Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2370

Search results for: nano particle nanocomposites

2370 Nanoindentation Behavior and Physical Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride /Styrene Co-Maleic Anhydride Blend Reinforced by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: Dalia Elsawy Abulyazied, Samia Mohamad Mokhtar, Ahmed Magdy Motawie


This article studies the effects of nano-bentonite on the structure and properties of polymer blends nanocomposites, based on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and styrene co-maleic anhydride (SMA) blend. Modification of Egyptian bentonite (EB) is carried out using organo-modifier namely; octadecylamine (ODA). Octadecylamine bentonite (ODA-B) is characterized using FTIR, XRD and TEM. Nanocomposites of PVC/SMA/ODA-B are prepared by solution intercalation polymerization from 0.50 up to 5 phr. The nanocomposites are characterized by XRD and TEM. Thermal behavior of the nanocomposites is studied. The effect of different content of ODA-B on the nano-mechanical properties is investigated by a nano-indentation test method. Also the swelling and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are measured. The morphology of the nanocomposites shows that ODA-B achieved good dispersion in the PVC/SMA matrix. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced due to the presence of the ODA-B. Incorporation of 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 phr. ODA-B into the PVC/SMA blends results in an improvement in nano-hardness of 16%, 76%, 92%, and 68% respectively. The elastic modulus increased by 37% from 4.59 GPa for unreinforced PVC/SMA blend to 6.30 GPa for 3 phr. The cross-link density and the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites are increased with increasing the content of ODA-B.

Keywords: PVC, SMA, nanocomposites, nano-bentonite, nanoindentation, crosslink density

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
2369 Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites Cobalt Matrix with Nano SiC Particles

Authors: Dhuha Albusalih, David Weston, Simon Gill


Nanocomposites Co-SiC with well dispersed nanoparticles and Co nano grain size has produced using Pulse Reverse Plating (PRP) and using anionic surfactant. Different particle contents of nanocomposites were produced by altering the plating parameters. The method allows great control over the level of nanoparticles in the coating, without changing bath chemistry. Examination by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), TEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to characterize and study the strengthening mechanisms of these nanocomposites. The primary strengthening mechanisms were shown to be grain refinement and dispersion strengthening. Tribological performances of the produced electroplated nanocomposite Co-SiC coatings were examined. Results showed that the coating with the higher volume fraction (vol. %) of SiC and the smallest grain size has the higher hardness and low wear rate.

Keywords: nanocomposites, pulse reverse plating, tribological performance of cobalt nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
2368 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nano Fiber and Nano Fiber/Nano Particle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon


Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. They can be produced by interfacial polymerization, electrospinning and electrostatic spinning. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nano fiber (ACNF), carbon nano-fiber (CNF), Polyacrylonitrile/carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), Polyvinyl alcohol/nano silver (PVA/Ag) in PEM fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. When the performances of these cells are compared to each other at 5x5 cm2 cell, it is found that the PVA/Ag exhibits the best performance among all. In this work, nano fiber and nano fiber/nano particles electrical conductivities have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag. The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nano fiber, activate carbon nano-fiber, PVA fiber, PAN fiber, carbon nanotube, nano particle nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2367 Comparative Study of Impact Strength and Fracture Morphological of Nano-CaCO3 and Nanoclay Reinforced HDPE Nanocomposites

Authors: Harun Sepet, Necmettin Tarakcioglu


The present study investigated the impact strength and fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites by using Charpy impact test. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were prepared by the melt blending method using a compounder system, which consists of industrial banbury mixer, single screw extruder and granule cutting in industrial-scale. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were molded using an injection-molding machine as plates, and then impact samples were cut by using punching die from the nanocomposite plates. As a result of impact experiments, nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites were determined to have lower impact energy level than neat HDPE. Also, the impact strength of HDPE further decreased by addition nanoclay compared to nano-CaCO3. The occurred fracture areas with the impact were detected by SEM examination. It is understood that fracture surface morphology changes when nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay ratio increases. The fracture surface changes were examined to determine the fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites.

