Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 151

Search results for: Sulaiman Wadi Harun

151 Multi-Wavelength Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Photonic Crystal Fiber and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Zian Cheak Tiu, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun

Abstract:

A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14 lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to 25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of 69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum pulse width of 4.4 µs was obtained at the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump power of 69.0 mW.

Keywords: multi-wavelength Q-switched, multi-walled carbon nanotube, photonic crystal fiber

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150 Established Novel Approach for Chemical Oxygen Demand Concentrations Measurement Based Mach-Zehner Interferometer Sensor

Authors: Su Sin Chong, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman, Sulaiman Wadi Harun, Hamzah Arof

Abstract:

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) plays a vital role determination of an appropriate strategy for wastewater treatment including the control of the quality of an effluent. In this study, a new sensing method was introduced for the first time and developed to investigate chemical oxygen demand (COD) using a Mach-Zehner Interferometer (MZI)-based dye sensor. The sensor is constructed by bridging two single mode fibres (SMF1 and SMF2) with a short section (~20 mm) of multimode fibre (MMF) and was formed by tapering the MMF to generate evanescent field which is sensitive to perturbation of sensing medium. When the COD concentration increase takes effect will induce changes in output intensity and effective refractive index between the microfiber and the sensing medium. The adequacy of decisions based on COD values relies on the quality of the measurements. Therefore, the dual output response can be applied to the analytical procedure enhance measurement quality. This work presents a detailed assessment of the determination of COD values in synthetic wastewaters. Detailed models of the measurement performance, including sensitivity, reversibility, stability, and uncertainty were successfully validated by proficiency tests where supported on sound and objective criteria. Comparison of the standard method with the new proposed method was also conducted. This proposed sensor is compact, reliable and feasible to investigate the COD value.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, environmental sensing, Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor, online monitoring

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149 The Social Reaction to the Wadi Salib Riots (1959) as Reflected in Contemporary Israeli Press

Authors: Ada Yurman

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Social reactions to deviant groups with political goals follow two central patterns; one that associates personal characteristics with deviant behavior, and the other that claims that society is to be blamed for deviant behavior. The establishment usually tends towards the former notion and thus disclaims any responsibility for the distress of the underprivileged, while it is usually those who oppose government policies who believe that the fault lies with society. The purpose of the present research was to examine social reactions to the Wadi Salib riots that occurred in Haifa in 1959. These riots represented the first ethnic protest within Israeli society with its ideology of the ingathering of the exiles. The central question was whether this ideology contributed to the development of a different reaction when compared to reactions to similar events abroad. This question was examined by means of analyzing articles in the Israeli press of that period. The Israeli press representing the views of the establishment was at pains to point out that the rioters were criminals, their object being to obstruct the development of society. Opposition party leaders claimed that the rioters lived in poor circumstances, which constituted a direct result of government policies. An analysis of press reports on the Wadi Salib riots indicates a correspondence between the reaction to these events and similar events abroad. Nevertheless, the reaction to the Wadi Salib riots did not only express a conflict between different political camps, but also different symbolic universes. Each group exploited the events at Wadi Salib to prove that their ideology was the legitimate one.

Keywords: riots, media, political deviance, symbolic universe

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148 Wadi Halfa Oolitic Ironstone Formation, Wadi Halfa and Argein Areas, North Sudan

Authors: Mutwakil Nafi, Abed Elaziz El Amein, Muna El Dawi, Khalafala Salih, Osma Elbahi, Abed Elhalim Abou

Abstract:

Recently a large deposit of oolitic iron ore of Late Carboniferous-Permotriassic-Lower Jurassic age was discovered in Wadi Halfa and Argein areas, North Sudan. It seems that the iron ore mineralization exists in the west and east bank of the River Nile of the study area that are found on the Egyptian-Sudanese border. The Carboniferous-Lower Jurassic age strata were covered by 67 sections and each section has been examined and carefully described. The iron-ore in Wadi Halfa occurs as oolitic ironstone and contained two horizons: (A) horizon and (B) horizon. Only horizon (A) was observed in southern Argein area. The texture of the ore is variable depending on the volume of the component. In thin sections the average of the ooids were ranged between 90% - 80%. The matrix varies between 10%-20% by volume and detritus quartz in other component my reach up to 30% by volume in sandy massive ore. Ooids size ranges from 0.2mm-1.00 mm on average in very coarse ooids may attend up to 1 mm in size. The matrix around the ooids is dominated by iron hydroxide, carbonate, fine and amorphous silica. The probable ore reserve estimate of 1.234 billion at a head grade of 41.29% Fe for the Wadi Halfa Oolitic Ironstone Formation. The iron ore shows higher content of phosphorus ranges from 6.15% to 0.16%, with mean 1.45%. The new technology Hatch–Ironstone Chloride Segregation (HICS) can be used to produce commercial-quality of iron and reduce phosphorus and silica to acceptable levels for steel industry. The development of infra structures and presence huge quantity of iron ore would make exploitation of the iron ore economic.

