Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Nuray Uçar

29 The Effect of Nanofiber Web on Thermal Conductivity, Air and Water Vapor Permeability

Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar, Zeynep Esma Soygur, Yasemin Kucuk


In this study, composite fabrics with polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber deposited onto quilted polyester fabric have been produced in order to control the isolation properties such as water vapor permeability, air permeability and thermal conductivity. Different nanofiber webs were manufactured by changing polymer concentration from 10% to 16% and by changing the deposition time from 1 to 3 hours. Presence of nanofiber layer on the quilted fabric results to an increase of an isolation, i.e., a decrease of the moisture vapor transport rates at 20%, decrease of thermal conductivity at 15% and a decrease of air permeability values at 50%.

Keywords: nanofiber/fabric composites, electrospinning, isolation, thermal conductivity, moisture vapor transport, air permeability

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28 Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Mervin Ölmez, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün K. Yavuz, Ayşen Önen


In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.

Keywords: activated carbon, coagulation by wet spinning, exfoliation, graphene oxide fiber

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27 [Keynote Talk]: Morphological Analysis of Continuous Graphene Oxide Fibers Incorporated with Carbon Nanotube and MnCl₂

Authors: Nuray Ucar, Pelin Altay, Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek


Graphene oxide fibers have recently received increasing attention due to their excellent properties such as high specific surface area, high mechanical strength, good thermal properties and high electrical conductivity. They have shown notable potential in various applications including batteries, sensors, filtration and separation and wearable electronics. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties and can be used together with graphene oxide fibers for several application areas such as lithium ion batteries, wearable electronics, etc. Metals salts that can be converted into metal ions and metal oxide can be also used for several application areas such as battery, purification natural gas, filtration, absorption. This study investigates the effects of CNT and metal complex compounds (MnCl₂, metal salts) on the morphological structure of graphene oxide fibers. The graphene oxide dispersion was manufactured by modified Hummers method, and continuous graphene oxide fibers were produced with wet spinning. The CNT and MnCl₂ were incorporated into the coagulation baths during wet spinning process. Produced composite continuous fibers were analyzed with SEM, SEM-EDS and AFM microscopies and as spun fiber counts were measured.

Keywords: continuous graphene oxide fiber, Hummers' method, CNT, MnCl₂

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26 Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber

Authors: Özge Alptoğa, Nuray Uçar, Nilgün Karatepe Yavuz, Ayşen Önen


Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.

Keywords: coagulation bath, graphene oxide fiber, reduction, SO2 gas adsorption

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25 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: B. Kekezoglu, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, G. Ucar


One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: distribution system, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation, technical losses

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24 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan


PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of the concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to a decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile

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23 Influence of Harmonics on Medium Voltage Distribution System: A Case Study for Residential Area

Authors: O. Arikan, C. Kocatepe, G. Ucar, Y. Hacialiefendioglu


In this paper, influence of harmonics on medium voltage distribution system of Bogazici Electricity Distribution Inc. (BEDAS) which takes place at Istanbul/Turkey is investigated. A ring network consisting of residential loads is taken into account for this study. Real system parameters and measurement results are used for simulations. Also, probable working conditions of the system are analyzed for %50, %75 and %100 loading of transformers with similar harmonic contents. Results of the study are exhibited the influence of nonlinear loads on %THDV, P.F. and technical losses of the medium voltage distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, harmonic, technical losses, power factor, total harmonic distortion, residential load, medium voltage

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22 Examining Occupational Health and Safety Supervision in Turkey by Comparison to EU Countries

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca


This study aims to examine the application of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey and EU countries in terms of legal regulations. The results of research reveal that occupational health and safety supervision in EU countries, whatever the understanding of welfare state, is effectively carried out and almost all legal regulations on this subject are consistent with the EU directives. On the other hand, there are serious problems in applications, not legal regulations, of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey by the side of EU countries. Indeed, Turkey has modern regulations on occupational health and safety supervision whereas there are several problems such as ignoring prevention policy on occupational health and safety supervision, understanding of monotype inspector, problems resulting from this understanding and dispersed structure of occupational health and safety organizations in workplaces. As a result, Turkey needs to carry out effective supervision mechanisms.

