Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Imtiaz Sarwar

46 Implementing Two Rotatable Circular Polarized Glass Made Window to Reduce the Amount of Electricity Usage by Air Condition System

Authors: Imtiaz Sarwar

Abstract:

Air conditioning in homes may account for one-third of the electricity during period in summer when most of the energy is required in large cities. It is not consuming only electricity but also has a serious impact on environment including greenhouse effect. Circular polarizer filter can be used to selectively absorb or pass clockwise or counter-clock wise circularly polarized light. My research is about putting two circular polarized glasses parallel to each other and make a circular window with it. When we will place two circular polarized glasses exactly same way (0 degree to each other) then nothing will be noticed rather it will work as a regular window through which all light and heat can pass on. While we will keep rotating one of the circular polarized glasses, the angle between the glasses will keep increasing and the window will keep blocking more and more lights. It will completely block all the lights and a portion of related heat when one of the windows will reach 90 degree to another. On the other hand, we can just open the window when fresh air is necessary. It will reduce the necessity of using Air condition too much or consumer will use electric fan rather than air conditioning system. Thus, we can save a significant amount of electricity and we can go green.

Keywords: circular polarizer, window, air condition, light, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
45 Intrusion Detection Techniques in Mobile Adhoc Networks: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Junaid Sarwar

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) use has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the (MANETS) prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in (MANETs). The authentication and encryption is considered the first solution of the MANETs problem where as now these are not sufficient as MANET use is increasing. In this paper we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in MANET and aim to comparing in some important fields.

Keywords: MANET, IDS, intrusions, signature, detection, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
44 Macroeconomic Determinants of Cyclical Variations in Value, Size, and Momentum Premium in the UK

Authors: G. Sarwar, C. Mateus, N. Todorovic

Abstract:

The paper examines the asymmetries in size, value and momentum premium over the economic cycles in the UK and their macroeconomic determinants. Using Markov switching approach we find clear evidence of cyclical variations of the three premiums, most noticeably variations in size premium. We associate Markov switching regime 1 with economic upturn and regime 2 with economic downturn as per OECD’s Composite Leading Indicator. The macroeconomic indicators prompting such cyclicality the most are interest rates, term structure and credit spread. The role of GDP growth, money supply and inflation is less pronounced in our sample.

Keywords: macroeconomic determinants, Markorv Switching, size, value

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43 Critical Success Factors of Information Technology Projects

Authors: Athar Imtiaz, Abduljalil S. Al-Mudhary, Taha Mirhashemi, Roslina Ibrahim

Abstract:

Information Technology (IT) is being used by almost all organizations throughout the world. However, its success at supporting and improving business is debatable. There is always the risk of IT project failure and studies have proven that a large number of IT projects indeed do fail. There are many components that further the success of IT projects; these have been studied in previous studies. Studies have found the most necessary components for success in software development projects, executive information systems etc. In this study, previous literature that has looked into these success promoting factors have been critically reviewed and analyzed. Fifteen critical Success Factors (CSF) of IT projects were enlisted and examined. These factors can be applied to all IT projects and is not specific to a particular type of IT/IS project. A hypothesis was also generated after the evaluation of the factors.

Keywords: critical success factors, CSF, IT projects, IS projects, software development projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
42 Customers’ Acceptability of Islamic Banking: Employees’ Perspective in Peshawar

Authors: Tahira Imtiaz, Karim Ullah

Abstract:

This paper aims to incorporate the banks employees’ perspective on acceptability of Islamic banking by the customers of Peshawar. A qualitative approach is adopted for which six in-depth interviews with employees of Islamic banks are conducted. The employees were asked to share their experience regarding customers’ acceptance attitude towards acceptability of Islamic banking. Collected data was analyzed through thematic analysis technique and its synthesis with the current literature. Through data analysis a theoretical framework is developed, which highlights the factors which drive customers towards Islamic banking, as witnessed by the employees. The practical implication of analyzed data evident that a new model could be developed on the basis of four determinants of human preference namely: inner satisfaction, time, faith and market forces.