Keywords: HICS, Late Carboniferous age, oolitic iron ore, phosphorus

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147 Study of Structural Styles and Hydrocarbon Potential of Rajan Pur Area, Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Abbassi

Abstract:

This research encompasses the study of structural styles and evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of Kotrum and Drigri anticlines located in Rajanpur Area, Midddle Indus Basin of Pakistan with the approach of geophysical data integration. The study area is situated between the Sulaiman Foldbelt on the west and Indus River in the east. It is an anticlinal fold, located to the southeast of Sakhi Sarwar anticline and separated from a prominent syncline. The structure has a narrow elongated crest, with the axis running in SSW-NNE direction. In the east, the structure is bounded by a gentle syncline. Structural Styles are trending East-West and perpendicular to tectonic transport and stress direction and the base of the structures gradually dipping Eastward beneath the deformation frontal part in Eastern Sulaiman Fold Belt. Middle Indus Basin can be divided into Foreland, Sulaiman fold belt and a broad foredeep. Sulaiman represents a blind thrust front, which suggests that all frontal folds of the fold belt are cored by blind thrust. The deformation of frontal part of Sulaiman Lobe represents the passive roof duplex stacked beneath the frontal passive roof thrust. The passive roof thrust, which has a back thrust sense of motion and extends into the interior of Fold belt. Left lateral Kingri Fault separates Eastern and Central Sulaiman fold belt. In Central Sulaiman fold belt the deformation front moved further towards fore deep as compared to Eastern Sulaiman. Two wells (Kotrum-01, Drigri-01) have been drilled in the study area with the objective to determine the potential of oil and gas in Habib Rahi Limestone of Eocene age, Dunghan Limestone of Paleocene age and Pab Sandstone of cretaceous age and role of structural styles in hydrocarbon potential of study area. Kotrum-01 well was drilled to its T.D of 4798m. Besides fishing and side tracking, tight whole conditions, high pressure, and losses of circulation were also encountered. During production, testing Pab sandstone were tested but abandoned found. Drigri-01 well was drilled to its T.D 3250 m. RFT was carried out at different points, but all points showed no pressure / seal failure and the well was plugged and declared abandoned.

Keywords: hydrocarbon potential, structural style, reserve calculation, enhance production

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146 Evaluation of Quality of Rhumel Wadi Waters by Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters

Authors: Djeddi Hamssa, Kherief Necereddine Saliha, Mehennaoui Fatima Zohra

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The objectives of this study are to use different parameters to assess the current pollution status of sediments in Rhumel wadi located in the North-East of Algeria (Constantine), two stations were selected in strategic points and sampled at three occasions on Sptember 2014, Junary 2015 and April 2015. Parameters used in this study were a physico-chimical analysis of water (pH, CE, Dissolved O2), sediments (pH, CE, CaCo3, MO) and contamination level of sediments by cadmium, completed by biological testing and analysis of existing benthic community. The results of the physico-chemical parameters show that the water temperature is average and seasonal, the pH value is acidic, does not exceed 6.64. The amplitude variation may be important from upstream to downstream. The generally high electrical conductivity, for the carbonate nature of the watershed increases from upstream to downstream. The waters of the Rhumel wadi are excessively mineralized, dissolved oxygen, a vital factor for benthic community wildlife downstream decreases with increasing organic loading; oxygen is consumed by the microorganisms to its degradation. Analysis of the benthic fauna and calculating the biotic index show a clear excessive pollution for both upstream and downstream stations.

Keywords: biological analysis, benthic fauna, sediments contamination, cadmium

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145 Study of Surface Water Quality in the Wadi El Harrach for Its Use in the Artificial Groundwater Recharge of the Mitidja, North Algeria

Authors: M. Meddi, A. Boufekane

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The Mitidja coastal groundwater which extends over an area of 1450 km2 is a strategic resource in the Algiers region. The high dependence of the regional economy on the use of this groundwater forces us to have recourse to its artificial recharge from the Wadi El Harrach in its upstream part. This system of artificial recharge has shown its effectiveness in the development of water resource mentioned in the succeeding works in several regions of the world. The objective of this study is to: Increase the reserves of water inputs by infiltration, raise the water level and its good quality in wells and boreholes, reduce losses to the sea, and address seawater intrusion by maintaining balance in the freshwater-saltwater interface in the downstream part of the groundwater basin. After analyzing the situation, it was noticed that a qualitative monitoring of the Wadi water for the groundwater recharge has to be done. For this purpose, we proceeded during three successive years (2010, 2011, and 2012) to the monthly sampling of water in the upstream part of the Wadi El Harrach for chemical analysis. The variation of the sediment transport concentration will be also measured. This monitoring aims to characterize the water quality and avoid clogging in the proposed recharge area. The results of these analyses showed the good chemical quality according to the analyses we performed in the laboratory during the three years, but they are too loaded with suspended matters. We noticed that these fine particles come from the grinding of limestone of sandpit located upstream of the area of the proposed recharge system. This problem can be solved by a water supply upstream of sandpit. For the recharge, we propose the method of using two wells for dual use, which means that it can be used for water supply and extraction. This solution is inexpensive in our case and could easily be used as wells are already drilled in the upstream part. This solution increases over time the piezometric level and also reduce groundwater contamination by saltwater in the downstream part.