Keywords: legal rules, occupational health and safety, inspection, supervision, legislation

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21 Preparation and Visible Light Photoactivity of N-Doped ZnO/ZnS Photocatalysts

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar


Semiconductor nanoparticles such as TiO₂ and ZnO as photocatalysts are very efficient catalysts for wastewater treatment by the chemical utilization of light energy, which is capable of converting the toxic and nonbiodegradable organic compounds into carbon dioxide and mineral acids. ZnO semiconductor has a wide bandgap energy of 3.37 eV and a relatively large exciton binding Energy (60 meV), thus can absorb only UV light with the wavelength equal to or less than 385 nm. It exhibits low efficiency under visible light illumination due to its wide band gap energy. In order to improve photocatalytic activity of ZnO under visible light, band gap of ZnO may be narrowed by doping such as N, C, S nonmetal ions and coupled two separate semiconductors possessing different energy levels for their corresponding conduction and valence bands. ZnS has a wider band gap (Eg=3.7 eV) than ZnO and generates electron–hole pairs by photoexcitation rapidly. In the present work, N doped ZnO/ZnS nano photocatalysts with visible-light response were synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method using thiourea as N source. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–visible (UV–vis). The photocatalytic activities samples and undoped ZnO have been studied for the degradation of dye, and have also been compared with together.

Keywords: photocatalyst, synthesis, visible light, ZnO/ZnS

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20 Employers' Occupational Health and Safety Training Obligations in Framework Directive and Training Procedure and Rules in Turkey

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca, Berrin Gökçek


Employers occupational safety and health training obligations are regulated in 89/391/EEC Framework Directive and also in 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law in Turkey. The main objective of this research is to determine and evaluate the employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in Framework Directive in comparison with the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law and to examine training principles in Turkey. For this purpose, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations examined in Framework Directive and Occupational Health and Safety Law. This study carried out through comparative scanning model and literature model. The research data were collected through European Agency and ministry legislations. As a result, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law are compatible with the 89/391/EEC numbered Framework Directive and training principles are determined by in different ways like the trained workers, training issues, training period, training time, and trainers. In this study, employers’ training obligations are evaluated in detail.

Keywords: directive, occupational health and safety, training, work accidences

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19 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Gözde Konuray, Çağla Özbek


The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: chickpea yogurt, kefir, kefir yogurt, milk

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18 Operational Challenges of Marine Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Structures Coupled with Piezoelectric Transducers

Authors: H. Ucar, U. Aridogan


Composite structures become intriguing for the design of aerospace, automotive and marine applications due to weight reduction, corrosion resistance and radar signature reduction demands and requirements. Studies on piezoelectric ceramic transducers (PZT) for diagnostics and health monitoring have gained attention for their sensing capabilities, however PZT structures are prone to fail in case of heavy operational loads. In this paper, we develop a piezo-based Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite finite element (FE) model, validate with experimental setup, and identify the applicability and limitations of PZTs for a marine application. A case study is conducted to assess the piezo-based sensing capabilities in a representative marine composite structure. A FE model of the composite structure combined with PZT patches is developed, afterwards the response and functionality are investigated according to the sea conditions. Results of this study clearly indicate the blockers and critical aspects towards industrialization and wide-range use of PZTs for marine composite applications.

Keywords: FRP composite, operational challenges, piezoelectric transducers, FE modeling

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17 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan


Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution has been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate has been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), tensile tester, differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM, respectively. Also, antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: composite polyacrylonitrile nanofiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical properties, thermal properties, silver nanoparticles

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16 Ammonia and Biogenic Amine Production of Fish Spoilage Bacteria: Affected by Olive Leaf, Olive Cake and Black Water

Authors: E. Kuley, M. Durmuş, E. Balikci, G. Ozyurt, Y. Uçar, F. Kuley, F. Ozogul, Y. Ozogul


