Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 484

Search results for: bond

484 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
483 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Bond Thickness on the Interface Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Sheet Bonded to Timber

Authors: Abbas Vahedian, Rijun Shrestha, Keith Crews

Abstract:

The bond mechanism between timber and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) is relatively complex and is influenced by a number of variables including bond thickness, bond width, bond length, material properties, and geometries. This study investigates the influence of bond thickness on the behaviour of interface, failure mode, and bond strength of externally bonded FRP-to-timber interface. In the present study, 106 single shear joint specimens have been investigated. Experiment results showed that higher layers of FRP increase the ultimate load carrying capacity of interface; conversely, such increase led to decrease the slip of interface. Moreover, samples with more layers of FRPs may fail in a brittle manner without noticeable warning that collapse is imminent.

Keywords: fibre reinforced polymer, FRP, single shear test, bond thickness, bond strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
482 Model-Independent Price Bounds for the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003

Authors: Raj Kumari Bahl, Sotirios Sabanis

Abstract:

In this paper, we are concerned with the valuation of the first Catastrophic Mortality Bond that was launched in the market namely the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003. This bond encapsulates the behavior of a well-defined mortality index to generate payoffs for the bondholders. Pricing this bond is a challenging task. We adapt the payoff of the terminal principal of the bond in terms of the payoff of an Asian put option and present an approach to derive model-independent bounds exploiting comonotonic theory. We invoke Jensen’s inequality for the computation of lower bounds and employ Lagrange optimization technique to achieve the upper bound. The success of these bounds is based on the availability of compatible European mortality options in the market. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the bond price and illustrate the strength of these bounds across a variety of models. The fact that our bounds are model-independent is a crucial breakthrough in the pricing of catastrophic mortality bonds.

Keywords: mortality bond, Swiss Re Bond, mortality index, comonotonicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
481 An Experimental Investigation of Bond Properties of Reinforcements Embedded in Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Jee-Sang Kim, Jong Ho Park

Abstract:

Geopolymer concretes are a new class of construction materials that have emerged as an alternative to Ordinary Portland cement concrete. Considerable researches have been carried out on material development of geopolymer concrete, however, a few studies have been reported on the structural use of them. This paper presents the bond behaviors of reinforcement embedded in fly ash based geopolymer concrete. The development lengths of reinforcement for various compressive strengths of concrete, 20, 30 and 40 MPa, and reinforcement diameters, 10, 16, and 25 mm are investigated. Total 27 specimens were manufactured and pull-out test according to EN 10080 was applied to measure bond strength and slips between concrete and reinforcements. The average bond strengths decreased from 23.06MPa to 17.26 MPa, as the diameters of reinforcements increased from 10mm to 25mm. The compressive strength levels of geopolymer concrete showed no significant influence on bond strengths in this study. Also, the bond-slip relations between geopolymer concrete and reinforcement are derived using non-linear regression analysis for various experimental conditions.

Keywords: bond-slip relation, bond strength, geopolymer concrete, pull-out test

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
480 Structural Properties, Natural Bond Orbital, Theory Functional Calculations (DFT), and Energies for Fluorous Compounds: C13H12F7ClN2O

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Masomeh Shahsavary

Abstract:

In this paper, the optimized geometries and frequencies of the stationary point and the minimum energy paths of C13H12F7ClN2O are calculated by using the DFT (B3LYP) methods with LANL2DZ basis sets. B3LYP/ LANL2DZ calculation results indicated that some selected bond length and bond angles values for the C13H12F7ClN2O.

Keywords: C13H12F7ClN2O, vatural bond orbital, fluorous compounds, functional calculations

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
479 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber according to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber.

Keywords: Bond, Polypropylene, fiber reinforcement, macro fiber, shape change

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
478 Investigating the Difference in Stability of Various Isomeric Hydrogen Bonded Dimers

Authors: Mohamed Ayoub

Abstract:

The structures and energetics of various isomeric hydrogen bonded dimers, such as (FH…OC, FH…CO), (FH…CNH, FH…NCH), (FH…N2O, FH…ON2), and (FH…NHCO, FH…OCNH) have been investigated using DFT B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set and by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. For each isomeric pair we calculated: H-bond energy (ΔEB…H), charge-transfer (QCT), where B is atom bearing lone-pairs in CO, CNH, NCH, N2O, and NHCO, H-bond distances (RB…H), the elongation of HF bond (ΔRHF) and the red-shift of HF stretching frequency (ΔVHF). We conclude that the principle difference in the relative stability between each isomeric pair is attributed to distinctive interaction of carbon and oxygen lone pairs of CO, carbon and nitrogen lone-pairs of CNH and NCH, and nitrogen and oxygen lone pairs of N2O and NHCO into the unfilled antibond on HF (σ*HF).