Keywords: customers’ attraction, employees’ perspective, Islamic banking, Riba

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41 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh

Abstract:

The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: SNEDDS, bioavailability, solubility, Quality by Design (QbD)

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40 Description of a New Fruit Fly Species within Genus Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) Detected in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Sarwar

Abstract:

As a result of broad trapping program for the collection of fruit flies fauna of Pakistan, adults or larvae samples of fruit flies were collected from different localities. After sampling, to characterize fruit fly fauna involved, the collected samples were brought to the laboratory for their species identification. In this study, based on extensive literature records, the presence of one fruit fly species Bactrocera abbasi (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) belonging to genus Bactrocera Macquar was recognized for the first time. This new species is described and illustrated on the basis of morphological characters, supported by data on its ecology and geographic distribution. Information is also given on host plant and location of type specimen, distinguish remarks and diagnosis are as well included.

Keywords: diptera, tephritidae, bactrocera, new species, taxonomy, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
39 Strategic Orientation of Islamic Banks: A Review of Strategy Language

Authors: Imam Uddin, Imtiaz Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the ideological contextuality of market oriented strategy language used by Industry leaders to envision the future of Islamic financial Institutions (IFIs) in the light of Wittgenstein language-games and Foucault’s power-discourse framework. The analysis infers that the explicit market orientation of strategy language and modern knowledge of finance now defines various concepts related of Islamic finance, let alone Islamic finance theory itself. Theorizing and practicing Islamic finance therefore under the dominant influence of modern strategy discourse and modern knowledge of finance has significant implications for developing an ethical and spiritual orientation of Islamic banks. The concerned academia and scholarship therefore need to review such trends and work around the possible degradation to the public image of IFIs and resulting disappointments of religiously inspired customers.

Keywords: Islamic finance discourse, strategy discourse, language games, strategic intent, productive misunderstanding

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38 Effect of Anion Variation on the CO2 Capture Performance of Pyridinium Containing Poly(ionic liquid)s

Authors: Sonia Zulfiqar, Daniele Mantione, Muhammad Ilyas Sarwar, Alexander Rothenberger, David Mecerreyes

Abstract:

Climate change due to escalating carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is an issue of paramount importance that needs immediate attention. CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is a promising route to mitigate climate change and adsorption is the most widely recognized technology owing to possible energy savings relative to the conventional absorption techniques. In this conference, the potential of a new family of solid sorbents for CO2 capture and separation will be presented. Novel pyridinium containing poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) were synthesized with varying anions i.e bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and hexafluorophosphate. The resulting polymers were characterized using NMR, XRD, TGA, BET surface area and microscopic techniques. Furthermore, CO2 adsorption measurements at two different temperatures were also carried out and revealed great potential of these PILs as CO2 scavengers.

Keywords: climate change, CO2 capture, poly(ionic liquid)s, CO2/N2 selectivity

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37 Systematic Taxonomy and Phylogenetic of Commercial Fish Species of Family Nemipetridae from Malaysian Waters and Neighboring Seas

Authors: Ayesha Imtiaz, Darlina Md. Naim

Abstract:

Family Nemipteridae is among the most abundantly distributed family in Malaysian fish markets due to its high contribution to landing sites of Malaysia. Using an advanced molecular approach that used two mitochondrial (Cytochrome oxidase c I and Cytochrome oxidase b) and one nuclear gene (Recombination activating gene, RAGI) to expose cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among commercially important species of family Nemipteridae. Our research covered all genera (including 31 species out total 45 species) of family Nemipteridae, distributed in Malaysia. We also found certain type of geographical barriers in the South China sea that reduces dispersal and stops a few species to intermix. Northside of the South China Sea (near Vietnam) does not allow genetic diversity to mix with the Southern side of the South China sea (Sarawak) and reduces dispersal. Straits of Malacca reduce the intermixing genetic diversity of South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.

