang Shen

Abstract:

In this paper, planet pin parallelism error, which is one of manufacturing error of planet carrier, is employed as a main variable to influence planet load sharing factor. This error is categorize two group: (i) pin parallelism error with rotation on the axis perpendicular to the tangent of base circle of gear(x axis rotation in this paper) (ii) pin parallelism error with rotation on the tangent axis of base circle of gear(y axis rotation in this paper). For this study, the planetary gear system in 1.5MW wind turbine is applied and pure torsional rigid body model of this planetary gear is built using Solidworks and MSC.ADAMS. Based on quantified parallelism error and simulation model, dynamics simulation of planetary gear is carried out to obtain dynamic mesh load results with each type of error and load sharing factor is calculated with mesh load results. Load sharing factor formula and the suggestion for planetary reliability design is proposed with the conclusion of this study.

Keywords: planetary gears, planet load sharing, MSC. ADAMS, parallelism error

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1835 The Influence of Step and Fillet Shape on Nozzle Endwall Heat Transfer

Authors: Jeong Ju Kim, Hee Yoon Chung, Dong Ho Rhee, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

There is a gap at combustor-turbine interface where leakage flow comes out to prevent hot gas ingestion into the gas turbine nozzle platform. The leakage flow protects the nozzle endwall surface from the hot gas coming from combustor exit. For controlling flow’s stream, the gap’s geometry is transformed by changing fillet radius size. During the operation, step configuration is occurred that was unintended between combustor-turbine platform interface caused by thermal expansion or mismatched assembly. In this study, CFD simulations were performed to investigate the effect of the fillet and step on heat transfer and film cooling effectiveness on the nozzle platform. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes equation was solved with turbulence model, SST k-omega. With the fillet configuration, predicted film cooling effectiveness results indicated that fillet radius size influences to enhance film cooling effectiveness. Predicted film cooling effectiveness results at forward facing step configuration indicated that step height influences to enhance film cooling effectiveness. We suggested that designer change a combustor-turbine interface configuration which was varied by fillet radius size near endwall gap when there was a step at combustor-turbine interface. Gap shape was modified by increasing fillet radius size near nozzle endwall. Also, fillet radius and step height were interacted with the film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer on endwall surface.

Keywords: gas turbine, film cooling effectiveness, endwall, fillet

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1834 Unequal Error Protection of VQ Image Transmission System

Authors: Khelifi Mustapha, A. Moulay lakhdar, I. Elawady

Abstract:

We will study the unequal error protection for VQ image. We have used the Reed Solomon (RS) Codes as Channel coding because they offer better performance in terms of channel error correction over a binary output channel. One such channel (binary input and output) should be considered if it is the case of the application layer, because it includes all the features of the layers located below and on the what it is usually not feasible to make changes.

Keywords: vector quantization, channel error correction, Reed-Solomon channel coding, application

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1833 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

Effect of 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in the study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and the stall characteristics. The aim of the use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e. the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, wells turbine

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1832 A Concept for Design of Road Super-Elevation Based on Horizontal Radius, Vertical Gradient and Accident Rate

Authors: U. Chattaraj, D. Meena

Abstract:

Growth of traffic brings various negative effects, such as road accidents. To avoid such problems, a model is developed for the purpose of highway safety. In such areas, fuzzy logic is the most well-known simulation in the larger field. A model is accomplished for hilly and steep terrain based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), for which output is super elevation and input data is horizontal radius, vertical gradient, accident rate (AR). This result shows that the system can be efficaciously applied as for highway safety tool distinguishing hazards components correlated to the characteristics of the highway and has a great influence to the making of decision for accident precaution in transportation models. From this model, a positive relationship between geometric elements, accident rate, and super elevation is also identified.