Keywords: charpy, HDPE, industrial scale nano-CaCO3, nanoclay, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
2366 The Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Optical Properties of (PVP-PEG) Blend

Authors: Hussein Hakim, Zainab Al-Ramadhan, Ahmed Hashim


Polymer nano composites of polyvinylpyrrolidone and poly-ethylene glycol with different concentrations of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nano particles have been prepared by solution cast method. The optical characterizations have been done by analyzing the absorption (A) spectra in the 300–800 nm spectral region. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with the increasing of Al2O3 nano particles content. The optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) are changing with increasing aluminum oxide nano particle concentrations.

Keywords: nanocomposites, polyvinylpyrrolidone, optical constants, polymers, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2365 Structural Characterization and Application of Tio2 Nano-Partical

Authors: Maru Chetan, Desai Abhilash


The structural characteristics & application of TiO2 powder with different phases are study by various techniques in this paper. TTIP, EG and citric acid use as Ti source and catalyst respectively synthesis for sol gel synthesis of TiO2 powder. To replace sol gel method we develop the new method of making nano particle of TiO2 powder. It is two route method one is physical and second one is chemical route. Specific aim to this process is to minimize the production cost and the large scale production of nano particle The synthesis product work characterize by EDAX, SEM, XRD tests.

Keywords: mortal and pestle, nano particle , TiO2, TTIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
2364 Synthesis, Characterization, and Physico–Chemical Properties of Nano Zinc Oxide and PVA Composites

Authors: S. H. Rashmi, G. M. Madhu, A. A. Kittur, R. Suresh


Polymer nanocomposites represent a new class of materials in which nanomaterials act as the reinforcing material in composites, wherein small additions of nanomaterials lead to large enhancements in thermal, optical, and mechanical properties. A boost in these properties is due to the large interfacial area per unit volume or weight of the nanoparticles and the interactions between the particle and the polymer. Micro-sized particles used as reinforcing agents scatter light, thus, reducing light transmittance and optical clarity. Efficient nanoparticle dispersion combined with good polymer–particle interfacial adhesion eliminates scattering and allows the exciting possibility of developing strong yet transparent films, coatings and membranes. This paper aims at synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles which are reinforced in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength of the PVA nanocomposites increases with the increase in the amount of nanoparticles.

Keywords: glutaraldehyde, polymer nanocomposites, poly vinyl alcohol, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
2363 Study of the ZnO Effect on the Properties of HDPE/ ZnO Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Z. Benabid, F. Zouai, N. Kharchi, D. Benachour


A HDPE/ZnO nano composites have been successfully performed using the co-mixing. The ZnO was first co-mixed with the stearic acid then added to the polymer in the plastograph. The nano composites prepared with the co-mixed ZnO were compared to those prepared with the neat TiO2. The nano composites were characterized by different techniques as the wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nano structure/properties relationships were investigated. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: exfoliation, ZnO, nano composites, HDPE, co-mixing

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2362 Influence of Silicon Carbide Particle Size and Thermo-Mechanical Processing on Dimensional Stability of Al 2124SiC Nanocomposite

Authors: Mohamed M. Emara, Heba Ashraf


This study is to investigation the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) particle size and thermo-mechanical processing on dimensional stability of aluminum alloy 2124. Three combinations of SiC weight fractions are investigated, 2.5, 5, and 10 wt. % with different SiC particle sizes (25 μm, 5 μm, and 100nm) were produced using mechanical ball mill. The standard testing samples were fabricated using powder metallurgy technique. Both samples, prior and after extrusion, were heated from room temperature up to 400ºC in a dilatometer at different heating rates, that is, 10, 20, and 40ºC/min. The analysis showed that for all materials, there was an increase in length change as temperature increased and the temperature sensitivity of aluminum alloy decreased in the presence of both micro and nano-sized silicon carbide. For all conditions, nanocomposites showed better dimensional stability compared to conventional Al 2124/SiC composites. The after extrusion samples showed better thermal stability and less temperature sensitivity for the aluminum alloy for both micro and nano-sized silicon carbide.