Keywords: Nemipteridae, RAG I, south east Asia, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
36 Bioremediation Potential of Stegiocolonium and Spirogyra Grown in Waste Water

Authors: Neelma Munir, Zirwa Sarwar, Rubab Naseem, Maria Hasnain, Shagufta Naz

Abstract:

Wastewater discharge from different sources causes contamination of water bodies and eutrophication. Stegiocolonium and Spirogyra are commonly found algal species in the water bodies of Pakistan. These algal species were tested for their bioremediation potential using different wastewaters. Different parameters, i.e., BOD, COD, pH, nitrates, phosphates and microflora, were analyzed to observe the phycoremediation efficiency of the tested algal strains. When these different wastewaters were treated with these algae, reduction of BOD and COD was observed helped in the reduction of pollutants from the environment. From the results of the present study, it was evident that Ulothrix sp. and Oedogonium sp. showed a high biomass production in different wastewaters as compared to Stigeoclonium sp. and Spirogyra sp. Whereas the oil content of Stigeoclonium sp. was greater than Spirogyra sp. Oil extracted from algal strains was then utilized for converting it to biodiesel, indicating that these algal species can be cultured in wastewater to produce biodiesel.

Keywords: algae, wastewater, biofuel, bioremediation

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35 Honey: A Remedy Rediscovered in the Treatment of Oral Diseases

Authors: Muhammad Mansoor Majeed, Imtiaz Ahmed

Abstract:

For centuries, honey has been used for the management and cure of different diseases for the treatment of wound, ulcers, burns, cough, and sore throat, etc. It has also been proved to decrease inflammation, edema, and exudates in different body tissues. This study is performed to find out the effectiveness of honey in the treatment and prevention of gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and accumulation of plaque. Randomized control trial was performed on two subject groups. Honey provided to one subject group to apply on their gums and tooth and then gargle with water and drink. Frequency of the procedure is thrice a day for a month. Another group was given a placebo. Before and after, readings were taken according to Loe and Silness Plaque and Gingival Index. Initially, the mean plaque index, Gingival index and the percentage of sites which were bleeding in the honey group was 0.910, 0.800 and 58.71% respectively which has reduced to 0.313, 0.296 and 27.6% in 30 ± 3 days whereas the control group did not show signs of improvement. Visible changed has observed in the honey group from 0.910 to 0.313 in mean plaque index, 0.800 to 0.296 in Gingival Index, and the percentage of bleeding sited decreased from 58.71% to 27.6%. No significant changes observed in another group. We can conclude that honey reduces the formation/accumulation of plaque and decreases gingival bleeding as well as it has therapeutic effects.

Keywords: honey, gingivitis, Pakistan, bleeding gums

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
34 Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Flow of Cu-Water Nanofluid Due to a Rotating Disk with Partial Slip

Authors: Tasawar Hayat, Madiha Rashid, Maria Imtiaz, Ahmed Alsaedi

Abstract:

This problem is about the study of flow of viscous fluid due to rotating disk in nanofluid. Effects of magnetic field, slip boundary conditions and thermal radiations are encountered. An incompressible fluid soaked the porous medium. In this model, nanoparticles of Cu is considered with water as the base fluid. For Copper-water nanofluid, graphical results are presented to describe the influences of nanoparticles volume fraction (φ) on velocity and temperature fields for the slip boundary conditions. The governing differential equations are transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by suitable transformations. Convergent solution of the nonlinear system is developed. The obtained results are analyzed through graphical illustrations for different parameters. Moreover, the features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed. It is found that the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate at the surface are highest in copper-water nanofluid.

Keywords: MHD nanofluid, porous medium, rotating disk, slip effect

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33 Analyzing the Importance of Technical Writing in Professional Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Sadaf Khalid, Jahanzaib Sarwar, Rabia Touseef

Abstract:

No matter how much perfect we become in our practical skills regarding the implementation of learned ideas, the need of technical writing capability cannot be neglected to be a professional. Technical writing is a way of communicating the ideas in written which, otherwise, need to be presented orally. Technical writing skills have always been the need of the time, as they are required for internal, as well as external official communication in both formal and informal manner. Moreover, they are the best way to capture the attention of your customers by presenting information in an effective manner. This paper aims to analyze the importance of technical writing skills in professional industries of Pakistan by conducting a survey. Survey results presented in this paper clearly depicts the importance of formal and informal written communication media used in different professional industries in Pakistan. Analysis and discussion of the extent to which the alternative ways of communication besides technical writing have got importance in Pakistan is also an important aspect of this survey.