Keywords: water quality, artificial groundwater recharge, Mitidja, North Algeria

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144 The Sembar Cretaceous Shale Gas Bearing Formation at Hajipur

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

Abstract:

This research encompasses the study of Cretaceous Sembar Formation Shale Gas potential at Hajipur area. This study has been done with the approach of geophysical data integration. The structure is NE – SW trending anticline with two map able compartments at Cretaceous Sembar level. The study area is located within proven petroleum system. Cretaceous Sembar/Goru formation is in a Wet gas window and Tertiary source is possibly in the oil window. Potential seals are present in Upper Ranikot shale beds and Intra-Lower Ranikot shales. The effectiveness and presence of source and reservoir rocks are favorable in the area of interest. Cretaceous Sembar Shale and Goru Shale beds with good organic content (TOC upto 4%, Type II/III) are currently in gas generation window in the area. Source rock intervals are also reported in Eocene Kirthar Group (TOC upto 8%, Type –II). Good reservoir quality Paleocene Lower Ranikot and Cretaceous Sembar shale beds exist in the area. The collision between Indian and Eurasian Plates during Tertiary initiated folding and thrusting. The first phase of thrusting involved ophiolite emplacement along the western margins of the Indian Plate (west of the area under review). The main phase of thrusting in the Sulaiman region was from Late Miocene to the present. The study area contains Permian to Recent clastics and carbonates. The succession generally is younger in the southeast than in northwest. Intraformational sedimentation breaks are pronounced in Permian and Jurassic. Sulaiman Range is bounded by the Western Sulaiman Transform Fault Zone (of which the Kingri Fault is the major fault) to the west and by the Domanda Fault to the east. The Domanda Fault also constitutes the western boundary of the Sulaiman Foredeep, lies in sulaiman foredeep where subsurface having prominent independent closure. Several reservoir horizons of Jurassic to Eocene are established hydrocarbon producers in the Hajipur area.

Keywords: enough size, good potential, shale gas, structure closure

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143 Re-Engineering of Traditional Indian Wadi into Ready-to-Use High Protein Quality and Fibre Rich Chunk

Authors: Radhika Jain, Sangeeta Goomer

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In the present study an attempt has been made to re-engineer traditional wadi into wholesome ready-to-use cereal-pulse-based chunks rich in protein quality and fibre content. Chunks were made using extrusion-dehydration combination. Two formulations i.e., whole green gram dhal with instant oats and washed green gram dhal with whole oats were formulated. These chunks are versatile in nature as they can be easily incorporated in day-to-day home-made preparations such as pulao, potato curry and kadhi. Cereal-pulse ratio was calculated using NDpCal%. Limiting amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, methionine, cysteine and threonine were calculated for maximum amino acid profile in cereal-pulse combination. Time-temperature combination for extrusion at 130oC and dehydration at 65oC for 7 hours and 15 minutes were standardized to obtain maximum protein and fibre content. Proximate analysis such as moisture, fat and ash content were analyzed. Protein content of formulation was 62.10% and 68.50% respectively. Fibre content of formulations was 2.99% and 2.45%, respectively. Using a 5-point hedonic scale, consumer preference trials of 102 consumers were conducted and analyzed. Evaluation of chunks prepared in potato curry, kadi and pulao showed preferences for colour 82%, 87%, 86%, texture and consistency 80%, 81%, 88%, flavour and aroma 74%, 82%, 86%, after taste 70%, 75%, 86% and overall acceptability 77%, 75%, 88% respectively. High temperature inactivates antinutritional compounds such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins, saponins etc. Hence, availability of protein content was increased. Developed products were palatable and easy to prepare.

Keywords: extrusion, NDpCal%, protein quality, wadi

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142 Investigation of Failures in Wadi-Crossing Pipe Culverts, Sennar State, Sudan

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi

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Crossing culverts are essential element of rural roads. The paper aims to investigate failures of recently constructed wadi-crossing pipe culverts in Sennar state and provide necessary remedial measures. The investigation is conducted to provide an extensive diagnosis study in order to find out the main structural and hydrological weaknesses of the culverts. Literature of steel pipe culverts related to construction practices and common types of culvert failures and their appropriate mitigation measures were reviewed. A detailed field survey was conducted to detect failures and defects appeared on the existing culverts. The results revealed that seepage of water through the embankment and foundation of the culverts leads to excessive erosion and scouring causing sever failures and damages. The design mistakes and poor construction were detected as the main causes of culverts failures. For sustainability of the culverts, various remedial measures are recommended to be considered in urgent rehabilitation of the existing crossings.