Keywords: aluminum 2124 metal matrix composite, SiC nano-sized reinforcements, powder metallurgy, extrusion mechanical ball mill, dimensional stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
2361 Tensile strength and Elastic Modulus of Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi, Ismail Ghasemi, Sajad Daneshpayeh


In this study, tensile strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites based on polypropylene/ linear low density polyethylene/ nano titanium dioxide (PP/LLDPE/TiO2) were studied. The samples were produced using a co-rotating twin screw extruder including 0, 2, 4 Wt .% of nano particles, and 20, 40, 60 Wt.% of LLDPE. The styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) was used as comptabiliser. Tensile strength and elastic modulus were evaluated. The results showed that modulus was increased by 7% with addition of nano particles in comparison to PP/LLDPE. In addition, tensile strength was decreased.

Keywords: PP/LLDPE/TiO2, nanocomposites, elastic modulus, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
2360 Stabilization of Transition Metal Chromite Nanoparticles in Silica Matrix

Authors: J. Plocek, P. Holec, S. Kubickova, B. Pacakova, I. Matulkova, A. Mantlikova, I. Němec, D. Niznansky, J. Vejpravova


This article presents summary on preparation and characterization of zinc, copper, cadmium and cobalt chromite nano crystals, embedded in an amorphous silica matrix. The ZnCr2O4/SiO2, CuCr2O4/SiO2, CdCr2O4/SiO2 and CoCr2O4/SiO2 nano composites were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method under acid catalysis. Final heat treatment of the samples was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900–1200 °C to adjust the phase composition and the crystallite size, respectively. The resulting samples were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Raman/FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Formation of the spinel phase was confirmed in all samples. The average size of the nano crystals was determined from the PXRD data and by direct particle size observation on HRTEM; both results were correlated. The mean particle size (reviewed by HRTEM) was in the range from ~ 4 to 46 nm. The results showed that the sol-gel method can be effectively used for preparation of the spinel chromite nano particles embedded in the silica matrix and the particle size is driven by the type of the cation A2+ in the spinel structure and the temperature of the final heat treatment. Magnetic properties of the nano crystals were found to be just moderately modified in comparison to the bulk phases.

Keywords: sol-gel method, nanocomposites, Rietveld refinement, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, magnetic properties, spinel, chromite

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
2359 Synthesis of Nano Iron Copper Core-Shell by Using K-M Reactor

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed AbdelKawy, A. H. El-Shazly


In this study, Nano iron-copper core-shell was synthesized by using Kinetic energy micro reactor ( K-M reactor). The reaction between nano-pure iron with copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) beside NaCMC as a stabilizer at K-M reactor gives many advantages in comparison with the traditional chemical method for production of nano iron-Copper core-shell in batch reactor. Many factors were investigated for its effect on the process performance such as initial concentrations of nano iron and copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. Different techniques were used for investigation and characterization of the produced nano iron particles such as SEM, XRD, UV-Vis, XPS, TEM and PSD. The produced Nano iron-copper core-shell particle using micro mixer showed better characteristics than those produced using batch reactor in different aspects such as homogeneity of the produced particles, particle size distribution and size, as core diameter 10nm particle size were obtained. The results showed that 10 nm core diameter were obtained using Micro mixer as compared to 80 nm core diameter in one-fourth the time required by using traditional batch reactor and high thickness of copper shell and good stability.

Keywords: nano iron, core-shell, reduction reaction, K-M reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
2358 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Using Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Extract and Its Application for Solar Cell

Authors: Prasanta Sutradhar, Mitali Saha


With an increasing awareness of green and clean energy, zinc oxide based solar cells were found to be suitable candidates for cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. In this work, we have reported the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) by thermal method and under microwave irradiation using the aqueous extract of tomatoes as non-toxic and ecofriendly reducing material. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), particle size analyser (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X- ray diffraction study (XRD). A series of ZnO nanocomposites with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared for photovoltaic application. Structural and morphological studies of these nanocomposites were carried out using UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and AFM. The current-voltage measurements of the nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.18% in case of ZnO/GO/TiO2 nanocomposite.

