Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3327

Search results for: composite failure

3327 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix


This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
3326 Reliability-Simulation of Composite Tubular Structure under Pressure by Finite Elements Methods

Authors: Abdelkader Hocine, Abdelhakim Maizia


The exponential growth of reinforced fibers composite materials use has prompted researchers to step up their work on the prediction of their reliability. Owing to differences between the properties of the materials used for the composite, the manufacturing processes, the load combinations and types of environment, the prediction of the reliability of composite materials has become a primary task. Through failure criteria, TSAI-WU and the maximum stress, the reliability of multilayer tubular structures under pressure is the subject of this paper, where the failure probability of is estimated by the method of Monte Carlo.

Keywords: composite, design, monte carlo, tubular structure, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3325 Numerical Prediction of Bearing Strength on Composite Bolted Joint Using Three Dimensional Puck Failure Criteria

Authors: M. S. Meon, M. N. Rao, K-U. Schröder


Mechanical fasteners especially bolting is commonly used in joining carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures due to their good joinability and easy for maintenance characteristics. Since this approach involves with notching, a proper progressive damage model (PDM) need to be implemented and verified to capture existence of damages in the structure. A three dimensional (3D) failure criteria of Puck is established to predict the ultimate bearing failure of such joint. The failure criteria incorporated with degradation scheme are coded based on user subroutine executed in Abaqus. Single lap joint (SLJ) of composite bolted joint is used as target configuration. The results revealed that the PDM adopted here could sufficiently predict the behaviour of composite bolted joint up to ultimate bearing failure. In addition, mesh refinement near holes increased the accuracy of predicted strength as well as computational effort.

Keywords: bearing strength, bolted joint, degradation scheme, progressive damage model

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
3324 Experimental Verification of Different Types of Shear Connectors on Composite Slab

Authors: A. Siva, R. Senthil, R. Banupriya, R. Saravanakumar


Cold-formed steel sheets are widely used as primary tension reinforcement in composite slabs. It also performs as formwork for concreting and better ceiling surface. The major type of failure occurring in composite slab is shear failure. When the composite slab is flexurally loaded, the longitudinal shear is generated and transferred to the steel sheet concrete interface. When the load increases, the interface slip occurs. The slip failure can be resisted by mechanical interface interlock by shear studs. In this paper, the slip failure has been resisted by shear connectors and geometry of the steel sheet alone. The geometry of the sheet is kept constant for all the specimens and the type of shear connectors has been varied. Totally, three types of shear connectors (viz., straight headed, U and J) are bolted to the trapezoidal profile sheet and the concrete is casted over it. After curing, the composite slab is subjected to flexure load and the test results are compared with the numerical results analysed by ABAQUS software. The test result shows that the U-shaped bolted stud has higher flexure strength than the other two types of shear connectors.

Keywords: cold formed steel sheet, headed studs, mechanical interlock, shear connectors, shear failure, slip failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
3323 The Influence of Winding Angle on Functional Failure of FRP Pipes

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Hadi Hesamsadat


In this study, a parametric finite element modeling is developed to analyze failure modes of FRP pipes subjected to internal pressure. First-ply failure pressure and functional failure pressure was determined by a progressive damage modeling and then it is validated using experimental observations. The influence of both winding angle and fiber volume fraction is studied on the functional failure of FRP pipes and it corresponding pressure. It is observed that despite the fact that increasing fiber volume fraction will enhance the mechanical properties, it will be resulted in lower values for functional failure pressure. This shortcoming can be compensated by modifying the winding angle in angle plies of pipe wall structure.

Keywords: composite pipe, functional failure, progressive modeling, winding angle

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3322 Influence of the Eccentricity of a Concentrated Load on the Behavior of Multilayers Slabs

Authors: F. Bouzeboudja, K. Ait-Tahar


The method of strengthening of concrete works by composite materials is a practice which knows currently an important development. From this perspective, we propose to make a contribution to the analysis of the behavior of concrete slabs reinforced with composite fabrics, arranged in parallel folds according to the thickness of the slab. The analysis of experimentally obtained modes of failure confirms, generally, that the ruin of the structure occurs essentially by punching. Accordingly, our work is directed to the analysis of the behavior of reinforced slabs towards the punching. An experimental investigation is realized. For that purpose, a set of trial specimens was made. The reinforced specimens are subjected to an essay of punching, by making vary the direction of the eccentricity. The first experimental results show that the ultimate loads, as well as the transition from the flexion failure mode to the punching failure mode, are governed essentially by the eccentricity.