Keywords: culvert, erosion, failure, sustainability

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141 Mapping of Siltations of AlKhod Dam, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Using Low-Cost Multispectral Satellite Data

Authors: Sankaran Rajendran

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Remote sensing plays a vital role in mapping of resources and monitoring of environments of the earth. In the present research study, mapping and monitoring of clay siltations occurred in the Alkhod Dam of Muscat, Sultanate of Oman are carried out using low-cost multispectral Landsat and ASTER data. The dam is constructed across the Wadi Samail catchment for ground water recharge. The occurrence and spatial distribution of siltations in the dam are studied with five years of interval from the year 1987 of construction to 2014. The deposits are mainly due to the clay, sand, and silt occurrences derived from the weathering rocks of ophiolite sequences occurred in the Wadi Samail catchment. The occurrences of clays are confirmed by minerals identification using ASTER VNIR-SWIR spectral bands and Spectral Angle Mapper supervised image processing method. The presence of clays and their spatial distribution are verified in the field. The study recommends the technique and the low-cost satellite data to similar region of the world.

Keywords: Alkhod Dam, ASTER siltation, Landsat, remote sensing, Oman

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140 Groundwater Pollution Models for Hebron/Palestine

Authors: Hassan Jebreen

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These models of a conservative pollutant in groundwater do not include representation of processes in soils and in the unsaturated zone, or biogeochemical processes in groundwater, These demonstration models can be used as the basis for more detailed simulations of the impacts of pollution sources at a local scale, but such studies should address processes related to specific pollutant species, and should consider local hydrogeology in more detail, particularly in relation to possible impacts on shallow systems which are likely to respond more quickly to changes in pollutant inputs. The results have demonstrated the interaction between groundwater flow fields and pollution sources in abstraction areas, and help to emphasise that wadi development is one of the key elements of water resources planning. The quality of groundwater in the Hebron area indicates a gradual increase in chloride and nitrate with time. Since the aquifers in Hebron districts are highly vulnerable due to their karstic nature, continued disposal of untreated domestic and industrial wastewater into the wadi will lead to unacceptably poor water quality in drinking water, which may ultimately require expensive treatment if significant health problems are to be avoided. Improvements are required in wastewater treatment at the municipal and domestic levels, the latter requiring increased public awareness of the issues, as well as improved understanding of the hydrogeological behaviour of the aquifers.

Keywords: groundwater, models, pollutants, wadis, hebron

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139 Integrated ERT and Magnetic Surveys in a Mineralization Zone in Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: K. M. Kheiralla, M. A. Ali, M. Y. Abdelgalil, N. E. Mohamed, G. Boutsis

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The present study focus on integrated geophysical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. The study designates that correlation of magnetic and ERT anomalies with lithology are extremely useful in mineral exploration due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks.

Keywords: ERT, magnetic, mineralization, Red Sea, Sudan

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138 Integrated Electric Resistivity Tomography and Magnetic Techniques in a Mineralization Zone, Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: Khalid M. Kheiralla, Georgios Boutsis, Mohammed Y. Abdelgalil, Mohammed A. Ali, Nuha E. Mohamed

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The present study focus on integrated geoelectrical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. By itself, no geophysical anomaly can simply be correlated with lithology, instead, magnetic and ERT anomalies raised due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks which were extremely useful in mineral exploration.

Keywords: ERT, magnetic, mineralization, Red Sea, Sudan

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137 Impacts of the Mineralogical Composition on the Petrophysical Behavior of the Amygdaloidal and Vesicular Basalts of Wadi Wizr, Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: Nadia A. Wassif, Bassem S. Nabawy

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This paper gives an account of the petrophysical characteristics and the petrographical descriptions of Tertiary vesicular and amygdaloidal olivine basalt samples from Wadi Wizr in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The petrographical studies indicated that the studied vesicular basalt is rich in calcic-plagioclase, augite and olivine in addition to numerous amounts of fine opaque minerals and vesicules filled with carbonate and quartz amygdales. The degree of oxidation and alteration of magnetite and ilmenite were discussed in details. Petrophysically, the studied samples can be grouped into two main groups; the first group of samples is amygdaloidal basalt as the second group is vesicular. The vesicular group (the permeable one) is characterized by fair to very good porosity ‘Φ’, good to very good permeability ‘k’, very low true formation factor ‘F’ and micro to ultra micropores. On the other hand, the amygdaloidal basalt group (impermeable group) is characterized by very low storage capacity properties, fair porosity, negligible permeability, medium to high true formation factor and ultra micorpores. It has been found that; the petrophysical behavior is strongly dependent on the degree of oxidation and alteration; and in particular on the rate of cooling and oxidation of the ore minerals which caused filling in the primarily produced vesicules by low temperature secondary minerals.

