Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2471

Search results for: activate carbon nano-fiber

2471 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan


PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of the concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to a decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
2470 UV Resistibility of a Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

Authors: A. Evcin, N. Çiçek Bezir, R. Duman, N. Duman


Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.

Keywords: electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, characterization, composites, nanofiber, ultraviolet radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
2469 Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites

Authors: Atilla Evcin, Bahri Ersoy, Süleyman Akpınar, I. Sinan Atlı


Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.

Keywords: electrospinning, characterization, composites, nanofiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2468 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nano Fiber and Nano Fiber/Nano Particle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon


Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. They can be produced by interfacial polymerization, electrospinning and electrostatic spinning. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nano fiber (ACNF), carbon nano-fiber (CNF), Polyacrylonitrile/carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), Polyvinyl alcohol/nano silver (PVA/Ag) in PEM fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. When the performances of these cells are compared to each other at 5x5 cm2 cell, it is found that the PVA/Ag exhibits the best performance among all. In this work, nano fiber and nano fiber/nano particles electrical conductivities have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag. The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nano fiber, activate carbon nano-fiber, PVA fiber, PAN fiber, carbon nanotube, nano particle nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2467 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Authors: Sumit Sharma, Rakesh Chandra, Pramod Kumar, Navin Kumar


Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, elasticity, mechanical properties, molecular dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
2466 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova


For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 517
2465 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose


The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water/alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, repectively. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental conditions were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, WNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
2464 Carbon-Based Electrodes for Parabens Detection

Authors: Aniela Pop, Ianina Birsan, Corina Orha, Rodica Pode, Florica Manea


Carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode has been investigated through voltammetric and amperometric techniques in order to detect parabens from aqueous solutions. The occurrence into environment as emerging pollutants of these preservative compounds has been extensively studied in the last decades, and consequently, a rapid and reliable method for their quantitative quantification is required. In this study, methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) were chosen as representatives for paraben class. The individual electrochemical detection of each paraben has been successfully performed. Their electrochemical oxidation occurred at the same potential value. Their simultaneous quantification should be assessed electrochemically only as general index of paraben class as a cumulative signal corresponding to both MP and PP from solution. The influence of pH on the electrochemical signal was studied. pH ranged between 1.3 and 9.0 allowed shifting the detection potential value to smaller value, which is very desired for the electroanalysis. Also, the signal is better-defined and higher sensitivity is achieved. Differential-pulsed voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry were exploited under the optimum pH conditions to improve the electroanalytical performance for the paraben detection. Also, the operation conditions were selected, i.e., the step potential, modulation amplitude and the frequency. Chronomaprometry application as the easiest electrochemical detection method led to worse sensitivity, probably due to a possible fouling effect of the electrode surface. The best electroanalytical performance was achieved by pulsed voltammetric technique but the selection of the electrochemical technique is related to the concrete practical application. A good reproducibility of the voltammetric-based method using carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode was determined and no interference effect was found for the cation and anion species that are common in the water matrix. Besides these characteristics, the long life-time of the electrode give to carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode a great potential for practical applications.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, electroanalysis, methylparaben, propylparaben

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2463 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani


Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2462 Adsorption of Peppermint Essential Oil by Polypropylene Nanofiber

Authors: Duduku Krishnaiah, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Kumaran Govindaraj, Chiam Chel Ken, Zykamilia Kamin


Pure essential oil is highly demanded in the market since most of the so-called pure essential oils in the market contains alcohol. This is because of the usage of alcohol in separating oil and water mixture. Removal of pure essential oil from water without using any chemical solvent has become a challenging issue. Adsorbents generally have the properties of separating hydrophobic oil from hydrophilic mixture. Polypropylen nanofiber is a thermoplastic polymer which is produced from propylene. It was used as an adsorbent in this study. Based on the research, it was found that the polypropylene nanofiber was able to adsorb peppermint oil from the aqueous solution over a wide range of concentration. Based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), nanofiber has very small nano diameter fiber size in average before the adsorption and larger scaled average diameter of fibers after adsorption which indicates that smaller diameter of nanofiber enhances the adsorption process. The adsorption capacity of peppermint oil increases as the initial concentration of peppermint oil and amount of polypropylene nanofiber used increases. The maximum adsorption capacity of polypropylene nanofiber was found to be 689.5 mg/g at (T= 30°C). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of peppermint oil decreases as the temperature of solution increases. The equilibrium data of polypropylene nanofiber is best represented by Freundlich isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 689.5 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics of polypropylene nanofiber was best represented by pseudo-second order model.