Keywords: composites, concrete slabs, failure, laminate, punching

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3321 Studying the Load Sharing and Failure Mechanism of Hybrid Composite Joints Using Experiment and Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Seyyed Mohammad Hasheminia, Heoung Jae Chun, Jong Chan Park, Hong Suk Chang


Composite joints have been getting attention recently due to their high specific mechanical strength to weight ratio that is crucial for structures such as aircrafts and automobiles. In this study on hybrid joints, quasi-static experiments and finite element analysis were performed to investigate the failure mechanism of hybrid composite joint with respect to the joint properties such as the adhesive material, clamping force, and joint geometry. The outcomes demonstrated that the stiffness of the adhesive is the most imperative design parameter. In this investigation, two adhesives with various stiffness values were utilized. Regarding the joints utilizing the adhesive with the lower stiffness modulus, it was observed that the load was exchanged promptly through the adhesive since it was shared more proficiently between the bolt and adhesive. This phenomenon permitted the hybrid joints with low-modulus adhesive to support more prominent loads before failure when contrasted with the joints that utilize the stiffer adhesive. In the next step, the stress share between the bond and bolt as a function of various design parameters was studied using a finite element model in which it was understood that the geometrical parameters such as joint overlap and width have a significant influence on the load sharing between the bolt and the adhesive.

Keywords: composite joints, composite materials, hybrid joints, single-lap joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
3320 Reliability Analysis of Glass Epoxy Composite Plate under Low Velocity

Authors: Shivdayal Patel, Suhail Ahmad


Safety assurance and failure prediction of composite material component of an offshore structure due to low velocity impact is essential for associated risk assessment. It is important to incorporate uncertainties associated with material properties and load due to an impact. Likelihood of this hazard causing a chain of failure events plays an important role in risk assessment. The material properties of composites mostly exhibit a scatter due to their in-homogeneity and anisotropic characteristics, brittleness of the matrix and fiber and manufacturing defects. In fact, the probability of occurrence of such a scenario is due to large uncertainties arising in the system. Probabilistic finite element analysis of composite plates due to low-velocity impact is carried out considering uncertainties of material properties and initial impact velocity. Impact-induced damage of composite plate is a probabilistic phenomenon due to a wide range of uncertainties arising in material and loading behavior. A typical failure crack initiates and propagates further into the interface causing de-lamination between dissimilar plies. Since individual crack in the ply is difficult to track. The progressive damage model is implemented in the FE code by a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT) to overcome these problems. The limit state function is accordingly established while the stresses in the lamina are such that the limit state function (g(x)>0). The Gaussian process response surface method is presently adopted to determine the probability of failure. A comparative study is also carried out for different combination of impactor masses and velocities. The sensitivity based probabilistic design optimization procedure is investigated to achieve better strength and lighter weight of composite structures. Chain of failure events due to different modes of failure is considered to estimate the consequences of failure scenario. Frequencies of occurrence of specific impact hazards yield the expected risk due to economic loss.

Keywords: composites, damage propagation, low velocity impact, probability of failure, uncertainty modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
3319 Investigation of Failure Mechanisms of Composite Laminates with Delamination and Repaired with Bolts

Authors: Shuxin Li, Peihao Song, Haixiao Hu, Dongfeng Cao


The interactive deformation and failure mechanisms, including local bucking/delamination propagation and global bucking, are investigated in this paper with numerical simulation and validation with experimental results. Three dimensional numerical models using ABAQUS brick elements combined with cohesive elements and contact elements are developed to simulate the deformation and failure characteristics of composite laminates with and without delamination under compressive loading. The zero-thickness cohesive elements are inserted on the possible path of delamination propagation, and the inter-laminate behavior is characterized by the mixed-mode traction-separation law. The numerical simulations identified the complex feature of interaction among local buckling and/or delamination propagation and final global bucking for composite laminates with delamination under compressive loading. Firstly there is an interaction between the local buckling and delamination propagation, i.e., local buckling induces delamination propagation, and then delamination growth further enhances the local buckling. Secondly, the interaction between the out-plan deformation caused by local buckling and the global bucking deformation results in final failure of the composite laminates. The simulation results are validated by the good agreement with the experimental results published in the literature. The numerical simulation validated with experimental results revealed that the degradation of the load capacity, in particular of the compressive strength of composite structures with delamination, is mainly attributed to the combined local buckling/delamination propagation effects. Consequently, a simple field-bolt repair approach that can hinder the local buckling and prevent delamination growth is explored. The analysis and simulation results demonstrated field-bolt repair could effectively restore compressive strength of composite laminates with delamination.