Keywords: technical writing, survey, oral communication, globalization, communication trends, formal communication media, informal communication, audience

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32 Using Students’ Perceptions for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Qamar Naseem, Imtiaz Ahmad

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to correlate students’ perceptions of teacher effectiveness with their academic achievement in English and Mathematics at the secondary level (grade 9th) based on five national professional standards for teacher evaluation in Pakistan (subject matter knowledge, instructional planning and strategies, assessment, learning environment, effective communication. A Students’ Perceptions of Teacher Effectiveness Questionnaire (SPTEQ) was developed by the researchers to collect data from 2009 students from forty public girls and boys high/ higher secondary schools in district Khanewal, Pakistan. The overall reliability of the SPTEQ was α=.86. The study found a significant positive relationship among all the five factors of teacher effectiveness construct. The study also showed significant, positive relationship between teacher effectiveness factors and students’ achievement in English and mathematics. No significant differences were found between male and female students’ perceptions about their English teacher effectiveness. The implications include students’ personal attachments with their teachers that might convince them to overrate their teachers.

Keywords: communication, students’ achievement, teacher effectiveness, teaching strategies, teaching strategies

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31 Carbon Coated Yarn Supercapacitors: Parametric Study of Performance Output

Authors: Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Sabu John, Sania Waqar, Lijing Wang, Mac Fergusson, Ilija Najdovski

Abstract:

Evolution of textiles, from its orthodox to more interactive role has stirred the researchers to uncover its application in numerous arenas. The idea of using textile based materials for wearable energy harvesting and storage devices have gained immense popularity. This is mainly due to textile comfort and flexibility features. In this work, nano-carbonous materials were infused on cellulosic fibers using caustic soda treatment. This paper presents the complete procedure of yarn supercapacitors fabrication process through dip coating technique and its characterization method. The main objective is to study, the effect of varying caustic soda concentration on mass loading of activated carbon on yarns and the related capacitance output of the designed yarn supercapacitor. Polyvinyl alcohol and Phosphoric acid were used as electrolyte in a two-electrode cell assembly to measure device electrochemical performance. The results show a promising increase in capacitance value using this technique.

Keywords: yarn supercapacitors, activated carbon, dip coating, caustic soda, electrolyte, electrochemical characterization

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30 Taxonomic Study of Squirrel Order Rodentia, Family Sciuridea of District Jamshoro Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

Abstract:

The squirrel commonly known as ‘Gulhari’ belongs to the order Rodentia, family sciuridea, its sub-species inhabit tropical to sub tropical regions of Asia. The core aim of the present study is to investigate the taxonomy of squirrel in District Jamshoro. Sampling was obtained for the taxonomic identification from various adjoining areas of District Jamshoro by non random method. During present study a total number of 107 specimens were collected from July 2018 to December 2018, specimens were collected from District Jamshoro it was observed that the prevalence of the sub-species Funambulus tristriatus numarius (23.3%), Funambulus pennant tulescens (23.3%) was high while Funambulus tristriatus tristriatus ((20.5%), Funambulus palmarun brodie (18.6%) and the minimum prevalence Funambulus palmaruns palmaruns (14.1%). In the present research, it is established that the climate factors, altitude has principal importance in the poor density of squirrel.

Keywords: Jamshoro District Pakistan, squirrel, taxonomy, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
29 Optimization of SWL Algorithms Using Alternative Adder Module in FPGA

Authors: Tayab D. Memon, Shahji Farooque, Marvi Deshi, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar, B. S. Chowdhry

Abstract:

Recently single-bit ternary FIR-like filter (SBTFF) hardware synthesize in FPGA is reported and compared with multi-bit FIR filter on similar spectral characteristics. Results shows that SBTFF dominates upon multi-bit filter overall. In this paper, an optimized adder module for ternary quantized sigma-delta modulated signal is presented. The adder is simulated using ModelSim for functional verification the area-performance of the proposed adder were obtained through synthesis in Xilinx and compared to conventional adder trees. The synthesis results show that the proposed adder tree achieves higher clock rates and lower chip area at higher inputs to the adder block; whereas conventional adder tree achieves better performance and lower chip area at lower number of inputs to the same adder block. These results enhance the usefulness of existing short word length DSP algorithms for fast and efficient mobile communication.