Keywords: accident rate, fuzzy inference system, fuzzy logic, gradient, radius, super elevation

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1831 Models to Calculate Lattice Spacing, Melting Point and Lattice Thermal Expansion of Ga₂Se₃ Nanoparticles

Authors: Mustafa Saeed Omar

Abstract:

The formula which contains the maximum increase of mean bond length, melting entropy and critical particle radius is used to calculate lattice volume in nanoscale size crystals of Ga₂Se₃. This compound belongs to the binary group of III₂VI₃. The critical radius is calculated from the values of the first surface atomic layer height which is equal to 0.336nm. The size-dependent mean bond length is calculated by using an equation-free from fitting parameters. The size-dependent lattice parameter then is accordingly used to calculate the size-dependent lattice volume. The lattice size in the nanoscale region increases to about 77.6 A³, which is up to four times of its bulk state value 19.97 A³. From the values of the nanosize scale dependence of lattice volume, the nanoscale size dependence of melting temperatures is calculated. The melting temperature decreases with the nanoparticles size reduction, it becomes zero when the radius reaches to its critical value. Bulk melting temperature for Ga₂Se₃, for example, has values of 1293 K. From the size-dependent melting temperature and mean bond length, the size-dependent lattice thermal expansion is calculated. Lattice thermal expansion decreases with the decrease of nanoparticles size and reaches to its minimum value as the radius drops down to about 5nm.

Keywords: Ga₂Se₃, lattice volume, lattice thermal expansion, melting point, nanoparticles

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1830 A Study on the Influence of Pin-Hole Position Error of Carrier on Mesh Load and Planet Load Sharing of Planetary Gear

Authors: Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Gang Shen

Abstract:

For planetary gear system, Planet pin-hole position accuracy is one of most influential factor to efficiency and reliability of planetary gear system. This study considers planet pin-hole position error as a main input error for model and build multi body dynamic simulation model of planetary gear including planet pin-hole position error using MSC. ADAMS. From this model, the mesh load results between meshing gears in each pin-hole position error cases are obtained and based on these results, planet load sharing factor which reflect equilibrium state of mesh load sharing between whole meshing gear pair is calculated. Analysis result indicates that the pin-hole position error of tangential direction cause profound influence to mesh load and load sharing factor between meshing gear pair.

Keywords: planetary gear, load sharing factor, multibody dynamics, pin-hole position error

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1829 An Efficient Algorithm of Time Step Control for Error Correction Method

Authors: Youngji Lee, Yonghyeon Jeon, Sunyoung Bu, Philsu Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to construct an algorithm of time step control for the error correction method most recently developed by one of the authors for solving stiff initial value problems. It is achieved with the generalized Chebyshev polynomial and the corresponding error correction method. The main idea of the proposed scheme is in the usage of the duplicated node points in the generalized Chebyshev polynomials of two different degrees by adding necessary sample points instead of re-sampling all points. At each integration step, the proposed method is comprised of two equations for the solution and the error, respectively. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and possesses a good performance in the computational cost compared to the original method. Two stiff problems are numerically solved to assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: stiff initial value problem, error correction method, generalized Chebyshev polynomial, node points

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1828 The Tracking and Hedging Performances of Gold ETF Relative to Some Other Instruments in the UK

Authors: Abimbola Adedeji, Ahmad Shauqi Zubir

Abstract:

This paper examines the profitability and risk between investing in gold exchange traded funds (ETFs) and gold mutual funds compares to gold prices. The main focus in determining whether there are similarities or differences between those financial products is the tracking error. The importance of understanding the similarities or differences between the gold ETFs, gold mutual funds and gold prices is derived from the fact that gold ETFs and gold mutual funds are used as substitutions for investors who are looking to profit from gold prices although they are short in capital. 10 hypotheses were tested. There are 3 types of tracking error used. Tracking error 1 and 3 gives results that differentiate between types of ETFs and mutual funds, hence yielding the answers in answering the hypotheses that were developed. However, tracking error 2 failed to give the answer that could shed light on the questions raised in this study. All of the results in tracking error 2 technique only telling us that the difference between the ups and downs of the financial instruments are similar, statistically to the physical gold prices movement.