Keywords: cohesive elements, composite laminates, delamination, local and global bucking, field-bolt repair

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3318 Thermomechanical Coupled Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Square Tube: A Finite Element Study

Authors: M. Ali, K. Alam, E. Ohioma


This paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of fiber reinforced polymer composite tubes (FRP) under thermomechanical coupled loading using finite element software ABAQUS and a special add-on subroutine, CZone. Three cases were explored; pure mechanical loading, pure thermal loading, and coupled thermomechanical loading. The failure index (Tsai-Wu) under all three loading cases was assessed for all plies in the tube walls. The simulation results under pure mechanical loading showed that composite tube failed at a tensile load of 3.1 kN. However, with the superposition of thermal load on mechanical load on the composite tube, the failure index of the previously failed plies in tube walls reduced significantly causing the tube to fail at 6 kN. This showed 93% improvement in the load carrying capacity of the composite tube in present study. The increase in load carrying capacity was attributed to the stress effects of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) on the laminate as well as the inter-lamina stresses induced due to the composite stack layup.

Keywords: thermal, mechanical, composites, square tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3317 Buckling Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates with Central Holes

Authors: Pratyasha Patnaik, A. V. Asha


Laminated composite plates are made up of plates consisting of layers bonded together and made up of materials chemically different from each other but combined macroscopically. These have an application in aircrafts, railway coaches, bridges etc. because they are easy to handle, have got improved properties and the cost of their fabrication is low. But their failure can lead to catastrophic disasters. And generally, the failure of these structures is due to the combined effect of excessive stresses on it and buckling. Hence, the buckling behavior of these kinds of plates should be analyzed properly. Holes are provided either at the center or elsewhere in the laminar plates for the purpose of pipes for electric cables or other purposes. Due to the presence of holes in the plates, the stress concentration is near to the holes and the stiffness of the plates is reduced. In this study, the effect of a cut-out, its shape, different boundary conditions, length/thickness ratio, stacking sequence, and ply orientation has been studied. The analysis was carried out with laminated composite plates with circular, square and triangular cut-outs. Results show the effect of different cut-out shapes, boundary conditions, the orientation of layers and length/thickness ratio of the buckling load

Keywords: buckling, composite plates, cut-out, stress

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3316 Flexural Behavior of Composite Hybrid Beam Models Combining Steel Inverted T-Section and RC Flange

Authors: Abdul Qader Melhem, Hacene Badache


This paper deals with the theoretical and experimental study of shear connection via simple steel reinforcement shear connectors, which are steel reinforcing bars bent into L-shapes, instead of commonly used headed studs. This suggested L-shape connectors are readily available construction material in steel reinforcement. The composite section, therefore, consists of steel inverted T-section being embedded within a lightly reinforced concrete flange at the top slab as a unit. It should be noted that the cross section of these composite models involves steel inverted T-beam, replacing the steel top flange of a standard commonly employed I-beam section. The paper concentrates on the elastic and elastic-plastic behavior of these composite models. Failure modes either by cracking of concrete or shear connection be investigated in details. Elastic and elastoplastic formulas of the composite model have been computed for different locations of NA. Deflection formula has been derived, its value was close to the test value. With a supportive designing curve, this curve is valuable for both designing engineers and researchers. Finally, suggested designing curves and valuable equations will be presented. A check is made between theoretical and experimental outcomes.