Keywords: short word length (SWL), DSP algorithms, FPGA, SBTFF, VHDL

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28 Presence of Nesting Parrot (Psittacula krameri borealis) Order Psitaciforme, Family Psittacidea in District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

Abstract:

The parrot (Psittacula krameri borealis) commonly known as ‘Tota’ belongs to the order ‘Psittaciformes’ and family ‘Psittacidea’. Its range inhabits tropical to subtropical regions. The parrot (Psittacula krameri borealis) has been categorized as least concern species. The core aim of the present study is to investigate the nesting of parrot (Psittacula krameri borealis); site observation was done a different interval from various adjoining areas of District Mirpurkhas from June 2017 to May 2018. During the study period, altogether 15 nests were observed, number of nests were high in June’s month (33.3%), July (13.3%), August (20.0 %), March (13.3%), April (13.3%) while the lowest number of nest was observed in September’s month (6.6%) and the nest was absent from October to February. It investigates that the number of nests was high June’s month when temperature range between '20 °C' and '45 °C'.

Keywords: District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan, nesting, parrot (Psittacula krameri), presence

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27 How Does the Interaction between Environmental and Intellectual Property Rights Affect Environmental Innovation? A Study of Seven OECD Countries

Authors: Aneeq Sarwar

Abstract:

This study assesses the interaction between environmental and intellectual property policy on the rate of invention of environmental inventions and specifically tests for whether there is a synergy between stricter IP regimes and stronger environmental policies. The empirical analysis uses firm and industry-level data from seven OECD countries from 2009 to 2015. We also introduce a new measure of environmental inventions using a Natural Language Processing Topic Modelling technique. We find that intellectual property policy strictness demonstrates greater effectiveness in encouraging inventiveness in environmental inventions when used in combination with stronger environmental policies. This study contributes to existing literature in two ways. First, it devises a method for better identification of environmental technologies, we demonstrate how our method is more comprehensive than existing methods as we are better able to identify not only environmental inventions, but also major components of said inventions. Second, we test how various policy regimes affect the development of environmental technologies, we are the first study to examine the interaction of the environmental and intellectual property policy on firm level innovation.

Keywords: environmental economics, economics of innovation, environmental policy, firm level

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
26 Using Facebook as an Alternative Learning Tools in Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Authors: Ahasanul Haque, Abdullah Sarwar, Khaliq Ahmed

Abstract:

Networking is important among students to achieve better understanding. Social networking plays an important role in the education. Realizing its huge potential, various organizations, including institutions of higher learning have moved to the area of social networks to interact with their students especially through Facebook. Therefore, measuring the effectiveness of Facebook as a learning tool has become an area of interest to academicians and researchers. Therefore, this study tried to integrate and propose new theoretical and empirical evidences by linking the western idea of adopting Facebook as an alternative learning platform from a Malaysian perspective. This study, thus, aimed to fill a gap by being among the pioneering research that tries to study the effectiveness of adopting Facebook as a learning platform across other cultural settings, namely Malaysia. Structural equation modelling was employed for data analysis and hypothesis testing. This study findings have provided some insights that would likely affect students’ awareness towards using Facebook as an alternative learning platform in the Malaysian higher learning institutions. At the end, future direction is proposed.

Keywords: Learning Management Tool, social networking, education, Malaysia

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25 Evaluation of Drilling Performance through Bit-Rock Interaction Using Passive Vibration Assisted Rotation Drilling (PVARD) Tool

Authors: Md. Shaheen Shah, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Dipesh Maharjan, Syed Imtiaz, Stephen Butt

Abstract:

Drilling performance is an essential goal in petroleum and mining industry. Drilling rate of penetration (ROP), which is inversely proportional to the mechanical specific energy (MSE) is influenced by numerous factors among which are the applied parameter: torque (T), weight on bit (WOB), fluid flow rate, revolution per minute (rpm), rock related parameters: rock type, rock homogeneousness, rock anisotropy orientation, and mechanical parameters: bit type, configuration of the bottom hole assembly (BHA). This paper is focused on studying the drilling performance by implementing a passive vibration assisted rotary drilling tool (pVARD) as part of the BHA through using different bit types: coring bit, roller cone bit, and PDC bit and various rock types: rock-like material, granite, sandstone, etc. The results of this study aim to produce a pVARD index for optimal drilling performance considering the recommendations of the pVARD’s spring compression tests and stress-strain analysis of rock samples conducted prior to drilling experiments, analyzing the cutting size distribution, and evaluating the applied drilling parameters as a function of WOB. These results are compared with those obtained from drilling without pVARD, which represents the typical rigid BHA of the conventional drilling.