Ammonia and biogenic amine production of fish spoilage bacteria in sardine infusion decarboxylase broth and antimicrobial effect of olive by products (olive leaf extract:OL, olive cake: OC and black water:BW) was monitored using HPLC method. Fish spoilage bacteria produced all biogenic amine tested, mainly histamine and serotonin. Ammonia was accumulated more than 13.60 mg/L. Histamine production was in range 37.50 mg/L by Ser. liquefaciens and 86.71 mg/L by Ent. cloacae. The highest putrescine and cadaverine production was observed by Ent. cloacae (17.80 vs. 17.69 mg/L). The presence of OL, OC and BW in the broth significantly affected biogenic amine accumulation by bacteria. The antibacterial effect of olive by products depended on bacterial strains. OL and OC resulted in significant inhibition effect on HIS accumulation by bacteria apart from Ser. liquefaciens and Prot. mirabilis. The study result revealed that usefulness of OL and OC to prevent the accumulation of this amine which may affect human health.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, biogenic amine, fish spoilage bacteria, olive-by products

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15 The Effects of Nanoemulsions Based on Commercial Oils: Sunflower, Canola, Corn, Olive, Soybean, and Hazelnut Oils for the Quality of Farmed Sea Bass at 2±2°C

Authors: Yesim Ozogul, Mustafa Durmuş, Fatih Ozogul, Esmeray Kuley Boğa, Yılmaz Uçar, Hatice Yazgan


The effects of oil-in-water nanoemulsions on the sensory, chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acids (FFA), and microbiological qualities (total viable count (TVC), total psychrophilic bacteria, and total Enterbactericaea bacteria) of sea bream fillets stored at 2 ± 2°C were investigated. Physical properties of emulsions (viscosity, the particle size of droplet, thermodynamic stability, refractive index and surface tension) were determined. The results showed that the use of nanoemulsion extended the shelf life of fish 2 days when compared with the control. Treatment with nanoemulsions significantly (p<0.05) decreased the values of biochemical parameters during storage period. Bacterial growth was inhibited by the use of nanoemulsions. Based on the results, it can be concluded that nanoemulsions based on commercial oils extended the shelf life and improved the quality of sea bass fillets during storage period.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, nanoemulsion, sea bass, quality parameters

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14 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (N-(Pyridin-2-Ylmethylidene)Pyridin-2-Amine: Thermal and Conductivity Properties

Authors: Nuray Yılmaz Baran


The conjugated Schiff base polymers which are also called as polyazomethines are promising materials for various applications due to their good thermal resistance semiconductive, liquid crystal, fiber forming, nonlinear optical outstanding photo- and electroluminescence and antimicrobial properties. In recent years, polyazomethines have attracted intense attention of researchers especially due to optoelectronic properties which have made its usage possible in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells (SCs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and photorefractive holographic materials (PRHMs). In this study, N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine Schiff base was synthesized from condensation reaction of 2-aminopyridine with 2-pyridine carbaldehyde. Polymerization of Schiff base was achieved by polycondensation reaction using NaOCl oxidant in methanol medium at various time and temperatures. The synthesized Schiff base monomer and polymer (Poly(N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine)) was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, XRD techniques. Molecular weight distribution and the surface morphology of the polymer was determined by GPC and SEM-EDAX techniques. Thermal behaviour of the monomer and polymer was investigated by TG/DTG, DTA and DSC techniques.

Keywords: polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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13 Valonea Tannin Supported AgCl/ZnO/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite, a Magnetically Separable Photocatalyst with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance under Visible Light Irradiation

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar


In the past few decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the photocatalysts for the photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants. Many novel nanostructured photocatalysts for wastewater treatment have been investigated, such as TiO2 and, CdS, ZnO and silver halides (AgX, X = Cl, Br, I). The silver halides are photosensitive materials which can absorb photons in the visible region to produce electron–hole pairs. Silver halides are expensive that restricts their applications in large-scale photocatalytic processes. Tannin contains hydroxyl functional groups, it was employed as a modifier to improve the surface properties and adsorption capacity of the activated carbon towards the metal cations uptake. In this work, we designed a new structure of magnetically separable photocatalyst that combines AgCl/ZnO nanoparticles with Fe3O4 nanoparticles deposited on tannin, which was denoted as (AgI/ZnO)-Fe3O4/Tannin. The as-prepared products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalyst exhibited high activity degrading a textile dye under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

Keywords: AgI/ZnO-Fe3O4/Tannin, visible light, magnetically separable, photocatalyst

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12 The Effects of Extraction Methods on Fat Content and Fatty Acid Profiles of Marine Fish Species