Keywords: gold etf, gold mutual funds, tracking error

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1827 A Prospective Study of a Modified Pin-In-Plaster Technique for Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures

Authors: S. alireza Mirghasemi, Shervin Rashidinia, Mohammadsaleh Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh, Narges Rahimi Gabaran, S. Shahin Eftekhari, Sara Shahmoradi

Abstract:

Purpose: There are various pin-in-plaster methods for treating distal radius fractures. This study is meant to introduce a modified technique of pin-in-plaster. Materials and methods: Fifty-four patients with distal radius fractures were followed up for one year. Patients were excluded if they had type B fractures according to AO classification, multiple injuries or pathological fractures, and were treated more than 7 days after injury. Range of motion and functional results were evaluated. Radiographic parameters including radial inclination, tilt, and height, were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: The average radial tilt was 10.6° and radial height was 10.2 mm at the sixth month postoperatively. Three cases of pin tract infection were recorded, who were treated totally with oral antibiotics. There was no case of pin loosening. Of total 73 patients underwent surgery, three cases of radial nerve irritation were recorded at the time of cast removal. All of them resolved at the 6th month follow up. No median nerve compression and carpal tunnel syndrome have found. We also had no case of tendon injury. Conclusion: Our modified technique is effective to restore anatomic congruity and maintain reduction.

Keywords: distal radius fracture, percutaneous pinning, pin-in-plaster, modified method of pin-in-plaster, operative treatment

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1826 FEM Simulation of Tool Wear and Edge Radius Effects on Residual Stress in High Speed Machining of Inconel718

Authors: Yang Liu, Mathias Agmell, Aylin Ahadi, Jan-Eric Stahl, Jinming Zhou

Abstract:

Tool wear and tool geometry have significant effects on the residual stresses in the component produced by high-speed machining. In this paper, Coupled Eulerian and Lagrangian (CEL) model is adopted to investigate the residual stress in high-speed machining of Inconel718 with a CBN170 cutting tool. The result shows that the mesh with the smallest size of 5 um yields cutting forces and chip morphology in close agreement with the experimental data. The analysis of thermal loading and mechanical loading are performed to study the effect of segmented chip morphology on the machined surface topography and residual stress distribution. The effects of cutting edge radius and flank wear on residual stresses formation and distribution on the workpiece were also investigated. It is found that the temperature within 100um depth of the machined surface increases drastically due to the more friction heat generation with the contact area of tool and workpiece increasing when a larger edge radius and flank wear are used. With the depth further increasing, the temperature drops rapidly for all cases due to the low conductivity of Inconel718. Consequently, higher and deeper tensile residual stress is generated on the superficial. Furthermore, an increased depth of plastic deformation and compressive residual stress is noticed in the subsurface, which is attributed to the reduction of the yield strength under the thermal effect. Besides, the ploughing effect produced by a larger tool edge radius contributes more than flank wear. The magnitude variation of the compressive residual stress caused by various edge radius and flank wear have a totally opposite trend, which depends on the magnitude of the ploughing and friction pressure acting on the machined surface.

Keywords: Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian, segmented chip, residual stress, tool wear, edge radius, Inconel718

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1825 Charging-Vacuum Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection Technology in the Application of Space Products Leak Testing and Error Control

Authors: Jijun Shi, Lichen Sun, Jianchao Zhao, Lizhi Sun, Enjun Liu, Chongwu Guo

Abstract:

Because of the consistency of pressure direction, more short cycle, and high sensitivity, Charging-Vacuum helium mass spectrometer leak testing technology is the most popular leak testing technology for the seal testing of the spacecraft parts, especially the small and medium size ones. Usually, auxiliary pump was used, and the minimum detectable leak rate could reach 5E-9Pa•m3/s, even better on certain occasions. Relative error is more important when evaluating the results. How to choose the reference leak, the background level of helium, and record formats would affect the leak rate tested. In the linearity range of leak testing system, it would reduce 10% relative error if the reference leak with larger leak rate was used, and the relative error would reduce obviously if the background of helium was low efficiently, the record format of decimal was used, and the more stable data were recorded.

Keywords: leak testing, spacecraft parts, relative error, error control

Procedia PDF Downloads 382