Keywords: composite, elastic-plastic, failure, inverted T-section, L-Shape connectors

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3315 Numerical Modelling and Experiment of a Composite Single-Lap Joint Reinforced by Multifunctional Thermoplastic Composite Fastener

Authors: Wenhao Li, Shijun Guo


Carbon fibre reinforced composites are progressively replacing metal structures in modern civil aircraft. This is because composite materials have large potential of weight saving compared with metal. However, the achievement to date of weight saving in composite structure is far less than the theoretical potential due to many uncertainties in structural integrity and safety concern. Unlike the conventional metallic structure, composite components are bonded together along the joints where structural integrity is a major concern. To ensure the safety, metal fasteners are used to reinforce the composite bonded joints. One of the solutions for a significant weight saving of composite structure is to develop an effective technology of on-board Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) System. By monitoring the real-life stress status of composite structures during service, the safety margin set in the structure design can be reduced with confidence. It provides a means of safeguard to minimize the need for programmed inspections and allow for maintenance to be need-driven, rather than usage-driven. The aim of this paper is to develop smart composite joint. The key technology is a multifunctional thermoplastic composite fastener (MTCF). The MTCF will replace some of the existing metallic fasteners in the most concerned locations distributed over the aircraft composite structures to reinforce the joints and form an on-board SHM network system. Each of the MTCFs will work as a unit of the AU and AE technology. The proposed MTCF technology has been patented and developed by Prof. Guo in Cranfield University, UK in the past a few years. The manufactured MTCF has been successfully employed in the composite SLJ (Single-Lap Joint). In terms of the structure integrity, the hybrid SLJ reinforced by MTCF achieves 19.1% improvement in the ultimate failure strength in comparison to the bonded SLJ. By increasing the diameter or rearranging the lay-up sequence of MTCF, the hybrid SLJ reinforced by MTCF is able to achieve the equivalent ultimate strength as that reinforced by titanium fastener. The predicted ultimate strength in simulation is in good agreement with the test results. In terms of the structural health monitoring, a signal from the MTCF was measured well before the load of mechanical failure. This signal provides a warning of initial crack in the joint which could not be detected by the strain gauge until the final failure.

Keywords: composite single-lap joint, crack propagation, multifunctional composite fastener, structural health monitoring

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3314 Experimental Study of Various Sandwich Composites

Authors: R. Naveen, E. Vanitha, S. Gayathri


The use of Sandwich composite materials in aerospace and civil infrastructure application has been increasing especially due to their enormously low weight that leads to a reduction in the total weight and fuel consumption, high flexural and transverse shear stiffness, and corrosion resistance. The essential properties of sandwich materials vary according to the application area of the structure. The objectives of this study are to identify the mechanical behaviour and failure mechanisms of sandwich structures made of bamboo, V- board and metal (Aluminium as face sheet and Foam as Core material). The three-point bending test and UTM (Universal testing machine) experimental tests are done for three specimens for each type of sandwich composites. From the experiment results of three sandwich composites, bamboo shows high Young’s modulus of elasticity and low density.

Keywords: bamboo sandwich composite, metal sandwich composite, sandwich composite, v-board sandwich composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
3313 Risk Factors and Outcome of Free Tissue Transfer at a Tertiary Care Referral Center

Authors: Majid Khan


Introduction: In this era of microsurgery, free flap holds a remarkable spot in reconstructive surgery. A free flap is well suited for composite defects as it provides sufficient and well-vascularized tissue for coverage. We report our experience with the use of the free flaps for the reconstruction of composite defects. Methods: This is a retrospective case series (chart review) of patients who underwent reconstruction of composite defects with a free flap at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan) from January 01, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Data were collected for patient demographics, size of the defect, size of flap, recipient vessels, postoperative complications, and outcome of the free flap. Results: Over this period, 532 free flaps are included in this study. The overall success rate is 95.5%. The mean age of the patient was 44.86 years. In 532 procedures, there were 448 defects from tumor ablation of head and neck cancer. The most frequent free flap was the anterolateral thigh flap in 232 procedures. In this study, the risk factor hypertension (p=0.004) was found significant for wound dehiscence, preop radiation/chemotherapy (p=0.003), and malnutrition (p=0.005) were found significant for fistula formation. Malnutrition (p=0.02) and use of vein grafts (p=0.025) were significant factors for flap failure. Conclusion: Free tissue transfer is a reliable option for the reconstruction of large and composite defects. Hypertension, malnutrition, and preoperative radiotherapy can cause significant morbidity.