Keywords: ZnO, green synthesis, microwave, nanocomposites, I-V characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
2357 The Method for Synthesis of Chromium Oxide Nano Particles as Increasing Color Intensity on Industrial Ceramics

Authors: Bagher Aziz Kalantari, Javad Rafiei, Mohamad Reza Talei Bavil Olyai


Disclosed is a method of preparing a pigmentary chromium oxide nano particles having 50 percent particle size less than about 100nm. According to the disclosed method, a substantially dry solid composition of potassium dichromate and carbon active is heated in CO2 atmosphere to a temperature of about 600ºc for 1hr. Thereafter, the solid Cr2O3 product was washed twice with distilled water. The other aim of this study is to assess both the colouring performance and the potential of nano-pigments in the ceramic tile decoration. The rationable consists in nano-pigment application in several ceramics, including a comparison of colour performance with conventional micro-pigments.

Keywords: green chromium oxide, nano particles, colour performances, particle size

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2356 Preparation of Nano-Sized Samarium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet

Authors: M. Tabatabaee, N. Binavayan, M. R. Nateghi


In this research nano-size of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) containing lanthanide metals was synthesized by the sol-gel method in presente citric acid as a complexing agent. Samarium (III) was used to synthesis of YAG:M3+. The prepared powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The size distribution and morphology of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that Sm, La, and ce doped YAG crystallizes in the cubic system and additional peaks compared to pure YAG can be assigned to the presence of Sm in the synthesize YAG. The SEM images show possess spherical nano-sized particle with average 50 nm in diameter.

Keywords: citric acid, nano particle, samarium, yttrium aluminum garnet

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2355 Synthesis of PVA/γ-Fe2O3 Used in Cancer Treatment by Hyperthermia

Authors: Sajjad Seifi Mofarah, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, Shokooh Moghadam, Javad Tavakoli


In recent years a new method of combination treatment for cancer has been developed and studied that has led to significant advancements in the field of cancer therapy. Hyperthermia is a traditional therapy that, along with a creation of a medically approved level of heat with the help of an alternating magnetic AC current, results in the destruction of cancer cells by heat. This paper gives details regarding the production of the spherical nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in order to be used for medical purposes such as tumor treatment by hyperthermia. To reach a suitable and evenly distributed temperature, the nanocomposite with core-shell morphology and spherical form within a 100 to 200 nanometer size was created using phase separation emulsion, in which the magnetic nano-particles γ-Fe2O3 with an average particle size of 20 nano-meters and with different percentages of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 were covered by polyvinyl alcohol. The main concern in hyperthermia and heat treatment is achieving desirable specific absorption rate (SAR) and one of the most critical factors in SAR is particle size. In this project all attempts has been done to reach minimal size and consequently maximum SAR. The morphological analysis of the spherical structure of the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 was achieved by SEM analyses and the study of the chemical bonds created was made possible by FTIR analysis. To investigate the manner of magnetic nanocomposite particle size distribution a DLS experiment was conducted. Moreover, to determine the magnetic behavior of the γ-Fe2O3 particle and the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in different concentrations a VSM test was conducted. To sum up, creating magnetic nanocomposites with a spherical morphology that would be employed for drug loading opens doors to new approaches in developing nanocomposites that provide efficient heat and a controlled release of drug simultaneously inside the magnetic field, which are among their positive characteristics that could significantly improve the recovery process in patients.

Keywords: nanocomposite, hyperthermia, cancer therapy, drug releasing

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
2354 Behavior of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite with Nano-Ceramic Particle under Ballistic Impact and Quasi-Static Punch-Shear Loading

Authors: K. Rajalakshmi, A. Vasudevan


The performance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite with the nano-ceramic particle as function of time and thickness of laminate which is subjected to ballistic impact and quasi-static punch-shear loading is investigated. The material investigated is made up of several layers of Kevlar fibres which are fabricated with nano-ceramic particles and epoxy resin by compression moulding. The ballistic impact and quasi-static punch-shear loading are studied experimentally and numerically. The failure mechanism is observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result obtained in the experiment and numerical studies are compared. Due to nano size of the ceramic particle, the strength to weight ratio and penetrating resistance will improve in Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite which will have better impact property compared to ceramic plates.