Keywords: vesicular, amygdaloidal, basalt, petrophysics, Egypt

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136 Study of the Morpho-Sedimentary Evolution of Tidal Mouths on the Southern Fringe of the Gulf of Gabes, Southeast of Tunisia: Hydrodynamic Circulation and Associated Sedimentary Movements

Authors: Chadlia Ounissi, Maher Gzam, Tahani Hallek, Salah Mahmoudi, Mabrouk Montacer

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This work consists of a morphological study of the coastal domain at the central fringe of the Gulf of Gabes, Southeast of Tunisia, belonging to the structural domain of the maritime Jeffara. The diachronic study of tidal mouths in the study area and the observation of morphological markers revealed the existence of hydro-sedimentary processes leading to sedimentary accumulation and filling of the estuarine system. This filling process is materialized by the genesis of a sandy cord and the lateral migration of the tidal mouth. Moreover, we have been able to affirm, by the use of satellite images, that the dominant and responsible current at this particular coastal morphology is directed to the North, having constituted a controversy on the occurrence of what is previously mentioned in the literature. The speed of the lateral displacement of the channel varies as a function of the hydrodynamic forcing. Wave-dominated sites recorded the fastest speed (18 m/year) in the image of the mouth of Wadi el Melah. Tidal dominated sites in the Wadi Zerkine satellite image recorded a very low lateral migration (2 m / year). This variation in speed indicates that the intensity of the coastal current is uneven along the coast. This general pattern of hydrodynamic circulation, to the north, of the central fringe of the Gulf of Gabes, is disturbed by hydro-sedimentary cells.

Keywords: tidal mouth, direction of current, filling, sediment transport, Gulf of Gabes

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135 Developing Curricula for Signaling and Communication Course at Malaysia Railway Academy (MyRA) through Industrial Collaboration Program

Authors: Mohd Fairus Humar, Ibrahim Sulaiman, Pedro Cruz, Hasry Harun

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This paper presents the propose knowledge transfer program on railway signaling and communication by Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Thales Portugal. The fundamental issue is that there is no rail related course offered by local universities and colleges in Malaysia which could be an option to pursue student career path. Currently, dedicated trainings related to the rail technology are provided by in-house training academies established by the respective rail operators such as Malaysia Railway Academy (MyRA) and Rapid Rail Training Centre. In this matter, the content of training and facilities need to be strengthened to keep up-to-date with the dynamic evolvement of the rail technology. This is because rail products have evolved to be more sophisticated and embedded with high technology components which no longer exist in the mechanical form alone but combined with electronics, information technology and others. These demand for a workforce imbued with knowledge, multi-skills and competency to deal with specialized technical areas. Talent is needed to support sustainability in Southeast Asia. Keeping the above factors in mind, an Industrial Collaboration Program (ICP) was carried out to transfer knowledge on curricula of railway signaling and communication to a selected railway operators and tertiary educational institution in Malaysia. In order to achieve the aim, a partnership was formed between Technical Depository Agency (TDA), Thales Portugal and MyRA for two years with three main stages of program implementation comprising of: i) training on basic railway signaling and communication for 1 month with Thales in Malaysia; ii) training on advance railway signaling and communication for 4 months with Thales in Portugal and; iii) a series of workshop. Two workshops were convened to develop and harmonize curricula of railway signaling and communication course and were followed by one training for installation equipment of railway signaling and Controlled Train Centre (CTC) system from Thales Portugal. With active involvement from Technical Depository Agency (TDA), railway operators, universities, and colleges, in planning, executing, monitoring, control and closure, the program module of railway signaling and communication course with a lab railway signaling field equipment and CTC simulator were developed. Through this program, contributions from various parties help to build committed societies to engage important issues in relation to railway signaling and communication towards creating a sustainable future.

Keywords: knowledge transfer program, railway signaling and communication, curricula, module and teaching aid simulator

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134 Determining Optimum Locations for Runoff Water Harvesting in W. Watir, South Sinai, Using RS, GIS, and WMS Techniques

Authors: H. H. Elewa, E. M. Ramadan, A. M. Nosair

Abstract:

Rainfall water harvesting is considered as an important tool for overcoming water scarcity in arid and semi-arid region. Wadi Watir in the southeastern part of Sinai Peninsula is considered as one of the main and active basins in the Gulf of Aqaba drainage system. It is characterized by steep hills mainly consist of impermeable rocks, whereas the streambeds are covered by a highly permeable mixture of gravel and sand. A comprehensive approach involving the integration of geographic information systems, remote sensing and watershed modeling was followed to identify the RWH capability in this area. Eight thematic layers, viz volume of annual flood, overland flow distance, maximum flow distance, rock or soil infiltration, drainage frequency density, basin area, basin slope and basin length were used as a multi-parametric decision support system for conducting weighted spatial probability models (WSPMs) to determine the potential areas for the RWH. The WSPMs maps classified the area into five RWH potentiality classes ranging from the very low to very high. Three performed WSPMs' scenarios for W. Watir reflected identical results among their maps for the high and very high RWH potentiality classes, which are the most suitable ones for conducting surface water harvesting techniques. There is also a reasonable match with respect to the potentiality of runoff harvesting areas with a probability of moderate, low and very low among the three scenarios. WSPM results have shown that the high and very high classes, which are the most suitable for the RWH are representing approximately 40.23% of the total area of the basin. Accordingly, several locations were decided for the establishment of water harvesting dams and cisterns to improve the water conditions and living environment in the study area.

Keywords: Sinai, Wadi Watir, remote sensing, geographic information systems, watershed modeling, runoff water harvesting

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133 The Impact of Virtual Learning Strategy on Youth Learning Motivation in Malaysian Higher Learning Instituitions

Authors: Hafizah Harun, Habibah Harun, Azlina Kamaruddin

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Virtual reality has become a powerful and promising tool in education because of their unique technological characteristics that differentiate them from the other ICT applications. Despite the numerous interpretations of its definition, virtual reality can be concisely and precisely described as the integration of computer graphics and various input and display technologies to create the illusion of immersion in a computer generated reality. Generally, there are two major types based on the level of interaction and immersive environment that are immersive and non-immersive virtual reality. In the study of the role of virtual reality in built environment education, Horne and Thompson were reported as saying that the benefits of using visualization technologies were seen as having the potential to improve and extend the learning process, increase student motivation and awareness, and add to the diversity of teaching methods. Youngblut reported that students enjoy working with virtual worlds and this experience can be highly motivating. The impact of virtual reality on youth learning in Malaysia is currently not well explored because the technology is still not widely used here. Only a handful of the universities, such as University Malaya, MMU, and Unimas are applying virtual reality strategy in some of their undergraduate programs. From the literature, it has been identified that there are several virtual reality learning strategies currently available. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impact of Virtual Reality strategy on Youth Learning Motivation in Malaysian higher learning institutions. We will explore the relationship between virtual reality (gaming, laboratory, simulation) and youth leaning motivation. Another aspect that we will explore is the framework for virtual reality implementation at higher learning institution in Malaysia. This study will be carried out quantitatively by distributing questionnaires to respondents from sample universities. Data analysis are descriptive and multiple regression. Researcher will carry out a pilot test prior to distributing the questionnaires to 300 undergraduate students who are undergoing their courses in virtual reality environment. The respondents come from two universities, MMU CyberJaya and University Malaya. The expected outcomes from this study are the identification of which virtual reality strategy has most impact on students’ motivation in learning and a proposed framework of virtual reality implementation at higher learning.

Keywords: virtual reality, learning strategy, youth learning, motivation

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132 Phytochemical Investigation of Butanol Extract from Launeae Arborescens

Authors: Khaled Sekoum, Nasser Belboukhari, Abelkrim Cheriti

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Launeae arborescens (L. arborescens) is a medicinal plant having capacities of important propagation. Following its biotope, associate to different species, it is frequently notably in the whole region of Algerian southwest of Wadi– Namous until the region of Karzaz. According to our ethnopharmacological survey, L. arborescens is used for treatment of the illnesses gastric. Following our phytochemical works achieved on the polyphenols of the methanolic extract of aerial part of L. arborescens, we are also interested to investigate the butanol fraction of the water/acetone extract and isolate of the new flavonoids from this plant.

Keywords: Launeae arborescens, asteraceae, flavanone, isoflavanone, glycosid flavanone

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131 Contribution to the Hydrogeochemical Investigations on the Wajid Aquifer System, Southwestern Part of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed, Ezat Korany, Abdelaziz Al Basam, Osama Kasem

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The arid climate, low rate of precipitations and population reflect the increasing of groundwater uses as the main source of water in Saudi Arabia. The Wajid Aquifer System represents a regional groundwater aquifer system along the edge of the crystalline Arabian Shield near the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The aquifer extends across the border of Saudi Arabia and Yemen from the Asir –Yemen Highlands to the Rub al Khali Depression and possibly to the Gulf coast (at the southwestern tip). The present work is representing a hydrogeochemical investigation on the Wajid Aquifer System. The studied area is being classified into three zones. The 1st zone is West of Wadi Ad Dawasir (Northern part of the studied area), the 2nd is Najran-Asir Zone (southern part of the studied area), and the 3rd zone is the intermediate -central zone (occupying the central area between the last two zones). The groundwater samples were collected and chemically analyzed for physicochemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH), alkalinity (pH), total dissolved solids (TDS), major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO42- and Cl-), and trace elements. Some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (Na%), potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio, hydrochemical coefficients, hydrochemical formula, ion dominance, salt combinations and water types were also calculated in order to evaluate the quality of the groundwater resources in the selected areas for different purposes. The distribution of the chemical constituents and their interrelationships are illustrated by different hydrochemical graphs. Groundwater depths and the depth to water were measured to study the effect of discharge on both the water level and the salinity of the studied groundwater wells. A detailed comparison between the three studied zones according to the variations shown by the chemical and field investigations are discussed in detailed within the work.