Authors: Yesim Özogul, Fethiye Takadaş, Mustafa Durmus, Yılmaz Ucar, Ali Rıza Köşker, Gulsun Özyurt, Fatih Özogul


It has been well documented that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on health, regarding prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and autoimmune disorders, development the brain and retina and treatment of major depressive disorder etc. Thus, an adequate intake of omega PUFA is essential and generally marine fish are the richest sources of PUFA in human diet. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of different extraction methods (Bligh and Dyer, soxhlet, microwave and ultrasonics) on the fat content and fatty acid profiles of marine fish species (Mullus babatus, Upeneus moluccensis, Mullus surmuletus, Anguilla anguilla, Pagellus erythrinus and Saurida undosquamis). Fish species were caught by trawl in Mediterranean Sea and immediately iced. After that, fish were transported to laboratory in ice and stored at -18oC in a freezer until the day of analyses. After extracting lipid from fish by different methods, lipid samples were converted to their constituent fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid composition was analysed by a GC Clarus 500 with an autosampler (Perkin Elmer, Shelton, CT, USA) equipped with a flame ionization detector and a fused silica capillary SGE column (30 m x 0.32 mm ID x 0.25 mm BP20 0.25 UM, USA). The results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in fatty acids of all species and also extraction methods affected fat contents and fatty acid profiles of fish species.

Keywords: extraction methods, fatty acids, marine fish, PUFA

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11 The Effect of Fetal Movement Counting on Maternal Antenatal Attachment

Authors: Esra Güney, Tuba Uçar


Aim: This study has been conducted for the purpose of determining the effects of fetal movement counting on antenatal maternal attachment. Material and Method: This research was conducted on the basis of the real test model with the pre-test /post-test control groups. The study population consists of pregnant women registered in the six different Family Health Centers located in the central Malatya districts of Yeşilyurt and Battalgazi. When power analysis is done, the sample size was calculated for each group of at least 55 pregnant women (55 tests, 55 controls). The data were collected by using Personal Information Form and MAAS (Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale) between July 2015-June 2016. Fetal movement counting training was given to pregnant women by researchers in the experimental group after the pre-test data collection. No intervention was applied to the control group. Post-test data for both groups were collected after four weeks. Data were evaluated with percentage, chi-square arithmetic average, chi-square test and as for the dependent and independent group’s t test. Result: In the MAAS, the pre-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 70.78±6.78, control group is also 71.58±7.54 and so there was no significant difference in mean scores between the two groups (p>0.05). MAAS post-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 78.41±6.65, control group is also is 72.25±7.16 and so the mean scores between groups were found to have statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was determined that fetal movement counting increases the maternal antenatal attachments.

Keywords: antenatal maternal attachment, fetal movement counting, pregnancy, midwifery

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10 Purification of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from Fish Oil Using HPLC Method and Investigation of Their Antibacterial Effects on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Yılmaz Uçar, Fatih Ozogul, Mustafa Durmuş, Yesim Ozogul, Ali Rıza Köşker, Esmeray Kuley Boğa, Deniz Ayas


The aim of this study was to purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that are essential oils from trout oil, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, bioconverted EPA and DHA into bioconverted EPA (bEPA), bioconverted DHA (bDHA) extracts by P. aeruginosa PR3. Moreover, in vitro antibacterial activity of bEPA and bDHA was investigated using disc diffusion methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). EPA and DHA concentration of 11.1% and 15.9% in trout oil increased in 58.64% and 40.33% after HPLC optimisation, respectively. In this study, EPA and DHA enriched products were obtained which are to be used as valuable supplements for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The bioconverted EPA and DHA exhibited antibacterial activities against two Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7677 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and six Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC700603, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Aeromonas hydrophila NCIMB 1135, and Salmonella Paratyphi A NCTC 13). Inhibition zones and MIC value of bEPA and bDHA against bacterial strains ranged from 7 to 12 mm and from 350 to 2350 μg/mL, respectively. Our results suggested that the crude extracts of bioconversion of EPA and DHA by P. aeruginosa PR3 can be considered as promising antimicrobials in improving food safety by controlling foodborne pathogens.