Keywords: free flap, free flap failure, risk factors for flap failure, free flap outcome

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3312 Wrinkling Prediction of Membrane Composite of Varying Orientation under In-Plane Shear

Authors: F. Sabri, J. Jamali


In this article, the wrinkling failure of orthotropic composite membranes due to in-plane shear deformation is investigated using nonlinear finite element analyses. A nonlinear post-buckling analysis is performed to show the evolution of shear-induced wrinkles. The method of investigation is based on the post-buckling finite element analysis adopted from commercial FEM code; ANSYS. The resulting wrinkling patterns, their amplitude and their wavelengths under the prescribed loads and boundary conditions were confirmed by experimental results. Our study reveals that wrinkles develop when both the magnitudes and coverage of the minimum principal stresses in the laminated composite laminates are sufficiently large to trigger wrinkling.

Keywords: composite, FEM, membrane, wrinkling

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
3311 Experimental Investigation on Cold-Formed Steel Foamed Concrete Composite Wall under Compression

Authors: Zhifeng Xu, Zhongfan Chen


A series of tests on cold-formed steel foamed concrete (CSFC) composite walls subjected to axial load were proposed. The primary purpose of the experiments was to study the mechanical behavior and identify the failure modes of CSFC composite walls. Two main factors were considered in this study: 1) specimen with pouring foamed concrete or without and 2) different foamed concrete density ranks (corresponding to different foamed concrete strength). The interior space between two pieces of straw board of the specimen W-2 and W-3 were poured foamed concrete, and the specimen W-1 does not have foamed concrete core. The foamed concrete density rank of the specimen W-2 was A05 grade, and that of the specimen W-3 was A07 grade. Results showed that the failure mode of CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete was distortional buckling of cold-formed steel (CFS) column, and that poured foamed concrete includes the local crushing of foamed concrete and local buckling of CFS column, but the former prior to the later. Compared with CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete, the ultimate bearing capacity of spec imens poured A05 grade and A07 grade foamed concrete increased 1.6 times and 2.2 times respectively, and specimen poured foamed concrete had a low vertical deformation. According to these results, the simplified calculation formula for the CSFC wall subjected to axial load was proposed, and the calculated results from this formula are in very good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, composite wall, foamed concrete, axial behavior test

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3310 Stochastic Modelling for Mixed Mode Fatigue Delamination Growth of Wind Turbine Composite Blades

Authors: Chi Zhang, Hua-Peng Chen


With the increasingly demanding resources in the word, renewable and clean energy has been considered as an alternative way to replace traditional ones. Thus, one of practical examples for using wind energy is wind turbine, which has gained more attentions in recent research. Like most offshore structures, the blades, which is the most critical components of the wind turbine, will be subjected to millions of loading cycles during service life. To operate safely in marine environments, the blades are typically made from fibre reinforced composite materials to resist fatigue delamination and harsh environment. The fatigue crack development of blades is uncertain because of indeterminate mechanical properties for composite and uncertainties under offshore environment like wave loads, wind loads, and humid environments. There are three main delamination failure modes for composite blades, and the most common failure type in practices is subjected to mixed mode loading, typically a range of opening (mode 1) and shear (mode 2). However, the fatigue crack development for mixed mode cannot be predicted as deterministic values because of various uncertainties in realistic practical situation. Therefore, selecting an effective stochastic model to evaluate the mixed mode behaviour of wind turbine blades is a critical issue. In previous studies, gamma process has been considered as an appropriate stochastic approach, which simulates the stochastic deterioration process to proceed in one direction such as realistic situation for fatigue damage failure of wind turbine blades. On the basis of existing studies, various Paris Law equations are discussed to simulate the propagation of the fatigue crack growth. This paper develops a Paris model with the stochastic deterioration modelling according to gamma process for predicting fatigue crack performance in design service life. A numerical example of wind turbine composite materials is investigated to predict the mixed mode crack depth by Paris law and the probability of fatigue failure by gamma process. The probability of failure curves under different situations are obtained from the stochastic deterioration model for comparisons. Compared with the results from experiments, the gamma process can take the uncertain values into consideration for crack propagation of mixed mode, and the stochastic deterioration process shows a better agree well with realistic crack process for composite blades. Finally, according to the predicted results from gamma stochastic model, assessment strategies for composite blades are developed to reduce total lifecycle costs and increase resistance for fatigue crack growth.

Keywords: Reinforced fibre composite, Wind turbine blades, Fatigue delamination, Mixed failure mode, Stochastic process.