Keywords: nanofiber, adsorption, peppermint essential oil, isotherms, adsorption kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2461 The Effect of Nanofiber Web on Thermal Conductivity, Air and Water Vapor Permeability

Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar, Zeynep Esma Soygur, Yasemin Kucuk


In this study, composite fabrics with polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber deposited onto quilted polyester fabric have been produced in order to control the isolation properties such as water vapor permeability, air permeability and thermal conductivity. Different nanofiber webs were manufactured by changing polymer concentration from 10% to 16% and by changing the deposition time from 1 to 3 hours. Presence of nanofiber layer on the quilted fabric results to an increase of an isolation, i.e., a decrease of the moisture vapor transport rates at 20%, decrease of thermal conductivity at 15% and a decrease of air permeability values at 50%.

Keywords: nanofiber/fabric composites, electrospinning, isolation, thermal conductivity, moisture vapor transport, air permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2460 Optimization of Parameters for Electrospinning of Pan Nanofibers by Taguchi Method

Authors: Gamze Karanfil Celep, Kevser Dincer


The effects of polymer concentration and electrospinning process parameters on the average diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were experimentally investigated. Besides, mechanical and thermal properties of PAN nanofibers were examined by tensile test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. For this purpose, the polymer concentration, solution feed rate, supply voltage and tip-to-collector distance were determined as the control factors. To succeed these aims, Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal design (4 parameters, 4 level) was employed for the experimental design. Optimal electrospinning conditions were defined using the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio that was calculated from diameters of the electrospun PAN nanofibers according to "the-smaller-the-better" approachment. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was evaluated to conclude the statistical significance of the process parameters. The smallest diameter of PAN nanofibers was observed. According to the S/N ratio response results, the most effective parameter on finding out of nanofiber diameter was determined. Finally, the Taguchi design of experiments method has been found to be an effective method to statistically optimize the critical electrospinning parameters used in nanofiber production. After determining the optimum process parameters of nanofiber production, electrical conductivity and fuel cell performance of electrospun PAN nanofibers on the carbon papers will be evaluated.

Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
2459 Fabricating Anti-Counterfeiting Films by Grafting Cationic Dye on Cellulose Nanofiber

Authors: Mohammadreza Biabani, Mohammad Azadfallah


A facile and robust strategy is required to fabricate films with high special optical properties for application in the field of anti-counterfeit marking. Nanocellulose, derived from bioresources, is a renewable material with broad application prospects. In this paper, a method for grafting the eco-friendly Berberine cationic dye on cellulose nanofiber is proposed. A functional modification was carried out by in-situ polymerization along with a grafting approach with acrylic acid(AA) in order to develop cationic dyeability of the cellulose nanofiber (CNF). The Berberine grafting on nanocellulose was significantly influenced by the reaction time and temperature during the dyeing process. The dyed CNF-films exhibited appropriate characteristics like appearance, color strength, and fastness for anti-counterfeiting application.

Keywords: Cellulose nanofiber, Berberine, Grafting, anti-counterfeiting, film

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
2458 Investigation of Astrocyte Physiology on Stiffness-Controlled Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber as a Tissue Scaffold

Authors: Sun Il Yu, Jung Hyun Joo, Hwa Sung Shin


Astrocytes are known as dominant cells in CNS and play a role as a supporter of CNS activity and regeneration. Recently, three-dimensional culture of astrocytes were actively applied to understand in vivo astrocyte works. Electrospun nanofibers are attractive for 3D cell culture system because they have a high surface to volume ratio and porous structure, and have already been used for 3D astrocyte cultures. In this research, the stiffness of cellulose acetate (CA) nanofiber was controlled by heat treatment. As stiffness increased, astrocyte cell viability and adhesion increased. Reactivity of astrocyte was also upregulated in stiffer CA nanofiber in terms of GFAP, an intermediate filament protein. Finally, we demonstrated that stiffness-controllable CA is attractive for astrocyte tissue engineering.