Keywords: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

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9 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(2-[[4-(Dimethylamino)Benzylidene] Amino]Phenol) in Organic Medium: Investigation of Thermal Stability, Conductivity, and Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Nuray Yilmaz Baran, Mehmet Saçak


Schiff base polymers are one class of conjugated polymers, also called as poly(azomethines). They have drawn the attention of researchers in recent years due to their some properties such as, optoelectronic, semiconductive, and photovoltaic, antimicrobial activities and high thermal stability. In this study, Poly(2-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino] phenol) P(2-DBAP), which is a Schiff base polymer, was synthesized by an oxidative polycondensation reaction of -[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol (2-DBAP) with oxidants NaOCl, H₂O₂ and O₂ in various organic medium. At the end of the polymerizations carried out at various temperatures and time, maximum conversion of the monomer to the polymer could be obtained as around 93.7 %. The structures of the monomer and polymer were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR and ¹HNMR techniques. Thermal analysis of the polymer was identified by TG-DTG and DTA techniques, and the thermal degradation behavior was supported by Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymer were found to be 26337, 9860 g/mol 2.67, respectively. The change of electrical conductivity value of the P(2-DBAP) doped with iodine vapor at different temperatures and time was investigated its maximum was measured by increasing 10¹⁰ fold as 2 x10⁻⁴ Scm⁻¹ after doping for 48 h at 60 °C. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of P(2-DBAP) Schiff base and its polymer were also investigated against Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively.

Keywords: conductive properties, polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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8 Monitoring of Cannabis Cultivation with High-Resolution Images

Authors: Levent Basayigit, Sinan Demir, Burhan Kara, Yusuf Ucar


Cannabis is mostly used for drug production. In some countries, an excessive amount of illegal cannabis is cultivated and sold. Most of the illegal cannabis cultivation occurs on the lands far from settlements. In farmlands, it is cultivated with other crops. In this method, cannabis is surrounded by tall plants like corn and sunflower. It is also cultivated with tall crops as the mixed culture. The common method of the determination of the illegal cultivation areas is to investigate the information obtained from people. This method is not sufficient for the determination of illegal cultivation in remote areas. For this reason, more effective methods are needed for the determination of illegal cultivation. Remote Sensing is one of the most important technologies to monitor the plant growth on the land. The aim of this study is to monitor cannabis cultivation area using satellite imagery. The main purpose of this study was to develop an applicable method for monitoring the cannabis cultivation. For this purpose, cannabis was grown as single or surrounded by the corn and sunflower in plots. The morphological characteristics of cannabis were recorded two times per month during the vegetation period. The spectral signature library was created with the spectroradiometer. The parcels were monitored with high-resolution satellite imagery. With the processing of satellite imagery, the cultivation areas of cannabis were classified. To separate the Cannabis plots from the other plants, the multiresolution segmentation algorithm was found to be the most successful for classification. WorldView Improved Vegetative Index (WV-VI) classification was the most accurate method for monitoring the plant density. As a result, an object-based classification method and vegetation indices were sufficient for monitoring the cannabis cultivation in multi-temporal Earthwiev images.

Keywords: Cannabis, drug, remote sensing, object-based classification

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7 Assessment of Wastewater Reuse Potential for an Enamel Coating Industry

Authors: Guclu Insel, Efe Gumuslu, Gulten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tugba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatos Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Okmen Yildirim, Ozge Erturan, Betul Kirci


In order to eliminate water scarcity problems, effective precautions must be taken. Growing competition for water is increasingly forcing facilities to tackle their own water scarcity problems. At this point, application of wastewater reclamation and reuse results in considerable economic advantageous. In this study, an enamel coating facility, which is one of the high water consumed facilities, is evaluated in terms of its wastewater reuse potential. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can be defined as one of the best available techniques for this sector. Hence, process and pollution profiles together with detailed characterization of segregated wastewater sources are appraised in a way to find out the recoverable effluent streams arising from enamel coating operations. Daily, 170 m3 of process water is required and 160 m3 of wastewater is generated. The segregated streams generated by two enamel coating processes are characterized in terms of conventional parameters. Relatively clean segregated wastewater streams (reusable wastewaters) are separately collected and experimental treatability studies are conducted on it. The results reflected that the reusable wastewater fraction has an approximate amount of 110 m3/day that accounts for 68% of the total wastewaters. The need for treatment applicable on reusable wastewaters is determined by considering water quality requirements of various operations and characterization of reusable wastewater streams. Ultra-filtration (UF), Nano-filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes are subsequently applied on reusable effluent fraction. Adequate organic matter removal is not obtained with the mentioned treatment sequence.