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3309 Optimum Design of Hybrid (Metal-Composite) Mechanical Power Transmission System under Uncertainty by Convex Modelling

Authors: Sfiso Radebe


The design models dealing with flawless composite structures are in abundance, where the mechanical properties of composite structures are assumed to be known a priori. However, if the worst case scenario is assumed, where material defects combined with processing anomalies in composite structures are expected, a different solution is attained. Furthermore, if the system being designed combines in series hybrid elements, individually affected by material constant variations, it implies that a different approach needs to be taken. In the body of literature, there is a compendium of research that investigates different modes of failure affecting hybrid metal-composite structures. It covers areas pertaining to the failure of the hybrid joints, structural deformation, transverse displacement, the suppression of vibration and noise. In the present study a system employing a combination of two or more hybrid power transmitting elements will be explored for the least favourable dynamic loads as well as weight minimization, subject to uncertain material properties. Elastic constants are assumed to be uncertain-but-bounded quantities varying slightly around their nominal values where the solution is determined using convex models of uncertainty. Convex analysis of the problem leads to the computation of the least favourable solution and ultimately to a robust design. This approach contrasts with a deterministic analysis where the average values of elastic constants are employed in the calculations, neglecting the variations in the material properties.

Keywords: convex modelling, hybrid, metal-composite, robust design

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3308 Failure Analysis of Laminated Veneer Bamboo Dowel Connections

Authors: Niloufar Khoshbakht, Peggi L. Clouston, Sanjay R. Arwade, Alexander C. Schreyer


Laminated veneer bamboo (LVB) is a structural engineered composite made from glued layers of bamboo. A relatively new building product, LVB is currently employed in similar sizes and applications as dimensional lumber. This study describes the results of a 3D elastic Finite Element model for halfhole specimens when loaded in compression parallel-to-grain per ASTM 5764. The model simulates LVB fracture initiation due to shear stresses in the dowel joint and predicts displacement at failure validated through comparison with experimental results. The material fails at 1mm displacement due to in-plane shear stresses. The paper clarifies the complex interactive state of in-plane shear, tension perpendicular-to-grain, and compression parallel-to-grain stresses that form different distributions in the critical zone beneath the bolt hole for half-hole specimens. These findings are instrumental in understanding key factors and fundamental failure mechanisms that occur in LVB dowel connections to help devise safe standards and further LVB product adoption and design.

Keywords: composite, dowel connection, embedment strength, failure behavior, finite element analysis, Moso bamboo

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3307 Statistical Analysis of Failure Cases in Aerospace

Authors: J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang, S.W. Liu


The major concern in the aviation industry is the flight safety. Although great effort has been put onto the development of material and system reliability, the failure cases of fatal accidents still occur nowadays. Due to the complexity of the aviation system, and the interaction among the failure components, the failure analysis of the related equipment is a little difficult. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases in aviation, which are extracted from failure analysis journals, including Engineering Failure Analysis and Case studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, in order to obtain the failure sensitive factors or failure sensitive parts. The analytical results show that, among the failure cases, fatigue failure is the largest in number of occurrence. The most failed components are the disk, blade, landing gear, bearing, and fastener. The frequently failed materials consist of steel, aluminum alloy, superalloy, and titanium alloy. Therefore, in order to assure the safety in aviation, more attention should be paid to the fatigue failures.

Keywords: aerospace, disk, failure analysis, fatigue

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3306 Hierarchical Optimization of Composite Deployable Bridge Treadway Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Ashraf Osman


Effective deployable bridges that are characterized by an increased capacity to weight ratio are recently needed for post-disaster rapid mobility and military operations. In deployable bridging, replacing metals as the fabricating material with advanced composite laminates as lighter alternatives with higher strength is highly advantageous. This article presents a hierarchical optimization strategy of a composite bridge treadway considering maximum strength design and bridge weight minimization. Shape optimization of a generic deployable bridge beam cross-section is performed to achieve better stress distribution over the bridge treadway hull. The developed cross-section weight is minimized up to reserving the margins of safety of the deployable bridging code provisions. Hence, the strength of composite bridge plates is maximized through varying the plies orientation. Different loading cases are considered of a tracked vehicle patch load. The orthotropic plate properties of a composite sandwich core are used to simulate the bridge deck structural behavior. Whereas, the failure analysis is conducted using Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The naturally inspired particle swarm optimization technique is used in this study. The proposed technique efficiently reduced the weight to capacity ratio of the developed bridge beam.