Keywords: ballistic impact, Kevlar, nano ceramic, penetration, polymer composite, shear plug

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2353 Oxygen Absorption Enhancement during Sulfite Forced Oxidation in the Presence of Nano-Particles

Authors: Zhao Bo


The TiO2-Na2SO3 and SiO2-Na2SO3 nano-fluids were prepared using ultrasonic dispertion method without any surfactant addition to study the influence of nano-fluids on the mass transfer during forced sulfite oxidation in a thermostatic stirred tank, and the kinetic viscosity of nano-fluids was measured. The influence of temperature (30 ℃ ~ 50 ℃), solid loading of fine particle (0 Kg/m³~1.0 Kg/m³), stirring speed (50 r/min ~ 400 r/min), and particle size (10 nm~100 nm) on the average oxygen absorption rate were investigated in detail. Both TiO2 nano-particles and SiO2 nano-particles could remarkably improve the gas-liquid mass transfer. Oxygen absorption enhancement factor increases with the increase of solid loading of nano-particles to a critical value and then decreases with further increase of solid loading under 30℃. Oxygen absorption rate together with absorption enhancement factor increases with stirring speed. However, oxygen absorption enhancement factor decreases with the increase of temperature due to aggregation of nano-particles. Further inherent relationship between particle size, loading, surface area, viscosity, stirring speed, temperature, adsorption, desorption, and mass transfer was discussed in depth by analyzing the interaction mechanism.

Keywords: fine particles, nano-fluid, mass transfer enhancement, solid loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
2352 Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture

Authors: Mohamed Amine Zenasni, Bahia Meroufel, André Merlin, Said Benfarhi, Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George


The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biodegradable, polycaprolactone, maghnite, melt mixture, APTES, CTAB

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2351 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor


Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: metronidazole, ball-milling, nanoparticles, characterization, XRD diffraction

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2350 Study of Nano Clay Based on Pet

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachoura


A (PET)/clay nano composites has been successfully performed in one step by reactive melt extrusion. The PEN was first mixed in the melt state with different amounts of functionalized clay. It was observed that the composition PET/4 wt% clay showed total exfoliation. These completely exfoliated composition called nPET, was used to prepare new nPET nano composites in the same mixing batch. The nPEN was compared to neat PET. The nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nanostructure/properties relationships were investigated. From the different WAXS patterns, it is seen that all samples are amorphous phase. In addition, nPET blends present lower Tc values and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: PET, montmorillonite, nanocomposites, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing

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2349 Chemical Synthesis, Electrical and Antibacterial Properties of Polyaniline/Gold Nanocomposites

Authors: L. N. Shubha, M. Kalpana, P. Madhusudana Rao


Polyaniline/gold (PANI/Au) nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ chemical oxidation polymerization method. The synthesis involved the formation of polyaniline-gold nanocomposite, by in-situ redox reaction and the dispersion of gold nano particles throughout the polyaniline matrix. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in FTIR and UV-visible spectra confirmed the expected structure of polymer as reported in the literature. Further, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of gold nano particles. The crystallite size of 30 nm for nanoAu was supported by the XRD pattern. Further, the A.C. conductivity, dielectric constant (€’(w)) and dielectric loss (€’’(w)) of PANI/Au nano composite was measured using impedance analyzer. The effect of doping on the conductivity was investigated. The antibacterial activity was examined for this nano composite and it was observed that PANI/Au nanocomposite could be used as an antibacterial agent.

Keywords: AC-conductivity, anti-microbial activity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, polyaniline/gold (PANI/AU) nanocomposite

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2348 Nano-Particle of π-Conjugated Polymer for Near-Infrared Bio-Imaging

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


Molecular imaging has attracted much attention recently, which visualizes biological molecules, cells, tissue, and so on. Among various in vivo imaging techniques, the fluorescence imaging method has been widely employed as a useful modality for small animals in pre-clinical researches. However, the higher signal intensity is needed for highly sensitive in vivo imaging. The objective of the current study is the development of a fluorescent imaging agent with high brightness for the tumor imaging of a mouse. The strategy to enhance the fluorescence signal of a bio-imaging agent is the increase of the absorption of the excitation light and the fluorescence conversion efficiency. We developed a nano-particle fluorescence imaging agent consisting of a π-conjugated polymer emitting a fluorescence signal in a near infrared region. A large absorption coefficient and high emission intensity at a near infrared optical window for biological tissue enabled highly sensitive in vivo imaging with a tumor-targeting ability by an EPR (enhanced permeation and retention) effect. The signal intensity from the π-conjugated fluorescence imaging agent is larger by two orders of magnitude compared to a quantum dot, which has been known as the brightest imaging agent. The π-conjugated polymer nano-particle would be a promising candidate in the in vivo imaging of small animals.