Keywords: BHA, drilling performance, MSE, pVARD, rate of penetration, ROP, tensile and shear fractures, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
24 Waterless Fracking: An Alternative to Conventional Fracking

Authors: Shubham Damke, Md Imtiaz, Sanchita Dei

Abstract:

To stimulate the well and to enhance the production from the shaly formations, fracturing is essential. Presently the chiefly employed technology is Hydraulic Fracturing. However Hydraulic Fracturing accompanies itself with problems like disposing large volumes of fracturing wastewater, removal of water from the pores, formation damage due to injection of large amount of chemicals into underground formations and many more. Therefore embarking on the path of innovation new techniques have been developed which uses different gases such as Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Frac Oil, LPG, etc. are used as a base fluid for fracturing formation. However LPG proves to be the most favorable of them which eliminates the use of water and chemicals. When using it as a fracturing fluid, within the surface equipment, it is stored, gelled, and proppant blended at a constant pressure. It is then pressurized with high pressure pumps to the required surface injection pressure With lowering the total cost and increasing the productivity, LPG is also very noteworthy for fracturing shale, where if the hydraulic fracturing is done the water ‘swells’ the formation and creates surface tension, both of which inhibit the flow of oil and gas. Also fracturing with LPG increases the effective fracture length and since propane, butane and pentane is used which are already present in the natural gas therefore there is no problem of back flow because these gases get mixed with the natural gas. LPG Fracturing technology can be a promising substitute of the Hydraulic Fracturing, which could substantially reduce the capital cost of fracturing shale and will also restrict the problems with the disposal of water and on the same hand increasing the fracture length and the productivity from the shale.

Keywords: Fracking, Shale, Surface Tension, Viscosity

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23 Risk Assessment in Construction of K-Span Buildings in United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Authors: Imtiaz Ali, Imam Mansoor

Abstract:

Investigations as a part of the academic study were undertaken to identify and evaluate the significant risks associated with the construction of K-span buildings in the region of UAE. Primary field data was collected through questionnaires obtaining specific open and close-ended questions from carefully selected construction firms, civil engineers and, construction manager regarding risks associated to K-span building construction. Historical data available for other regions of the same construction technique was available which was compared for identifying various non-critical and critical risk parameters by comparative evaluation techniques to come up with important risks and potential sources for their control and minimization in K-Span buildings that is increasing in the region. The associated risks have been determined with their Relative Importance Index (RII) values of which Risk involved in Change of Design required by Owners carries the highest value (RII=0.79) whereas, Delayed Payment by Owner to Contractor is one of the least (RII=0.42) value. The overall findings suggest that most relative risks as quantified originate or associated with the contractors. It may be concluded that project proponents undertaking K-span projects in planning and budgeting the cost and delays should take into account of risks on high account if changes in design are also required any delays in the material by the supplier would then be a major risk in K-span project delay. Since projects are, less costly, so owners have limited budgets, then they hire small contractors, which are not highly competent contractors. So study suggests that owner should be aware of these types of risks associated with the construction of K-span buildings in order to make it cost effective.

Keywords: k-span buildings, k-span construction, risk management, relative improvement index (RII)

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22 Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG) of Alcoholic and Control Subjects

Authors: Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Imtiaz Ahmed Awan, Sharjeel Saeed

Abstract:

Multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) is a useful technique recently developed to quantify the dynamics of physiological signals at different time scales. This study is aimed at investigating the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to analyze the background activity of alcoholic and control subjects by inspecting various coarse-grained sequences formed at different time scales. EEG recordings of alcoholic and control subjects were taken from the publically available machine learning repository of University of California (UCI) acquired using 64 electrodes. The MSE analysis was performed on the EEG data acquired from all the electrodes of alcoholic and control subjects. Mann-Whitney rank test was used to find significant differences between the groups and result were considered statistically significant for p-values<0.05. The area under receiver operator curve was computed to find the degree separation between the groups. The mean ranks of MSE values at all the times scales for all electrodes were higher control subject as compared to alcoholic subjects. Higher mean ranks represent higher complexity and vice versa. The finding indicated that EEG signals acquired through electrodes C3, C4, F3, F7, F8, O1, O2, P3, T7 showed significant differences between alcoholic and control subjects at time scales 1 to 5. Moreover, all electrodes exhibit significance level at different time scales. Likewise, the highest accuracy and separation was obtained at the central region (C3 and C4), front polar regions (P3, O1, F3, F7, F8 and T8) while other electrodes such asFp1, Fp2, P4 and F4 shows no significant results.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale sample entropy (MSE), Mann-Whitney test (MMT), Receiver Operator Curve (ROC), complexity analysis