Keywords: charge transfer, computational chemistry, isomeric hydrogen bond, natural bond orbital

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
477 Research of Interaction between Layers of Compressed Composite Columns

Authors: Daumantas Zidanavicius

Abstract:

In order to investigate the bond between concrete and steel in the circular steel tube column filled with concrete, the 7 series of specimens were tested with the same geometrical parameters but different concrete properties. Two types of specimens were chosen. For the first type, the expansive additives to the concrete mixture were taken to increase internal forces. And for the second type, mechanical components were used. All 7 series of the short columns were modeled by FEM and tested experimentally. In the work, big attention was taken to the bond-slip models between steel and concrete. Results show that additives to concrete let increase the bond strength up to two times and the mechanical anchorage –up to 6 times compared to control specimens without additives and anchorage.

Keywords: concrete filled steel tube, push-out test, bond slip relationship, bond stress distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
476 Push-Out Bond Strength of Two Root-End Filling Materials in Root-End Cavities Prepared by Er,Cr: YSGG Laser or Ultrasonic Technique

Authors: Noushin Shokouhinejad, Hasan Razmi, Reza Fekrazad, Saeed Asgary, Ammar Neshati, Hadi Assadian, Sanam Kheirieh

Abstract:

This study compared the push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a new endodontic cement (NEC) as root-end filling materials in root-end cavities prepared by ultrasonic technique (US) or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (L). Eighty single-rooted extracted human teeth were endodontically treated, apicectomised and randomly divided into four following groups (n = 20): US/MTA, US/NEC, L/MTA and L/NEC. In US/MTA and US/NEC groups, rooted cavities were prepared with ultrasonic retrotip and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. In L/MTA and L/NEC groups, root-end cavities were prepared using Er, Cr:YSGG laser and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. Each root was cut apically to create a 2 mm-thick root slice for measurement of bond strength using a universal testing machine. Then, all slices were examined to determine the mode of bond failure. Data were analysed using two-way ANOVA. Root-end filling materials showed significantly higher bond strength in root-end cavities prepared using the ultrasonic technique (US/MTA and US/NEC) (P < 0.001). The bond strengths of MTA and NEC did not differ significantly. The failure modes were mainly adhesive for MTA, but cohesive for NEC. In conclusion, bond strengths of MTA and NEC to root-end cavities were comparable and higher in ultrasonically prepared cavities.

Keywords: bond strength, Er, Cr:YSGG laser, MTA, NEC, root-end cavity

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475 Effect of Impact Load on the Bond between Steel and CFRP Laminate

Authors: Alaa Al-Mosawe, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

Carbon fiber reinforced polymers have been wildly used to strengthen steel structural elements. Those structural elements are normally subjected to static, dynamic, fatigue loadings during their life time. CFRP laminate is one of the common methods to strengthen these structures under the subjected loads. A number of researches have been focused on the bond characteristics of CFRP sheets to steel members under static, dynamic and fatigue loadings. There is a lack in understanding the behavior of the CFRP laminates under impact loading. This paper is showing the effect of high load rate on this bond. CFRP laminate CFK 150/2000 was used to strengthen steel joint by using Araldite 420 epoxy. The results showed that applying high load rate has a significant effect on the bond strength while a little influence on the effective bond length.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joints, bond strength, CFRP laminate, impact tensile loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
474 Bond-Slip Response of Reinforcing Bars Embedded in High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: Lee Siong Wee, Tan Kang Hai, Yang En-Hua

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental study undertaken to evaluate the local bond stress-slip response of short embedment of reinforcing bars in normal concrete (NC) and high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC) blocks. Long embedment was investigated as well to gain insights on the distribution of strain, slip, bar stress and bond stress along the bar especially in post-yield range. A total of 12 specimens were tested, by means of pull-out of the reinforcing bars from concrete blocks. It was found that the enhancement of local bond strength can be reached up to 50% and ductility of the bond behavior was improved significantly if HPFRCC is used. Also, under a constant strain at loaded end, HPFRCC has delayed yielding of bars at other location from the loaded end. Hence, the reduction of bond stress was slower for HPFRCC in comparison with NC. Due to the same reason, the total slips at loaded end for HPFRCC was smaller than NC as expected. Test results indicated that HPFRCC has better bond slip behavior which makes it a suitable material to be employed in anchorage zone such as beam-column joints.