Keywords: Najran-Asir, Wadi Ad Dawasir, Wajid Aquifer System, effect of discharge

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130 Solution of Logistics Center Selection Problem Using the Axiomatic Design Method

Authors: Fulya Zaralı, Harun Resit Yazgan

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Logistics centers represent areas that all national and international logistics and activities related to logistics can be implemented by the various businesses. Logistics centers have a key importance in joining the transport stream and the transport system operations. Therefore, it is important where these centers are positioned to be effective and efficient and to show the expected performance of the centers. In this study, the location selection problem to position the logistics center is discussed. Alternative centers are evaluated according certain criteria. The most appropriate center is identified using the axiomatic design method.

Keywords: axiomatic design, logistic center, facility location, information systems

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129 Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride by Coupling with Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline

Authors: Sulaiman Gafar Muhamad

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A rapid spectrophotometric method for the micro-determination of phenylephrine-HCl (PHE) has been developed. The proposed method involves the coupling of phenylephrine-HCl with diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline in alkaline medium at λmax 455 nm. Under the present optimum condition, Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20 μg/ml of PHE with molar absorptivity of 1.915 ×104 l. mol-1.cm-1, with a relative error of 0.015 and a relative standard deviation of 0.024%. The current method has been applied successfully to estimate phenylephrine-HCl in pharmaceutical preparations (nose drop and syrup).

Keywords: diazo-coupling, 2, 4-dinitroaniline, phenylephrine-HCl, spectrophotometry

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128 Peculiar Mineralogical and Chemical Evolution of Contaminated Igneous Rocks at a Gabbro-Carbonate Contact, Wadai Bayhan, Yemen

Authors: Murad Ali, Shoji Arai, Mohamed Khedr, Mukhtar Nasher, Shawki Nasr

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The Wadi Bayhan area of southeastern Yemen is about 60 km NW of Al-Bayda city in the Al-Bayda uplift terrane at the southeast margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Intrusion of alkali gabbro into carbonate rocks apparently produced an 8m to 10 m thick reaction zone at the contact. This had been identified as nepheline pyroxenite. We have observed this to be mineralogically zoned with calc-silicate assemblages (e.g. pyroxene, calcite, spinel, garnet and melilite). The presence of melilite implies a skarn. The sinuous embayed pyroxenite-skarn contact, the presence of skarn minerals in pyroxenite, and textural evidence for growth of calc-silicate skarn by replacement of both carbonate rocks and solid pyroxenite indicate that reaction involved assimilation of carbonate wall rock by magma and loss of Al and Si to the skarn. Textural relationships between minerals provide evidence for a metasomatic development of the skarn at the expense of the pyroxenite. This process, related to the circulation of fluids equilibrated with carbonates, is responsible for those pyroxenite-spinel (± calcite) skarns. The uneven modal distribution of euhedral pyroxenite and enveloping nepheline in pyroxenite, the restricted occurrence of alkali gabbro as dikes in pyroxenite and skarn and the leucocratic matrix of pyroxenite suggest that pyroxenite represents an accumulation of titanaugite cemented by an alkali-rich residual magma and that alkali gabbro represents a part of the residual contaminated magma that was squeezed out of the pyroxene crystal mush. Carbonate assimilation is modeled by reaction of calcite and magmatic plagioclase, which results in resorption of plagioclase, growth of pyroxene enriched in Ca, Fe, Ti, and Al, and solution of nepheline in residual contaminated magma. The composition of nepheline pyroxenite evolved by addition of Ca from dissolved carbonate rocks, loss of Al and Si to skarn, and local segregation of solid pyroxene and alkali gabbro magma. The predominance of pyroxenite among contaminated rocks and their restriction to a large zone along the intrusive contact provide little evidence for the genesis of a significant volume of alkaline magmatic surroundings by carbonate assimilation.

Keywords: Yemen, Wadi Bayhan, skarn, pyroxenite, carbonatite, metasomatic

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127 Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Christina Romanos, Charlie Bakhos, Hassan Chahal, Jessica Koura

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Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. The techniques performed are the Fractional Crystallization, the Soxhlet and the Esterification. By comparing the results, it is found that the Lebanese oil contains squalene and Soxhlet method is the most effective between the three methods extracting about 6.5E-04 grams of Squalene per grams of olive oil.