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21 Clarification of Taxonomic Confusions among Adulterated Drugs Coffee Seena and Seena Weed through Systematic and Pharmaceutical Markers

Authors: Shabnum Shaheen, Nida Haroon, Farah Khan, Sumera Javad, Mehreen Jalal, Samina Sarwar

Abstract:

Coffee Senna is pharmaceutically very important and used for multiple health disorders such as gastric pains, indigestion, snakebites, asthma and fever, tuberculosis and menstrual problems. However, its immense medicinal value and great demand lead to adulteration issue which could be injurious for users. Some times its adulterant Seena weed (Senna occidentalis L.) is used as its substitute which definitely not as effective as Coffee Senna. Hence, the present study was undertaken to provide some tools for systematic and pharmaceutical authentication of a shrubby plant Coffee Senna (Cassia occidentalis Linn.). These parameters included macro and micro morphological characters, anatomical and palynomorph characterization, solubility, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis. By the application of these parameters acquired results revealed that, these two plants are distinct from each other. The Coffee Seena was found to be an annual shrub with trilobed pollen, diacytic, paracytic and anisocytic stomata whereas the Seena weed stands out as an annual or perennial herb with spheroidal and circular pollen and paracytic type of stomata. The powdered drug of Coffee seena is dark grayish green whereas the powdered drug of Seena weed is light green in color. These findings are constructive in authentic identification of these plants.

Keywords: coffee senna, Senna weed, taxonomic evaluation, pharmaceutical markers

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20 Zakariya Multaniand and his Role in the Spread of Islam and Suhrawardiyya in the Subcontinent

Authors: Mahdi Momeni

Abstract:

The arrival of Mysticism to the subcontinent can be generally divided into two periods. The first period, was the Sporadic arrival of Sufis whom were traveling to the subcontinent according to the tradition of disquisition and the second period was; when the Sufi dynasties were sending missionaries and caliphs to guide and promote people from different direction to that land. Among the Sufi dynasty that entered to India in the thirteenth century, two dynasties of Chishti and Suhrawardîya were more successful than other Sufi dynasties. And thus they are very important in the spread of Islam and Mysticism to the subcontinent. Suhrawardiyya dynasty was founded by Sheikh Ziauddin Abu Najib Suhrawardi and was developed and spread by his nephew Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardi Abo hafs Omar. Sheikh Shahabuddin sent many Caliphs and missionaries to India. Among these missionaries were People like Sultan Sakhi Sarwar, Seyyed Noureddin Mobarak Ghaznavi, Sheikh Jalal al-din Tabrizi and Sheikh Zakariya Multani. Since Suhrawardiyya doctrine relies on Asceticism and Sharia, so one of the important elements among Suhrawardiyya missionaries was inviting people to Islam. Accordingly Sheikh Shahab Caliphs had a great role in the spread of Islam and Mysticism in different territories, especially India. Such that it can be pointed out is the the role of Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya Multani, the founder of Suhrawardiyya Dynasty in India. Sheikh Zakaria Multani after working in three areas, establishing monasteries, training managers, having numerous trips to different places, participating to social affairs provided the spread of Islam and Mysticism in subcontinent. This paper studies his role and actions in the subcontinent.