Keywords: bond stress, high performance fiber reinforced cement composites, slip, strain

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473 Origin of Hydrogen Bonding: Natural Bond Orbital Electron Donor-Acceptor Interactions

Authors: Mohamed Ayoub

Abstract:

We perform computational investigation using density functional theory, B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set followed by natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), which provides best single “natural Lewis structure” (NLS) representation of chosen wavefunction (Ψ) with natural resonance theory (NRT) to provide an analysis of molecular electron density in terms of resonance structures (RS) and weights (w). We selected for the study a wide range of gas phase dimers (B…HA), with hydrogen bond dissociation energies (ΔEB…H) that span more than two orders of magnitude. We demonstrate that charge transfer from a donor Lewis-type NBO (nB:) to an acceptor non-Lewis-type NBO (σHA*) is the primary cause for H-bonding not classical electrostatic (dipole-dipole or ionic). We provide a variety of structure, and spectroscopic descriptors to support the conclusion, such as IR frequency shift (ΔνHA), H-bond penetration distance (ΔRB..H), bond order (bB..H), charge-transfer (CTB→HA) and the corresponding donor-acceptor stabilization energy (ΔE(2)).

Keywords: natural bond orbital, hydrogen bonding, electron donor, electron acceptor

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472 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: bond stress, compressive strength, elevated temperatures, fiber reinforced concrete, modulus of rapture

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
471 Empirical Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress and Anchorage of Tensile Bars in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Maruful H. Mazumder, Raymond I. Gilbert

Abstract:

The design specifications for calculating development and lapped splice lengths of reinforcement in concrete are derived from a conventional empirical modelling approach that correlates experimental test data using a single mathematical equation. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program to assess the effects of different structural parameters on the development length requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars, including the case of lapped splices in large-scale reinforced concrete members. The normalized average bond stresses for the different variations of anchorage lengths are assessed according to the general form of a typical empirical analytical model of bond and anchorage. Improved analytical modelling equations are developed in the paper that better correlate the normalized bond strength parameters with the structural parameters of an empirical model of bond and anchorage.

Keywords: bond stress, development length, lapped splice length, reinforced concrete

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470 Defects Estimation of Embedded Systems Components by a Bond Graph Approach

Authors: I. Gahlouz, A. Chellil

Abstract:

The paper concerns the estimation of system components faults by using an unknown inputs observer. To reach this goal, we used the Bond Graph approach to physical modelling. We showed that this graphical tool is allowing the representation of system components faults as unknown inputs within the state representation of the considered physical system. The study of the causal and structural features of the system (controllability, observability, finite structure, and infinite structure) based on the Bond Graph approach was hence fulfilled in order to design an unknown inputs observer which is used for the system component fault estimation.

Keywords: estimation, bond graph, controllability, observability

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469 Theorical Studies on the Structural Properties of 2,3-Bis(Furan-2-Yl)Pyrazino[2,3-F][1,10]Phenanthroline Derivaties

Authors: Zahra Sadeghian

Abstract:

This paper reports on the geometrical parameters optimized of the stationary point for the 2,3-Bis(furan-2-yl)pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline. The calculations are performed using density functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level. We determined bond lengths and bond angles values for the compound and calculate the amount of bond hybridization according to the natural bond orbital theory (NBO) too. The energy of frontier orbital (HOMO and LUMO) are computed. In addition, calculated data are accurately compared with the experimental result. This comparison show that the our theoretical data are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

Keywords: 2, 3-Bis(furan-2-yl)pyrazino[2, 3-f][1, 10]phenanthroline, density functional theory, theorical calculations, LanL2DZ level, B3LYP level