Keywords: enamel coating, membrane, reuse, wastewater reclamation

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6 Spectral Mixture Model Applied to Cannabis Parcel Determination

Authors: Levent Basayigit, Sinan Demir, Yusuf Ucar, Burhan Kara


Many research projects require accurate delineation of the different land cover type of the agricultural area. Especially it is critically important for the definition of specific plants like cannabis. However, the complexity of vegetation stands structure, abundant vegetation species, and the smooth transition between different seconder section stages make vegetation classification difficult when using traditional approaches such as the maximum likelihood classifier. Most of the time, classification distinguishes only between trees/annual or grain. It has been difficult to accurately determine the cannabis mixed with other plants. In this paper, a mixed distribution models approach is applied to classify pure and mix cannabis parcels using Worldview-2 imagery in the Lakes region of Turkey. Five different land use types (i.e. sunflower, maize, bare soil, and cannabis) were identified in the image. A constrained Gaussian mixture discriminant analysis (GMDA) was used to unmix the image. In the study, 255 reflectance ratios derived from spectral signatures of seven bands (Blue-Green-Yellow-Red-Rededge-NIR1-NIR2) were randomly arranged as 80% for training and 20% for test data. Gaussian mixed distribution model approach is proved to be an effective and convenient way to combine very high spatial resolution imagery for distinguishing cannabis vegetation. Based on the overall accuracies of the classification, the Gaussian mixed distribution model was found to be very successful to achieve image classification tasks. This approach is sensitive to capture the illegal cannabis planting areas in the large plain. This approach can also be used for monitoring and determination with spectral reflections in illegal cannabis planting areas.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture discriminant analysis, spectral mixture model, Worldview-2, land parcels

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5 A Qualitative Exploration into Australian Muslims Emerging into Adulthood

Authors: Nuray Okcum, Jenny Sharples


While the scrutinization towards marginalized groups throughout the globe has been existent for decades, prejudice towards Muslims in Western countries has been increasing dramatically. The vicious attacks across the globe by perpetrators who identify with Islam as well as popular political discourse by politicians in Western countries claiming and portraying Muslims as being dangerous, oppressed, or lacking the ability to assimilate into the community, adds to the exclusion and lack of belonging Muslims living in Western countries experience. The early stages of adulthood which have recently been conceptualized as emerging adulthood is a critical and socially ambiguous transition. For a young Muslim emerging into adulthood in a Western country, a variety of different challenges and demands that can exceed their coping abilities can arise. While in search for their identity and in a bid to structure themselves with their past childhood experiences together with their newly forming values, the emerging adult may attempt to direct or change the way in which they are viewed by others. This can be done to gain approval from others and to feel a sense of belonging. A change in the emerging adult’s interpersonal interactions and relationships, the way in which they view themselves and others, their sense of belonging, and their identity, also occurs during this developmental stage. To explore the manner in which Muslims emerging into adulthood carve their identity, their experiences, and representation of their Muslim identity, social identification, and their sense of belonging in Australia, an interpretative phenomenological methodology was utilized. This allowed participants to offer their own subjective experiences. A total of eight emerging adults took part in the study whilst four adults who work with emerging adults took part. Adult participants who work with emerging adults took part in the study to bring forth their insight and experiences. Common experiences were organized into themes. Themes included identifying as a Muslim, social identification, and belonging. Identification included visual identification and name, discrimination and resilience. Findings clearly indicated that Muslims emerging into adulthood in Australia do face various hurdles while they try to retain and represent their religious identity. Despite the unique challenges that they face, they still feel a sense of belonging and identity as being Australian.