Keywords: islam, sufism, Suhrawardiyya, subcontinent, Multan

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19 Subsea Processing: Deepwater Operation and Production

Authors: Md Imtiaz, Sanchita Dei, Shubham Damke

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a rapidly accelerating shift from traditional surface processing operations to subsea processing operation. This shift has been driven by a number of factors including the depletion of shallow fields around the world, technological advances in subsea processing equipment, the need for production from marginal fields, and lower initial upfront investment costs compared to traditional production facilities. Moving production facilities to the seafloor offers a number of advantage, including a reduction in field development costs, increased production rates from subsea wells, reduction in the need for chemical injection, minimization of risks to worker ,reduction in spills due to hurricane damage, and increased in oil production by enabling production from marginal fields. Subsea processing consists of a range of technologies for separation, pumping, compression that enables production from offshore well without the need for surface facilities. At present, there are two primary technologies being used for subsea processing: subsea multiphase pumping and subsea separation. Multiphase pumping is the most basic subsea processing technology. Multiphase pumping involves the use of boosting system to transport the multiphase mixture through pipelines to floating production vessels. The separation system is combined with single phase pumps or water would be removed and either pumped to the surface, re-injected, or discharged to the sea. Subsea processing can allow for an entire topside facility to be decommissioned and the processed fluids to be tied back to a new, more distant, host. This type of application reduces costs and increased both overall facility and integrity and recoverable reserve. In future, full subsea processing could be possible, thereby eliminating the need for surface facilities.

Keywords: FPSO, marginal field, Subsea processing, SWAG

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18 Branding Good Corporate Governance: A Pathway to Strengthen Investors’ Perception and Brand Equity

Authors: Azaz Zaman, Imtiaz Uddin Chowdhury, Mohammad Shariful Islam

Abstract:

Corporate governance has become a crucial issue in both the business and academic world as a result of world-wide financial scandals and lack of trust in corporate practices. There is no doubt that in order to thrive and attain growth in the market, a company must earn the trust of its stakeholders by consistently delivering on its commitments. Directors of the companies thus comprehend the importance of upfront communication with relevant stakeholders to increase their confidence. The authors of this article argue that practicing good corporate governance is not enough in this highly competitive market place; corporate leaders need to market their good corporate governance practices in order to make the company more attractive to investors. This article also contends that the strength of corporate governance relies wholly upon the extent to which it is communicated simply, effectively and unceasingly to its stakeholders. The main objective of this study, therefore, is to explore the importance of branding good corporate governance in order to increase corporate brand equity, attract investors, and capture market share. A structured questionnaire comprising three sections and a total of 34 questions was prepared and surveyed by the authors among respondents residing in Bangladesh and who also have an academic and corporate background, to investigate the potential impact of branding good corporate governance in the market place. High mean values for individual questions and overall section depict that communicating and branding good corporate governance to the stakeholders will not only boost the investors’ confidence but also increase the corporate brand equity, yielding both profitable and sustainable business environment.

Keywords: brand equity, investors’ preference, good corporate governance, sustainable business environment

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17 Feeding Habitat of Parrot (Ringed Necked Parakeet) in District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

Abstract:

The parrot (Rose Ringed) commonly known as tota, belongs to the order ‘psiitaciformes’ and family ‘Psittacidea’, Four species of parakeet inhabits tropical and subtropical regions of Pakistan mostly adopted parks in cities deciduous woodlands, light secondary jungles, semidesert, and scrubland and in orchards and cultivated farmlands. They are mostly feed on citrus fruits, guava, mango, green unripen seed and almond nuts as well as bud and flowers etc. the core aim of the present study was to investigate the Feeding Habitat of Parrot (Ringed Necked Parakeet) in District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan. Sampling was obtained from various adjoining areas of District Mirpurkhas by Non-Random Method, which was conducted from June to Nov 2017. During the present study, a total no: of 84 specimens were collected from different localities of City Mirpurkhas (42.8%) were male ♂ and (57.1%) were female ♀. Maximum population density of Psittaculla Krameri Borealis (50.0%) was collected from Guava (Psidium Guajava) Orchards, Mango (Mangifera Indica) orchard (41.6%), chekoo (Manilkara Zapota) orchard (5.9%) and the Minimum No: of Psittaculla krameri Borealis (2.3%) collected Date (Phoenix Dactylifera) orchard. It was observed that Psittaculla krameri Borealis were highly consumed Guava (Psidium Guajava) and the minimum consume food was Date (Phoenix Dactylifera).

Keywords: district Mirpur Khas Sindh Pakistan, feeding, habitat, parrot (ringed necked parakeet)

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