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468 Effect of the Concrete Cover on the Bond Strength of the FRP Wrapped and Non-Wrapped Reinforced Concrete Beam with Lap Splice under Uni-Direction Cyclic Loading

Authors: Rayed Alyousef, Tim Topper, Adil Al-Mayah

Abstract:

Many of the reinforced concrete structures subject to cyclic load constructed before the modern bond and fatigue design code. One of the main issue face on exists structure is the bond strength of the longitudinal steel bar and the surrounding concrete. A lap splice is a common connection method to transfer the force between the steel rebar in a reinforced concrete member. Usually, the lap splice is the weak connection on the bond strength. Fatigue flexural loading imposes severe demands on the strength and ductility of the lap splice region in reinforced concrete structures and can lead to a brittle and sudden failure of the member. This paper investigates the effect of different concrete covers on the fatigue bond strength of reinforcing concrete beams containing a lap splice under a fatigue loads. It includes tests of thirty-seven beams divided into three groups. Each group has beams with 30 mm and 50 mm clear side and bottom concrete covers. The variables that were addressed where the concrete cover, the presence or absence of CFRP or GFRP sheet wrapping, the type of loading (monotonic or fatigue) and the fatigue load ranges. The test results showed that an increase in the concrete cover led to an increase in the bond strength under both monotonic and fatigue loading for both the unwrapped and wrapped beams. Also, the FRP sheets increased both the fatigue strength and the ductility for both the 30 mm and the 50 mm concrete covers.

Keywords: bond strength, fatigue, Lap splice, FRp wrapping

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467 A Comparison between Shear Bond Strength of VMK Master Porcelain with Three Base-Metal Alloys (Ni-Cr-T3, Verabond, Super Cast) and One Noble Alloy (X-33) in Metal-Ceramic Restorations

Authors: Ammar Neshati, Elham Hamidi Shishavan

Abstract:

Statement of Problem: The increase in the use of metal-ceramic restorations and a high prevalence of porcelain chipping entails introducing an alloy which is more compatible with porcelain and which causes a stronger bond between the two. This study is to compare shear bond strength of three base-metal alloys and one noble alloy with the common VMK Master Porcelain. Materials and Method: Three different groups of base-metal alloys (Ni-cr-T3, Super Cast, Verabond) and one group of noble alloy (x-33) were selected. The number of alloys in each group was 15. All the groups went through the casting process and change from wax pattern into metal disks. Then, VMK Master Porcelain was fired on each group. All the specimens were put in the UTM and a shear force was loaded until a fracture occurred. The fracture force was then recorded by the machine. The data was subjected to SPSS Version 16 and One-Way ANOVA was run to compare shear strength between the groups. Furthermore, the groups were compared two by two through running Tukey test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that shear bond strength of Ni-Cr-T3 alloy was higher than the three other alloys (94 Mpa or 330 N). Super Cast alloy had the second greatest shear bond strength (80. 87 Mpa or 283.87 N). Both Verabond (69.66 Mpa or 245 N) and x-33 alloys (66.53 Mpa or 234 N) took the third place. Conclusion: Ni-Cr-T3 with VMK Master Porcelain has the greatest shear bond strength. Therefore, the use of this low-cost alloy is recommended in metal-ceramic restorations.

Keywords: shear bond, base-metal alloy, noble alloy, porcelain

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466 Effect of Different FRP Wrapping and Thickness of Concrete Cover on Fatigue Bond Strength of Spliced Concrete Beam

Authors: Rayed Alyousef, Tim Topper, Adil Al-Mayah

Abstract:

This paper presents results of an ongoing research program at University of Waterloo to study the effect of external FRP sheet wrap confinement along a lap splice of reinforced concrete (RC) beams on their fatigue bond strength. Fatigue loading of RC beams containing a lap splice resulted in an increase in the number and width of cracks, an increase in deflection and a decrease of the bond strength between the steel rebar and the surrounding concrete. The phase of the research described here consists of monotonic and fatigue tests of thirty two reinforced concrete beam with dimensions 2200⨉350⨉250 mm. Each beam was reinforced with two 20M bars lap spliced in the constant moment region of the tension zone and two 10M bars in the compression zone outside the constant moment region. The test variables were the presence or absence of a FRP wrapping, the type of the FRP wrapping (GFRP or CFRP), the type of loading and the fatigue load range. The test results for monotonic loading showed that the stiffness of all beams was almost same, but that the FRP sheet wrapping increased the bond strength and the deflection at ultimate load. All beams tested under fatigue loading failed by a bond failure except one CFRP wrapped beam that failed by fatigue of the main reinforcement. The FRP sheet increased the bond strength for all specimens under fatigue loading.