Keywords: astrocyte, cellulose acetate, nanofiber, tissue scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2457 The Development of a Nanofiber Membrane for Outdoor and Activity Related Purposes

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Knizkova


This paper describes the development of a nanofiber membrane for sport and outdoor use at the Technical University of Liberec (TUL) and the following cooperation with a private Czech company which launched this product onto the market. For making this membrane, Polyurethan was electrospun on the Nanospider spinning machine, and a wire string electrode was used. The created nanofiber membrane with a nanofiber diameter of 150 nm was subsequently hydrophobisied using a low vacuum plasma and Fluorocarbon monomer C6 type. After this hydrophobic treatment, the nanofiber membrane contact angle was higher than 125o, and its oleophobicity was 6. The last step was a lamination of this nanofiber membrane with a woven or knitted fabric to create a 3-layer laminate. Gravure printing technology and polyurethane hot-melt adhesive were used. The gravure roller has a mesh of 17. The resulting 3-layer laminate has a water vapor permeability Ret of 1.6 [Pa.m2.W-1] (– measured in compliance with ISO 11092), it is 100% windproof (– measured in compliance with ISO 9237), and the water column is above 10 000 mm (– measured in compliance with ISO 20811). This nanofiber membrane which was developed in the laboratories of the Technical University of Liberec was then produced industrially by a private company. A low vacuum plasma line and a lamination line were needed for industrial production, and the process had to be fine-tuned to achieve the same parameters as those achieved in the TUL laboratories. The result of this work is a newly developed nanofiber membrane which offers much better properties, especially water vapor permeability, than other competitive membranes. It is an example of product development and the consequent fine-tuning for industrial production; it is also an example of the cooperation between a Czech state university and a private company.

Keywords: nanofiber membrane, start-up, state university, private company, product

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
2456 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman


The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutans, pharmaceuticals

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
2455 Preparation of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced HDPE Using Dialkylimidazolium as a Dispersing Agent: Effect on Thermal and Rheological Properties

Authors: J. Samuel, S. Al-Enezi, A. Al-Banna


High-density polyethylene reinforced with carbon nanofibers (HDPE/CNF) have been prepared via melt processing using dialkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ionic liquid) as a dispersion agent. The prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. The samples blended with imidazolium ionic liquid exhibit higher thermal stability. DSC analysis showed clear miscibility of ionic liquid in the HDPE matrix and showed single endothermic peak. The melt rheological analysis of HDPE/CNF composites was performed using an oscillatory rheometer. The influence of CNF and ionic liquid concentration (ranging from 0, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the viscoelastic parameters was investigated at 200 °C with an angular frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The rheological analysis shows the shear-thinning behavior for the composites. An improvement in the viscoelastic properties was observed as the nanofiber concentration increases. The progress in the modulus values was attributed to the structural rigidity imparted by the high aspect ratio CNF. The modulus values and complex viscosity of the composites increased significantly at low frequencies. Composites blended with ionic liquid exhibit slightly lower values of complex viscosity and modulus over the corresponding HDPE/CNF compositions. Therefore, reduction in melt viscosity is an additional benefit for polymer composite processing as a result of wetting effect by polymer-ionic liquid combinations.

Keywords: high-density polyethylene, carbon nanofibers, ionic liquid, complex viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2454 A Multi Function Myocontroller for Upper Limb Prostheses

Authors: Ayad Asaad Ibrahim


Myoelectrically controlled prostheses are becoming more and more popular, for below-elbow amputation, the wrist flexor and extensor muscle group, while for above-elbow biceps and triceps brachii muscles are used for control of the prosthesis. A two site multi-function controller is presented. Two stainless steel bipolar electrode pairs are used to monitor the activities in both muscles. The detected signals are processed by new pre-whitening technique to identify the accurate tension estimation in these muscles. These estimates will activate the relevant prosthesis control signal, with a time constant of 200 msec. It is ensured that the tension states in the control muscle to activate a particular prosthesis function are similar to those used to activate normal functions in the natural hand. This facilitates easier training.