Keywords: Muslim, Islam, emerging adulthood, Australia

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4 The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy with Ethernet-Based Videos on Cognition and Apathy in Elderly with Mild Dementia

Authors: Ayse Inel Manav, Nuray Simsek


The number of people with dementia and the problems that are experienced by these people are increasing along with aging world population. This study was carried out to assess the effects of reminiscence therapy using internet videos on the cognitive condition and apathy levels of elderly people who had mild dementia and lived in nursing homes. This randomly controlled experimental study was conducted between 25 May-25 August 2016 in the nursing home, elderly care and rehabilitation centers in Adana and Seyhan, Turkey. A total of 32 individuals participated in this study, 16 in the experimental group and 16 in the control group. Data were collected using a personal information form developed on the basis of the published literature, the Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) and the Apathy Rating Scale (ARS). The Clinical Research Ethics Committee's approval, written institutional permission, and the written consent of the participants were obtained before data collection. The individuals in the experimental group received reminiscence therapy using internet videos for 60 minutes one day a week for three months. During the same period, 25-30 minutes of unstructured interviews on subjects unrelated to reminiscence were carried out with individuals in the control group. The SMMT and ARS were administered before the applications in the experimental group and at the end of the third month. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, and frequencies) as well as Student's t-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon's signed ranks test. In this study, the total SMMT post-test scores of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.001; p < 0.01). There was a difference between experimental and control groups' total SMMT post-test scores (p = 0.001; p < 0.01). The experimental group's ARS total post-test scores were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.001; p < 0.01). This study found that group reminiscence therapy using internet videos improved the cognitive functions and apathy levels of elderly individuals with mild dementia.

Keywords: apaty, cognitive testing, dementia, elderly, reminisence threapy

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3 Assessment of Water Reuse Potential in a Metal Finishing Factory

Authors: Efe Gumuslu, Guclu Insel, Gülten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tuğba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatoş Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Ökmen Yildirim, Özge Erturan, Betül Kirci


Although water reclamation and reuse are inseparable parts of sustainable production concept all around the world, current levels of reuse constitute only a small fraction of the total volume of industrial effluents. Nowadays, within the perspective of serious climate change, wastewater reclamation and reuse practices should be considered as a requirement. Industrial sector is one of the largest users of water sources. The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 predicts that global water demand for manufacturing will increase by 400% from 2000 to 2050 which is much larger than any other sector. Metal finishing industry is one of the industries that requires high amount of water during the manufacturing. Therefore, actions regarding the improvement of wastewater treatment and reuse should be undertaken on both economic and environmental sustainability grounds. Process wastewater can be reused for more purposes if the appropriate treatment systems are installed to treat the wastewater to the required quality level. Recent studies showed that membrane separation techniques may help in solving the problem of attaining a suitable quality of water that allows being recycled back to the process. The metal finishing factory where this study is conducted is one of the biggest white-goods manufacturers in Turkey. The sheet metal parts used in the cookers production have to be exposed to surface pre-treatment processes composed of degreasing, rinsing, nanoceramics coating and deionization rinsing processes, consecutively. The wastewater generating processes in the factory are enamel coating, painting and styrofoam processes. In the factory, the main source of water is the well water. While some part of the well water is directly used in the processes after passing through resin treatment, some portion of it is directed to the reverse osmosis treatment to obtain required water quality for enamel coating and painting processes. In addition to these processes another important source of water that can be considered as a potential water source is rainwater (3660 tons/year). In this study, process profiles as well as pollution profiles were assessed by a detailed quantitative and qualitative characterization of the wastewater sources generated in the factory. Based on the preliminary results the main water sources that can be considered for reuse in the processes were determined as painting and styrofoam processes.

Keywords: enamel coating, painting, reuse, wastewater

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2 The Last National Anthem of the Ottoman Empire: Musical Code, Sociopolitical Control and Historical Realities