Keywords: lap splice, bond strength, fatigue loading, FRP

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465 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
464 Mathematical Model of Corporate Bond Portfolio and Effective Border Preview

Authors: Sergey Podluzhnyy

Abstract:

One of the most important tasks of investment and pension fund management is building decision support system which helps to make right decision on corporate bond portfolio formation. Today there are several basic methods of bond portfolio management. They are duration management, immunization and convexity management. Identified methods have serious disadvantage: they do not take into account credit risk or insolvency risk of issuer. So, identified methods can be applied only for management and evaluation of high-quality sovereign bonds. Applying article proposes mathematical model for building an optimal in case of risk and yield corporate bond portfolio. Proposed model takes into account the default probability in formula of assessment of bonds which results to more correct evaluation of bonds prices. Moreover, applied model provides tools for visualization of the efficient frontier of corporate bonds portfolio taking into account the exposure to credit risk, which will increase the quality of the investment decisions of portfolio managers.

Keywords: corporate bond portfolio, default probability, effective boundary, portfolio optimization task

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463 Robust Diagnosis of an Electro-Mechanical Actuators, Bond Graph LFT Approach

Authors: A. Boulanoir, B. Ould Bouamama, A. Debiane, N. Achour

Abstract:

The paper deals with robust Fault Detection and isolation with respect to parameter uncertainties based on linear fractional transformation form (LFT) Bond graph. The innovative interest of the proposed methodology is the use only one representation for systematic generation of robust analytical redundancy relations and adaptive residual thresholds for sensibility analysis. Furthermore, the parameter uncertainties are introduced graphically in the bond graph model. The methodology applied to the nonlinear industrial Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMA) used in avionic systems, has determined first the structural monitorability analysis (which component can be monitored) with given instrumentation architecture with any need of complex calculation and secondly robust fault indicators for online supervision.

Keywords: bond graph (BG), electro mechanical actuators (EMA), fault detection and isolation (FDI), linear fractional transformation (LFT), mechatronic systems, parameter uncertainties, avionic system

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462 Edward Bond's Questioning of Existence in His Play 'Have I None?'

Authors: Aycan Gurluyer

Abstract:

21st-century theatre has been shaped by lots of world-changing forces devastating human psychology and existence. Accepted as the greatest living English playwright, it is post-war British dramatist Edward Bond who uses a late-21st-century apocalyptic landscape as a weapon to question the human existence in his play 'Have I None?'. In this play, he tries to underline the degenerating and destructive effects of the society and environment on a couple whose lives are changed by an unexpected and annoying stranger. As victim of the society and the cultural corruption, the three vulnerable Bondian characters struggle for their expectations to find a place in this fictional world by sacrificing their own lives. Set in the 2077’s world, the play depicts that rigidly formed rules of the system/authority eliminates the existence of humans. According to Bond, the fascist practices of the governments/systems make people paralyzed in any way, so they choose to deny all realities by becoming biological beings or they gather to commit to suicide as troops. Our main aim is to underscore the questioning of the human existence by drawing the socio-political framework of the era, the capitalist system’s dehumanized individuals and their defence to survive, and what reality is in the 21st century, by focusing on Bond’s hallucinatory and tragic vision of the future in 'Have I None?'.

Keywords: Edward Bond, apocalyptic, existence, Have I None?