Keywords: fluorescence, conjugated polymer, in vivo imaging, nano-particle, near-infrared

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2347 Preparation, Characterization, and in-Vitro Drug Release Study of Methotrexate-Loaded Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites

Authors: Friday G. Okibe, Edit B. Agbaji, Victor O. Ajibola, Christain C. Onoyima


Controlled drug delivery systems reduce dose-dependent toxicity associated with potent drugs, including anticancer drugs. In this research, hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites (HASA) were successfully prepared and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FTIR result showed absorption peaks characteristics of pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and also confirmed the chemical interaction between hydroxyapatite and sodium alginate in the formation of the composite. Image analysis from SEM revealed nano-sized hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites with irregular morphologies. Particle size increased with the formation of the nanocomposites relative to pure hydroxyapatite, with no significant change in particles morphologies. Drug loading and in-vitro drug release study were carried out using synthetic body fluid as the release medium, at pH 7.4 and 37 °C and under perfect sink conditions. The result shows that drug loading is highest for pure hydroxyapatite and decreased with increasing quantity of sodium alginate. However, the release study revealed that HASA-5%wt and HASA-20%wt presented better release profile than pure hydroxyapatite, while HASA-33%wt and HASA-50%wt have poor release profiles. This shows that Methotrexate-loaded hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate if prepared under optimal conditions is a potential carrier for effective delivery of Methotrexate.

Keywords: drug-delivery, hydroxyapatite, methotrexate, nanocomposites, sodium alginate

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2346 Effect of Nano Packaging Containing Ag-TiO₂ in Inactivating the Selected Bacteria Experimentally Exposed to the Chicken-Eggshell

Authors: Hamed Ahari, Sepideh Farokhi, Mohamad Reza Abedini


This paper focuses on inactivation of the growth of the bacterial mixture, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, experimentally subjected to the chicken eggshell by two types of nano particle-Ag, composite film and colloidal spray carried out at concentrations of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm over 28 days. The GLM, Repeated Measurement-ANOVA procedure was used to analyze the effect of time and concentration of nano groups on inactivation of bacteria, simultaneously. The maximum reduction of the bacterial growth was respected to the group “spray 2000 ppm” for which the value of the bacteria reached the minimum (0.93±0.42) on day 7, calculated to be 0.0 on days14 and 28 and followed by the group “spray 1000 ppm”. It was obviously concluded that increasing the dilution of nano coating in spray and film created a significant decrease in the number of bacteria colonies on the eggshells but the effect of packaging in different concentrations of nanocomposite was not statistically significant in different days of the study.

Keywords: nano particle, composite film, eggshell, bacteria

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2345 Zinc Oxid Nanotubes Modified by SiO2 as a Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-Ones

Authors: Rakhshan Hakimelahi


In recent years, zinc oxid nano tubes have attracted much attention. The direct use of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 as recoverable catalysts for organic reactions is very rare. The catalysts were characterized by XRD. The average particle size of ZnO catalysts is 57 nm and there are high density defects on nano tubes surfaces. A simple and efficient method for the quinazolin derivatives synthesis from the condensation isatoic anhydride and an aromatic aldehyde with ammonium acetate in the presence of a catalytic amount zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is described. The reason proposed for higher catalytic activity of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is a combination effect of the small particle size and high-density surface defects. The practical and simple method led to excellent yields of the 2,3-Di hydro quinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives under mild conditions and within short times.