Keywords: prosthesis, biosignal processing, pre-whitening, myoelectric controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2453 Reduction of Nitrogen Monoxide with Carbon Monoxide from Gas Streams by 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/Activated Carbon

Authors: K. L. Pan, M. B. Chang


Nitrogen oxides (NOₓ) is regarded as one of the most important air pollutants. It not only causes adverse environmental effects but also harms human lungs and respiratory system. As a post-combustion treatment, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) possess the highest NO removal efficiency ( ≥ 85%), which is considered as the most effective technique for removing NO from gas streams. However, injection of reducing agent such as NH₃ is requested, and it is costly and may cause secondary pollution. Reduction of NO with carbon monoxide (CO) as reducing agent has been previously investigated. In this process, the key step involves the NO adsorption and dissociation. Also, the high performance mainly relies on the amounts of oxygen vacancy on catalyst surface and redox ability of catalyst, because oxygen vacancy can activate the N-O bond to promote its dissociation. Additionally, perfect redox ability can promote the adsorption of NO and oxidation of CO. Typically, noble metals such as iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), and palladium (Pd) are used as catalyst for the reduction of NO with CO; however, high cost has limited their applications. Recently, transition metal oxides have been investigated for the reduction of NO with CO, especially CuₓOy, CoₓOy, Fe₂O₃, and MnOₓ are considered as effective catalysts. However, deactivation is inevitable as oxygen (O₂) exists in the gas streams because active sites (oxygen vacancies) of catalyst are occupied by O₂. In this study, Cu-Ce-Fe-Co is prepared and supported on activated carbon by impregnation method to form 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon catalyst. Generally, addition of activated carbon on catalyst can bring several advantages: (1) NO can be effectively adsorbed by interaction between catalyst and activated carbon, resulting in the improvement of NO removal, (2) direct NO decomposition may be achieved over carbon associated with catalyst, and (3) reduction of NO could be enhanced by a reducing agent over carbon-supported catalyst. Therefore, 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon may have better performance for reduction of NO with CO. Experimental results indicate that NO conversion achieved with 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon reaches 83% at 150°C with 300 ppm NO and 10,000 ppm CO. As temperature is further increased to 200°C, 100% NO conversion could be achieved, implying that 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon prepared has good activity for the reduction of NO with CO. In order to investigate the effect of O₂ on reduction of NO with CO, 1-5% O₂ are introduced into the system. The results indicate that NO conversions still maintain at ≥ 90% with 1-5% O₂ conditions at 200°C. It is worth noting that effect of O₂ on reduction of NO with CO could be significantly improved as carbon is used as support. It is inferred that carbon support can react with O₂ to produce CO₂ as O₂ exists in the gas streams. Overall, 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon is demonstrated with good potential for reduction of NO with CO, and possible mechanisms will be elucidated in this paper.

Keywords: nitrogen oxides (NOₓ), carbon monoxide (CO), reduction of NO with CO, carbon material, catalysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2452 Using of TFC Polysulfone Electrospun Nanofiber Mats in Oil-Water Separation

Authors: Nasser A. M. Barakat


Membrane technology is the most promising process for oil-water separation operation if the hydrophilicity, fouling and reusability properties could be improved. In this study, novel effective and reusable membrane for oil-water separation process is introduced based on modification of polysulfone (PSF) electrospun nanofiber mats. The modification process was achieved by incorporation of NaOH nanoparticles inside the PSF nanofibers, and formation of a thin layer from a polyamide polymer on the surface of the electrospun mat. Typically, solutions composed of PSF and NaOH (twelve solutions were prepared based on different PSF concentrations; 15, 18 and 20 wt%, and various NaOH content; 1.5, 1.7 and 2.5 wt%) have been electrospun, then the dried nanofiber mats were treated by m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride to form polyamide thin layer on the surface of the mats. The results indicated that incorporation of NaOH and the formed polyamide could decrease the water contact angle from ~ 130˚ to 13˚ for the nanofiber mats obtained from 20 wt% PSF solutions containing 1.7 wt% sodium hydroxide powders. Interestingly, the membrane having the lowest contact angle could separate oil-water mixture for three successive cycles and 100% removal of the oil with relatively high water flux; 5.5 m3/ Overall, simplicity of the manufacturing technique, and effectiveness and reusability of the produced nanofiber mats open new avenue for the introduced as promising membranes for the oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-water separation, hydrophilic membrane, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2451 Using Nanofiber-Like Attapulgite Microfiltration Membranes to Treat Oily Wastewater