Keywords: CFRP deployable bridges, disaster relief, military bridging, optimization of composites, particle swarm optimization

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3305 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Composite Cantilever Beam with External Prestressing

Authors: R. I. Liban, N. Tayşi


This paper deals with a nonlinear finite element analysis to examine the behavior up to failure of cantilever composite steel-concrete beams which are prestressed externally. 'Pre-' means stressing the high strength external tendons in the steel beam section before the concrete slab is added. The composite beam contains a concrete slab which is connected together with steel I-beam by means of perfect shear connectors between the concrete slab and the steel beam which is subjected to static loading. A finite element analysis will be done to study the effects of external prestressed tendons on the composite steel-concrete beams by locating the tendons in different locations (profiles). ANSYS version 12.1 computer program is being used to analyze the represented three-dimensional model of the cantilever composite beam. This model gives all these outputs, mainly load-displacement behavior of the cantilever end and in the middle span of the simple support part.

Keywords: composite steel-concrete beams, external prestressing, finite element analysis, ANSYS

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3304 Theoretical and Experimental Bending Properties of Composite Pipes

Authors: Maja Stefanovska, Svetlana Risteska, Blagoja Samakoski, Gari Maneski, Biljana Kostadinoska


Aim of this work is to determine the theoretical and experimental properties of filament wound glass fiber/epoxy resin composite pipes with different winding design subjected under bending. For determination of bending strength of composite samples three point bending tests were conducted according to ASTM D790 standard. Good correlation between theoretical and experimental results has been obtained, where sample No4 has shown the highest value of bending strength. All samples have demonstrated matrix cracking and fiber failure followed by layers delamination during testing. Also, it was found that smaller winding angles lead to an increase in bending stress. From presented results good merger between glass fibers and epoxy resin was confirmed by SEM analysis.

Keywords: bending properties, composite pipe, winding design, SEM

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3303 Mechanical Performance of Sandwich Square Honeycomb Structure from Sugar Palm Fibre

Authors: Z. Ansari, M. R. M. Rejab, D. Bachtiar, J. P. Siregar


This study focus on the compression and tensile properties of new and recycle square honeycombs structure from sugar palm fibre (SPF) and polylactic acid (PLA) composite. The end data will determine the failure strength and energy absorption for both new and recycle composite. The control SPF specimens were fabricated from short fibre co-mingled with PLA by using a bra-blender set at 180°C and 50 rpm consecutively. The mixture of 30% fibre and 70% PLA were later on the hot press at 180°C into sheets with thickness 3mm consecutively before being assembled into a sandwich honeycomb structure. An INSTRON tensile machine and Abaqus 6.13 software were used for mechanical test and finite element simulation. The percentage of error from the simulation and experiment data was 9.20% and 9.17% for both new and recycled product. The small error of percentages was acceptable due to the nature of the simulation model to be assumed as a perfect model with no imperfect geometries. The energy absorption value from new to recycled product decrease from 312.86kJ to 282.10kJ. With this small decrements, it is still possible to implement a recycle SPF/PLA composite into everyday usages such as a car's interior or a small size furniture.

Keywords: failure modes, numerical modelling, polylactic acid, sugar palm fibres

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3302 Failure Localization of Bipolar Integrated Circuits by Implementing Active Voltage Contrast

Authors: Yiqiang Ni, Xuanlong Chen, Enliang Li, Linting Zheng, Shizheng Yang


Bipolar ICs are playing an important role in military applications, mainly used in logic gates, such as inverter and NAND gate. The defect of metal break located on the step is one of the main failure mechanisms of bipolar ICs, resulting in open-circuit or functional failure. In this situation, general failure localization methods like optical beam-induced resistance change (OBIRCH) and photon emission microscopy (PEM) might not be fully effective. However, active voltage contrast (AVC) can be used as a voltage probe, which may pinpoint the incorrect potential and thus locate the failure position. Two case studies will be present in this paper on how to implement AVC for failure localization, and the detailed failure mechanism will be discussed.