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461 Effect of Surface Preparation of Concrete Substrate on Bond Tensile Strength of Thin Bonded Cement Based Overlays

Authors: S. Asad Ali Gillani, Ahmed Toumi, Anaclet Turatsinze

Abstract:

After a certain period of time, the degradation of concrete structures is unavoidable. For large concrete areas, thin bonded cement-based overlay is a suitable rehabilitation technique. Previous research demonstrated that durability of bonded cement-based repairs is always a problem and one of its main reasons is deboning at interface. Since durability and efficiency of any repair system mainly depend upon the bond between concrete substrate and repair material, the bond between concrete substrate and repair material can be improved by increasing the surface roughness. The surface roughness can be improved by performing surface treatment of the concrete substrate to enhance mechanical interlocking which is one of the basic mechanisms of adhesion between two surfaces. In this research, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays having substrate surface prepared using different techniques has been characterized. In first step cement based substrate was prepared and then cured for three months. After curing two different types of the surface treatments were performed on this substrate; cutting and sandblasting. In second step overlay was cast on these prepared surfaces, which were cut and sandblasted surfaces. The overlay was also cast on the surface without any treatment. Finally, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays was evaluated in direct tension test and the results are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: concrete substrate, surface preparation, overlays, bond tensile strength

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460 Bond Strength of Different Strengthening Systems: Concrete Elements under Freeze–Thaw Cycles and Salt Water Immersion Exposure

Authors: Firas Al-Mahmoud, Jean-Michel Mechling, Mohamed Shaban

Abstract:

The long-term durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is often stated as being the main reason for the use of these materials. Indeed, structures externally or Near Surface Mounted (NSM) reinforced with Carbon Fibre Reinforcement Polymer CFRP are often in contact with temperature cycles and salt water immersion and other environmental conditions that reduce the expected durability of the system. Bond degradation is a frequent cause of premature failure of structural elements and environmental conditions are known to relate to such failures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of environmental exposure on the bond for different CFRP strengthening systems. Bending tests were conducted to evaluate the bond with and without environmental exposure. The specimens were strengthened with CFRP sheets, CFRP plates and NSM CFRP rods embedded in two filling materials: epoxy resin and mortar. Then, they were exposed to up to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. One freeze–thaw cycle consisted of four stages according to ASTM or immersed in 3.5% salted tap water. A total of thirty-six specimens were prepared for this purpose. Results showed a decrease in ultimate bond strength for specimens strengthened by CFRP sheets that were immersed in salt water for 120 days, while a reduction was shown for CFRP sheet and plate bonded specimens that were subjected to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. Exposing NSM CFRP rod strengthened specimens, embedded in resin or mortar, to freeze–thaw cycles or to immersion in salt water does not affect the bond strength.

Keywords: durability, strengthening, FRP, bond, freeze–thaw

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459 Effect of Primer on Bonding between Resin Cement and Zirconia Ceramic

Authors: Deog-Gyu Seo, Jin-Soo Ahn

Abstract:

Objectives: Recently, the development of adhesive primers on stable bonding between zirconia and resin cement has been on the increase. The bond strength of zirconia-resin cement can be effectively increased with the treatment of primer composed of the adhesive monomer that can chemically bond with the oxide layer, which forms on the surface of zirconia. 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) that contains phosphate ester and acidic monomer 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride(4-META) have been suggested as monomers that can form chemical bond with the surface oxide layer of zirconia. Also, these suggested monomers have proved to be effective zirconia surface treatment for bonding to resin cement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of primer treatment on the bond strength of Zirconia-resin cement by using three different kinds of primers on the market. Methods: Zirconia blocks were prepared into 60 disk-shaped specimens by using a diamond saw. Specimens were divided into four different groups: first three groups were treated with zirconiaLiner(Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Furutaka-cho, Moriyama, Shiga, Japan), Alloy primer (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Sakaju, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan), and Universal primer (Tokuyama dental Corp., Taitou, Taitou-ku, Tokyo, Japan) respectively. The last group was the control with no surface treatment. Dual cured resin cement (Biscem, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) was luted to each group of specimens. And then, shear bond strengths were measured by universal tesing machine. The significance of the result was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The failure sites in each group were inspected under a magnifier. Results: Mean shear bond strength were 0.60, 1.39, 1.03, 1.38 MPa for control, Zirconia Liner (ZL), Alloy primer (AP), Universal primer (UP), respectively. Groups with application of each of the three primers showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Among the three groups with the treatment, ZL and UP showed significantly higher shear bond strength than AP (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in mean shear bond strength between ZL and UP (p < 0.05). While the most specimens of control groups showed adhesive failure (80%), the most specimens of three primer-treated groups showed cohesive or mixed failure (80%).