Authors: Shouyong Zhou, Meisheng Li, Yijiang Zhao


The environmentally acceptable disposal of oily wastewater is a current challenge to many industries. The membrane separation technologies, which is no phase change, without pharmaceutical dosing, reprocessing costs low, less energy consumption, etc., have been widely applied in oily wastewater treatment. In our lab, a kind of low cost ceramic microfiltration membranes with a separation layer of attapulgite nanofibers (attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membranes) has been prepared and applied in the purification of cellulase fermentation broth and TiO2 nanoparticles system successfully. In this paper, this new attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane was selected to try to separate water from oily wastewater. The oil-in water emulsion was obtained from mixing 1 g/L engine oil, 0.5 g/L Tween-80, 0.5 g/L Span-80 and distilled water at mild speed in blender for 2 min. The particle size distribution of the oil-in-water emulsion was controlled. The maximum steady flux and COD rejection for a 0.2 um attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane can reach about 450 L. m-2. h-1 and 98% at 0.2 MPa. The results obtained in this work indicated that the attapulgite microfiltration membrane may represent a feasible pretreatment for oily wastewater.

Keywords: attapulgite, microfiltration membrane, oily wastewater, cross-flow filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2450 Chitosan Doped Curcumin Gold Clusters Flexible Nanofiber for Wound Dressing and Anticancer Activities

Authors: Saravanan Govindaraju, Kyusik Yun


The purpose of this study is to develop the chitosan doped curcumin gold cluster nanofiber for wound healing and skin cancer drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a typical marine polysaccharide composed of glucosamine and n-acetyl glucosamine biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Curcumin is a natural bioactive molecule obtained from Curcuma longo, it mostly occurs in some Asian countries like India and China. It has naturally antioxidant, antimicrobial, wound healing and anticancer property. Due to this advantage, we prepared a combination of natural polymer chitosan with Curcumin and gold nanocluster nanofiber (CH-CUR-AuNCs nanofibers). The prepared nanofiber was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antibacterial studies were performed with E.coli and S.aureus. Antioxidant assay, drug release test, and cytotoxicity will be evaluated. Prepared nanofiber emits low intensity of red fluorescent. The FTIR confirm the presence of chitosan and Curcumin in the nanofiber. In vitro study clearly shows the antibacterial activity against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Particularly, synthesised nanofibers provide better antibacterial activity against gram negative than gram positive. Cytotoxicity study also provides better killing rate in cancer cell, biocompatible with normal cell. Prepared CH-CUR-AuNCs nanofibers provide the better killing rate to bacterial strains and cancer cells. Finally, prepared nanofiber can be possible to use for wound healing dressing, patch for skin cancer and other biomedical applications.

Keywords: curcumin, chitosan, gold clusters, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2449 Carbon Credits in Voluntary Carbon Markets: A Proposal for Iran

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad


During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Although Iran was one of the countries of Kyoto protocol, due to some special conditions, it was not required to restrict its carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were developed to assist countries responsible for reducing their carbon emissions, and regulated carbon markets were introduced. Carbon credits which are provided by organizations in countries with no responsibility to restrict their carbon emissions are traded in voluntary markets. This study focuses on how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits from accounting view point under both regulated and voluntary markets.

Keywords: carbon credits, carbon markets, accounting, flexible mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2448 The Effect of Carbon Nanofibers on the Electrical Resistance of Cementitious Composites

Authors: Reza Pourjafar, Morteza Sohrabi-Gilani, Mostafa Jamshidi Avanaki, Malek Mohammad Ranjbar


Cementitious composites like concrete, are the most widely used materials in civil infrastructures. Numerous investigations on fiber’s effect on the properties of cement-based composites have been conducted in the last few decades. The use of fibers such as carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in these materials is an ongoing field and needs further researches and studies. Excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have motivated the development of advanced nanocomposites with outstanding and multifunctional properties. In this study, the electrical resistance of CNF reinforced cement mortar was examined. Three different dosages of CNF were used, and the resistances were compared to plain cement mortar. One of the biggest challenges in this study is dispersing CNF particles in the mortar mixture. Therefore, polycarboxylate superplasticizer and ultrasonication of the mixture have been selected for the purpose of dispersing CNFs in the cement matrix. The obtained results indicated that the electrical resistance of the CNF reinforced mortar samples decreases with increasing CNF content, which would be the first step towards examining strain and damage monitoring ability of cementitious composites containing CNF for structural health monitoring purposes.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, cement and concrete, CNF reinforced mortar, smart mater, strain monitoring, structural health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
2447 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
2446 Electrospun TiO2/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Mat: Improved Hydrophilicity Properties