Keywords: bipolar IC, failure localization, metal break, open failure, voltage contrast

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3301 An Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Behaviour of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Laminates Used for Pipe Applications

Authors: Tasnim Kallel, Rim Taktak


In this experimental work, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminates were manufactured using hand lay-up technique. The unsaturated polyester (UP) and vinylester (VE) were considered as resins reinforced with different woven fabrics (bidirectional and quadriaxial rovings). The mechanical behaviour of the resulting composites was studied and then compared. A focus was essentially done on the evaluation of the effect of E-Glass fiber and ply orientation on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness of the studied composite laminates. Also, crack paths and fracture surfaces were examined, and failure mechanisms were analyzed. From the main results, it was found that the quadriaxial composite laminates (QA/VE and QA/UP) with stacking sequences of [0°, +45°, 90°, -45°] present a very ductile tensile behaviour. The other laminate samples (R500/VE, RM/VE, R500/UP and RM/UP) show a very brittle behaviour whatever the used resin. The intrinsic toughness KIC of QA/VE laminate, obtained in fracture tests, are found more important than that of RM/VE composite. Thus, the QA/VE samples, as multidirectional laminate, presents the highest interlaminar fracture resistance.

Keywords: crack growth, fiber orientation, fracture behavior, e-glass fiber fabric, laminate composite, mechanical behavior

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3300 Investigating Optical Properties of Unsaturated Polyurethane Matrix and Its Glass Fiber Composite Under Extreme Temperatures

Authors: Saad Ahmed, Sanjeev Khannaa


Glass fiber reinforced polymers are widely used in structural systems as load-bearing elements at both high and low temperatures. This investigation presents the evaluation of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyurethane under harsh conditions of changing temperature and moisture content. This study Explores how these parameters affect the optical properties of the polymer matrix and the composite. Using the hand layup method, the polyurethane resin was modified by E-glass fibers (15 vol. %) to manufacture fiber-reinforced composite. This work includes the preparation of glass-like polyurethane resin sheets and estimates all light transmittance properties at high and very low temperatures and wet conditions. All-optical properties were retested to evaluate the level of improvement or failure. The results found that when comprising reinforced composite fiber to the unreinforced specimens, the reinforced composite shows a fair optical property at high temperatures and good performance at low temperatures.

Keywords: unsaturated polyurethane, extreme temperatures, light transmittance, haze number

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3299 Structural Behavior of Composite Hollow RC Column under Combined Loads

Authors: Abdul Qader Melhm, Hussein Elrafidi


This paper is dealing with studying the structural behavior of a steel-composite hollow reinforced concrete (RC) column model under combined eccentric loading. The composite model consists of an inner steel tube surrounded via a concrete core with longitudinal and circular transverse reinforcement. The radius of gyration according to American and Euro specifications be calculated, in order to calculate the thinnest ratio for this type of composite column model, in addition to the flexural rigidity. Formulas for interaction diagram is given for this type of model, which is a general loading conditions in which an element is exposed to an axial load with bending at the same time. The structural capacity of this model, elastic, plastic loads and strains will be computed and compared with experimental results. The total eccentric axial load of the column model is calculated based on the effective length KL available from several relationships provided in the paper. Furthermore, the inner tube experiences buckling failure after reaching its maximum strength will be investigated.

Keywords: column, composite, eccentric, inner tube, interaction, reinforcement

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3298 Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Automotive Drive Shaft

Authors: Hossein Kh. Bisheh, Nan Wu


Advanced composite materials have a great importance in engineering structures due to their high specific modulus and strength and low weight. These materials can be used in design and fabrication of automotive drive shafts to reduce the weight of the structure. Hence, an optimum design of a composite drive shaft satisfying the design criteria, can be an appropriate substitution of metallic drive shafts. The aim of this study is to design and analyze a composite automotive drive shaft with high specific strength and low weight satisfying the design criteria. Tsai-Wu criterion is chosen as the failure criterion. Various designs with different lay-ups and materials are investigated based on the design requirements and finally, an optimum design satisfying the design criteria is chosen based on the weight and cost considerations. The results of this study indicate that if the weight is the main concern, a shaft made of Carbon/Epoxy can be a good option, and if the cost is a more important parameter, a hybrid shaft made of aluminum and Carbon/Epoxy can be considered.

Keywords: Bending natural frequency, Composite drive shaft, Peak torque, Torsional buckling

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