Keywords: 2, 3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives, reusable catalyst, SiO2, zinc oxid nanotubes

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2344 Design and Synthesis of Gradient Nanocomposite Materials

Authors: Pu Ying-Chih, Yang Yin-Ju, Hang Jian-Yi, Jang Guang-Way


Organic-Inorganic hybrid materials consisting of graded distributions of inorganic nano particles in organic polymer matrices were successfully prepared by the sol-gel process. Optical and surface properties of the resulting nano composites can be manipulated by changing their compositions and nano particle distribution gradients. Applications of gradient nano composite materials include sealants for LED packaging and screen lenses for smartphones. Optical transparency, prism coupler, TEM, SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX), Izod impact strength, conductivity, pencil hardness, and thermogravimetric characterizations of the nano composites were performed and the results will be presented.

Keywords: Gradient, Hybrid, Nanocomposite, Organic-Inorganic

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2343 Development and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Based Nanocomposites for Local Drug Delivery to Periodontal Pockets

Authors: Indu Lata Kanwar, Preeti K. Suresh


The aim of this study is to fabricate hydroxyapatite based nanocomposites for local drug delivery in periodontal pockets. Hydroxyapatite is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals. Synthetic biocompatibility and bioactivity with human teeth and bone, making it very attractive for biomedical applications. Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometres (nm), or structures having nano­scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. Nanostructured calcium phosphate materials play an important role in the formation of hard tissues in nature. It is reported that calcium phosphates materials in nano-size can mimic the dimensions of constituent components of calcified tissues. Nano-sized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. The specific biological properties of the nanocomposites, as well as their interaction with cells, include the use of bioactive molecules. The approach of periodontal tissue engineering is considered promising to restore bone defect through the use of engineered materials with the aim that they will prohibit the invasion of fibrous connective tissue and help repair the function during bone regeneration.

Keywords: bioactive, hydroxyapatite, nanocomposities, periondontal

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2342 Tuning Nanomechanical Properties of Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Nanocomposite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Mallikarjunachari Gangapuram


The design of stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposite thin films is gaining significant attention in these days due to its wide variety of applications. Soft microrobots, drug delivery, biosensors, regenerative medicine, bacterial adhesion, energy storage and wound dressing are few advanced applications in different fields. In this research work, the nanomechanical properties of composite thin films of 20 microns were tuned by applying homogeneous external DC, and AC magnetic fields of magnitudes 0.05 T and 0.1 T. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) used as a matrix material and elliptical hematite nanoparticles (ratio of the length of the major axis to the length of the minor axis is 140.59 ± 1.072 nm/52.84 ± 1.072 nm) used as filler materials to prepare the nanocomposite thin films. Both quasi-static nanoindentation, Nano Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (Nano-DMA) tests were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of PVA, PVA+Hematite (0.1% wt, 2% wt and 4% wt) nanocomposites. Different properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, hardness, and Er/H were carefully analyzed. The increase in storage modulus, hardness, Er/H and a decrease in loss modulus were observed with increasing concentration and DC magnetic field followed by AC magnetic field. Contact angle and ATR-FTIR experiments were conducted to understand the molecular mechanisms such as hydrogen bond formation, crosslinking density, and particle-particle interactions. This systematic study is helpful in design and modeling of magnetic responsive hydrogel nanocomposite thin films for biomedical applications.

Keywords: hematite, hydrogel, nanoindentation, nano-DMA

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2341 The Physical Impact of Nano-Layer Due to Dispersions of Carbon Nano-Tubes through an Absorbent Channel: A Numerical Nano-Fluid Flow Model

Authors: Muhammad Zubair Akbar Qureshi, Abdul Bari Farooq


The intention of the current study to analyze the significance of nano-layer in incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Newtonian nano-fluid consisting of carbon nano-materials has been considered through an absorbent channel with moving porous walls. Using applicable similarity transforms, the governing equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are solved by using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta technique together with shooting methodology. The phenomena of nano-layer have also been modeled mathematically. The inspiration behind this segment is to reveal the behavior of involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles. A detailed table is presented in which the effects of involved parameters on shear stress and heat transfer rate are discussed. Specially presented the impact of the thickness of the nano-layer and radius of the particle on the temperature profile. We observed that due to an increase in the thickness of the nano-layer, the heat transfer rate increases rapidly. The consequences of this research may be advantageous to the applications of biotechnology and industrial motive.

Keywords: carbon nano-tubes, magneto-hydrodynamics, nano-layer, thermal conductivity

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