Keywords: primer, resin cement, shear bond strength, zirconia

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458 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Applied to the Gas Turbine Blade According to the Thermal Gradient

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Yonseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok

Abstract:

The Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) prevents heat directly transferring from the high-temperature flame to the substrate. Top coat and bond coat compose the TBC and top coat consists of a ceramic and bond coat increases adhesion between the top coat and the substrate. The TBC technology drops the substrate surface temperature by about 150~200°C. In addition, the TBC system has a cooling system to lower the blade temperature by the air flow inside the blade. Then, as a result, the thermal gradient occurs inside the blade by cooling. Also, the internal stress occurs due to the difference in thermal expansion. In this paper, the finite element analyses (FEA) were performed and stress changes were derived according to the thermal gradient of the TBC system. The stress was increased due to the cooling, but difference of the stress between the top coat and bond coat was decreased. So, delamination in the interface between top coat and bond coat.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC), thermal gradient, Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

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457 Monte Carlo Pathwise Sensitivities for Barrier Options with Application to Coco-Bond Calibration

Authors: Thomas Gerstner, Bastian von Harrach, Daniel Roth

Abstract:

The Monte Carlo pathwise sensitivities approach is well established for smooth payoff functions. In this work, we present a new Monte Carlo algorithm that is able to calculate the pathwise sensitivities for discontinuous payoff functions. Our main tool is the one-step survival idea of Glasserman and Staum. Although this technique yields to new terms per observation, while differentiating, the algorithm is still efficient. As an application, we use the results for a two-dimensional calibration of a Coco-Bond, which we model with different types of discretely monitored barrier options.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, discretely monitored barrier options, pathwise sensitivities, Coco-Bond

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456 Prediction of Product Size Distribution of a Vertical Stirred Mill Based on Breakage Kinetics

Authors: C. R. Danielle, S. Erik, T. Patrick, M. Hugh

Abstract:

In the last decade there has been an increase in demand for fine grinding due to the depletion of coarse-grained orebodies and an increase of processing fine disseminated minerals and complex orebodies. These ores have provided new challenges in concentrator design because fine and ultra-fine grinding is required to achieve acceptable recovery rates. Therefore, the correct design of a grinding circuit is important for minimizing unit costs and increasing product quality. The use of ball mills for grinding in fine size ranges is inefficient and, therefore, vertical stirred grinding mills are becoming increasingly popular in the mineral processing industry due to its already known high energy efficiency. This work presents a hypothesis of a methodology to predict the product size distribution of a vertical stirred mill using a Bond ball mill. The Population Balance Model (PBM) was used to empirically analyze the performance of a vertical mill and a Bond ball mill. The breakage parameters obtained for both grinding mills are compared to determine the possibility of predicting the product size distribution of a vertical mill based on the results obtained from the Bond ball mill. The biggest advantage of this methodology is that most of the minerals processing laboratories already have a Bond ball mill to perform the tests suggested in this study. Preliminary results show the possibility of predicting the performance of a laboratory vertical stirred mill using a Bond ball mill.

Keywords: bond ball mill, population balance model, product size distribution, vertical stirred mill

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455 Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Bond Strength of Concrete Layers

Authors: Rajkamal Kumar, Sudhir Mishra

Abstract:

The connections between various elements of concrete structures play a vital role in determining the durability of structures. These connections produce discontinuities and to ensure the monolithic behavior of structures, these connections should be carefully designed. The connections between concrete layers may occur in various situations such as structure repairing and rehabilitation or construction of huge structures with cast-in-situ or pre-cast elements, etc. Bond strength at the interface of these concrete layers should be able to prevent the progressive slip from taking place and it should also ensure satisfactory performance of the structure. Different approaches to enhance the bond strength at interface have been a major area of research. Nowadays, micro-concrete is getting popular as a repair material. Under this ambit, this paper aims to present the experimental results of connections between concrete layers of different age with artificial indentation at interface with two types of repair material: Concrete with same parent concrete composition and ready-mix mortar (micro-concrete), artificial indentations (grooves and holes) were made on the old layer of concrete to increase the bond strength. Curing plays an important role in determining the bond strength. Optimum duration for curing have also been discussed for each type of repair material. Different types of failure patterns have also been mentioned.

Keywords: adhesion, cohesion, compressive stress, micro-concrete, shear stress, slant shear test

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