Authors: Nuray Ocakli


19th century was the era of changes and transformations for the Ottoman Empire. The first sultan of this century, Mahmud II (1808-1839), was the architect of Ottoman modernization and fundamental changes. The most radical of these was abolishing the Janissary corps and the traditional Ottoman military band, Mehteran. Mahmud II introduced modernized military corps as well as western style royal and military music. Mahmut II invited the Italian composer Giuseppe Donizetti to establish a modern military band for the new army and to compose the Sultan’s royal anthem. In 1828, Donizetti composed the first western-style Ottoman anthem, Mahmudiyye anthem. During the 19th and early 20th century, four other western style Ottoman anthems (Aziziyye, Mecidiyye, Hamidiyye, and Resadiyye) were composed but the last anthem adopted in the reign of Mehmet VI (r. 1918-1922) was again Mahmudiyye anthem. This paper aims to analyze the Mahmudiyye anthem composed as royal anthem in 1828 but adopted as national anthem in 1918. Research questions of this paper are as follows: What were the characteristics of the Mahmudiyye anthem making it the best choice of the last sultan for the last national anthem? Are there specific reasons of the last sultan to adopt Mahmudiyye anthem or not to adopt any of the other four anthems? The musical characteristics of the anthem are analyzed based on the Cerulo’s empirical research. Cerulo examined the musical structures of 124 western style anthems from 150 countries in the 1580-1976 period. Cerulo’s research categorizes musical codes of the anthems as basic and embellished related with the level of sociopolitical control. Musical analysis of the anthem indicates that the basic musical code of the anthem implies a high level of socio-political control during the reign of both Mahmut II and Mehmet VI. Historical analysis of each sultans’ reign shows that both sultans were autocratic. Mahmut II designed authoritarian government policies to suppress possible reactions against his reforms. On the other hand, authoritarian policies of Mehmet VI are related with the domestic and international political conditions following the World War I. Historical analysis of the research questions show that compared to the other western style Ottoman anthems, Mahmudiyye anthem remained the only neutral anthem symbolizing modernization and westernization of the empire. Other anthems were all the symbols of failed ideologies such as Ottomanism, pan-Islamism, and pan-Turkism. In the early 20th century, there were a few common things remained among the diverse communities of the Ottoman Empire: The land they shared as homeland and the idea of modernization to save the homeland. For this reason, the last sultan Mehmet VI adopted Mahmudiyye anthem as the memory of a unified empire under the rule of a powerful and modernist sultan. The last sultan’s reign lasted just for four years, and the Ottoman Empire disintegrated in 1922, but his adaptation of the Mahmudiyye anthem indicates his unifying policies, his attitudes to save the empire and the caliphate.

Keywords: Mahmudiyye anthem, musical code, national anthem, Ottoman Empire, royal anthem

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1 Analyzing the Websites of Institutions Publishing Global Rankings of Universities: A Usability Study

Authors: Nuray Baltaci, Kursat Cagiltay


University rankings which can be seen as nouveau topic are at the center of focus and followed closely by different parties. Students are interested in university rankings in order to make informed decisions about the selection of their candidate future universities. University administrators and academicians can utilize them to see and evaluate their universities’ relative performance compared to other institutions in terms of including but not limited to academic, economic, and international outlook issues. Local institutions may use those ranking systems, as TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) and YOK (Council of Higher Education) do in Turkey, to support students and give scholarships when they want to apply for undergraduate and graduate studies abroad. When it is considered that the ranking systems are concerned by this many different parties, the importance of having clear, easy to use and well-designed websites by ranking institutions will be apprehended. In this paper, a usability study for the websites of four different global university ranking institutions, namely Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), Times Higher Education, QS and University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), was conducted. User-based approach was adopted and usability tests were conducted with 10 graduate students at Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. Before performing the formal usability tests, a pilot study had been completed to reflect the necessary changes to the settings of the study. Participants’ demographics, task completion times, paths traced to complete tasks, and their satisfaction levels on each task and website were collected. According to the analyses of the collected data, those ranking websites were compared in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction dimensions of usability as pointed in ISO 9241-11. Results showed that none of the selected ranking websites is superior to other ones in terms of overall effectiveness and efficiency of the website. However the only remarkable result was that the highest average task completion times for two of the designed tasks belong to the Times Higher Education Rankings website. Evaluation of the user satisfaction on each task and each website produced slightly different but rather similar results. When the satisfaction levels of the participants on each task are examined, it was seen that the highest scores belong to ARWU and URAP websites. The overall satisfaction levels of the participants for each website showed that the URAP website has highest score followed by ARWU website. In addition, design problems and powerful design features of those websites reported by the participants are presented in the paper. Since the study mainly tackles about the design problems of the URAP website, the focus is on this website. Participants reported 3 main design problems about the website which are unaesthetic and unprofessional design style of the website, improper map location on ranking pages, and improper listing of the field names on field ranking page.

Keywords: university ranking, user-based approach, website usability, design

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