Keywords: squalene, extraction, crystallization, Soxhlet

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126 Combining Bio-Molecular and Isotopic Tools to Determine the Fate of Halogenated Compounds in Polluted Groundwater

Authors: N. Balaban, A. Buernstein, F. Gelman, Z. Ronen

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Brominated flame retardants are widespread pollutants, and are known to be toxic, carcinogenic, endocrinic disrupting as well as recalcitrant. The industrial complex Neot Hovav, in the Northern Negev, Israel, is situated above a fractured chalk aquitard, which is polluted by a wide variety of halogenated organic compounds. Two of the abundant pollutants found in the site are Dibromoneopentyl-glycol (DBNPG) and tribromoneopentyl-alcohol (TBNPA). Due to the elusive nature of the groundwater flow, it is difficult to connect between the spatial changes in contaminant concentrations to degradation. In this study, we attempt to determine whether these compounds are biodegraded in the groundwater, and to gain a better understanding concerning the bacterial community in the groundwater. This was achieved through the application of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of carbon (13^C/12^C) and bromine (81^Br/79^Br), and new-generation MiSeq pyrosequencing. The sampled boreholes were distributed among three main areas of the industrial complex: around the production plant of TBNPA and DBNPG; along the Hovav Wadi (small ephemeral stream) which crosses and drains the industrial complex; and downstream to the industrial area. TBNPA and DBNPG are found in all three areas, with no clear connection to the proximity of the borehole to the production plant. Initial isotopic data of TBNPA from boreholes in the area surrounding the production plant, reveal no changes in the carbon and bromine isotopic values. When observing the microbial groundwater community, the dominant phylum is Proteobacteria. Known anaerobic dehalogenating bacteria such as Dehalococcoides from the Chloroflexi phylum have also been detected. A statistical comparison of the groundwater microbial diversity using a multi-variant ordination of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) reveals three main clusters in accordance to spatial location in the industrial complex: all the boreholes sampled adjacent to the production plant cluster together and separately from the Wadi Hovav boreholes cluster and the downstream to the industrial area borehole cluster. This work provides the basis for the development and implication of an isotopic fractionation based tool for assessing the biodegradation of brominated organic compounds in contaminated environments, and a novel attempt to characterize the spatial microbial diversity in the contaminated site.

Keywords: biodegradation, brominated flame retardants, groundwater, isotopic fractionation, microbial diversity

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125 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N.Khairudin , P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

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In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst

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124 Students’ Perception of Their M-Learning Readiness

Authors: Sulaiman Almutairy, Trevor Davies, Yota Dimitriadi

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This paper presents study investigating how to understand better the psychological readiness for mobile learning (m-learning) among Saudi students, while also evaluating m-learning in Saudi Arabia-a topic that has not yet received adequate attention from researchers. Data was acquired through a questionnaire administered to 131 Saudi students at UK universities, in July 2013. The study confirmed that students are confident using mobile devices in their daily lives and that they would welcome more opportunities for mobile learning. The findings indicated that Saudi higher education students are highly familiar with, and are psychologically ready for, m-learning.

Keywords: m-learning, mobile technologies, psychological readiness, higher education

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123 The Influence of Zinc Applications from Soil and Foliar at Different Levels on Some Quality Characteristics of Sultana Raisins

Authors: Harun Çoban, Aydın Akın

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In this study, the effects of different dose zinc application from soil and foliar on drying yield and some quality characters of raisins ‘Sultana’ were investigated. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four replications, zinc treatment was used at one time (before pre- bloom) and from foliar in three times (pre-bloom, fruit set, and veraison). At harvest, both soil and foliar zinc sulphate applications increased the amount of fresh grapes per vine. Fresh grapes were dried on the drying place. However, the most efficient applications for drying yield and quality of raisins were observed from foliar. Therefore, it was preferred that foliar application dosage level at 0.10 %.

Keywords: zinc, raisins, soil application, foliar application, sultana, expertise value

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122 Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Castor Oil from Castor Bean

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Rosli Mohd Yunus, Nurfarahin Bt Harun, Mardhiana Binti Ismail

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The microwave extraction has attracted great interest among the researchers. The main virtue of the microwave technique is cost-effective, time saving and simple handling procedure. Castor beans was chosen because of its high content in fatty acid, especially ricinoleic acid. The purpose of this research is to extract the castor oil by using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) using ethanol as solvent and to investigate the influence of extraction time on castor oil yield and to characterize the main composition of the produced castor oil by using the GC-MS. It was found that there is a direct dependence between the oil yield and the time of extraction as it increases from 45% to 58% as the time increase from 10 min to 60 min. The major components of castor oil detected by GC-MS were ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid.

Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE), castor oil, ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 385