Authors: Roshank Haghighat, Laleh Maleknia


In this study, electrospun TiO2/nylon-6 nanofiber mats were successfully prepared. The nanofiber mats were characterized by SEM, FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, WCA, and EDX analyses. The results revealed that fibers in different distinct sizes (nano and subnano scale) were obtained with the electrospinning parameters. The presence of a small amount of TiO2 in nylon-6 solution was found to improve the hydrophilicity (antifouling effect), mechanical strength, antimicrobial and UV protecting ability of electrospun mats. The resultant nylon-6/TiO2 antimicrobial spider-net like composite mat with antifouling effect may be a potential candidate for future water filter applications, and its improved UV blocking ability will also make it a potential candidate for protective clothing.

Keywords: electrospinning, hydrophilicity, antimicrobial, nanocomposite, nylon-6/TiO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2445 Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning

Authors: ChoLiang Chung, YuMin Chen


C-doped TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning successfully. Different amounts of carbon were added into the nanofibers by using chitosan, aiming to shift the wave length that is required to excite the photocatalyst from ultraviolet light to visible light. Different amounts of carbon and different atmosphere fibers were calcined at 500oC, and the optical characteristic of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers had been changed. characterizes of nanofibers were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), UV-vis, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD is used to identify the phase composition of nanofibers. The morphology of nanofibers were explored by FE-SEM and AFM. Optical characteristics of absorption were measured by UV-Vis. Three dimension surface images of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers revealed different effects of processing. The results of XRD showed that the phase of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers transformed to rutile phase and anatase phase successfully. The results of AFM showed that the surface morphology of nanofibers became smooth after high temperature treatment. Images from FE-SEM revealed the average size of nanofibers. UV-vis results showed that the band-gap of TiO2 were reduced. Finally, we found out C-doped TiO2 nanofibers can change countenance of nanofiber and make it smoother.

Keywords: carbon, TiO2, chitosan, electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2444 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani


A proton exchange membrane has been developed for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt. % compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was cross-linked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2443 Landfill Leachate and Settled Domestic Wastewater Co-Treatment Using Activated Carbon in Sequencing Batch Reactors

Authors: Amin Mojiri, Hamidi Abdul Aziz


Leachate is created while water penetrates through the waste in a landfill, carrying some forms of pollutants. In literature, for treatment of wastewater and leachate, different ways of biological treatment were used. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a kind of biological treatment. This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic waste water by SBR and powdered activated carbon augmented (PAC) SBR process. The response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) were employed. The independent variables were aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and the ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v)). To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, three dependent parameters, i.e. COD, color, and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N or NH4-N) were measured as responses. The findings of the study indicated that the PAC-SBR showed a higher performance in elimination of certain pollutants, in comparison with SBR. With the optimal conditions of aeration rate (0.6 L/min), leachate to waste water ratio (20%), and contact time (10.8 h) for the PAC-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, and COD were 72.8%, 98.5%, and 65.2%, respectively.

Keywords: co-treatment, landfill Leachate, wastewater, sequencing batch reactor, activate carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
2442 Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber Modification for Regulating Astrocyte Activity via Simple Heat Treatment

Authors: Sang-Myung Jung, Jeong Hyun Ju, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin


Central nervous system (CNS) consists of neuronal cell and supporting cells. Astrocytes are the most common supporting cells and play roles in metabolism between neurons and blood vessel. For this function, engineered astrocytes have been studied as a therapeutic source for CNS injury. In neural tissue engineering, nanofiber has been suggested as an effective scaffold for providing structure and mechanical properties influencing physiology. Cellulose acetate (CA) has been investigated for material to fabricate scaffold because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and fine thermal stability. In this research, CA nanofiber was modified via heat treatment and its effect on astrocyte activity was evaluated. Adhesion and viability of astrocyte were increased in proportion to stiffness. Additionally, expression of GFAP, a marker of astrocyte activation, was increased via stiffness of scaffold. This research suggests a simple modification method to change stiffness of CA nanofiber and shows cellular behavior affecting stiffness of three-dimensional scaffold independently. For the results, we highlight that the stiffness is a factor to regulate astrocyte activity.

Keywords: astrocyte, cellulose acetate, cell therapy, stiffness of scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 380