Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Ayşen Önen

23 Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Mervin Ölmez, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün K. Yavuz, Ayşen Önen


In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.

Keywords: activated carbon, coagulation by wet spinning, exfoliation, graphene oxide fiber

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22 Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber

Authors: Özge Alptoğa, Nuray Uçar, Nilgün Karatepe Yavuz, Ayşen Önen


Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.

Keywords: coagulation bath, graphene oxide fiber, reduction, SO2 gas adsorption

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21 Investigation of Some Flotation Parameters and the Role of Dispersants in the Flotation of Chalcopyrite

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen


A suitable choice of flotation parameters and reagents have a strong effect on the effectiveness of flotation process. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the flotation of chalcopyrite with the different conditions and dispersants. Flotation parameters such as grinding time, pH, type, and dosage of dispersant were investigated. In order to understand the interaction of some dispersants, sodium silicate, sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium polyphosphate were used. The optimum results were obtained at a pH of 11.5 and a grinding time of 10 minutes. A copper concentrate was produced assaying 29.85% CuFeS2 and 65.97% flotation recovery under optimum rougher flotation conditions with sodium silicate.

Keywords: chalcopyrite, dispersant, flotation, reagent

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20 Twin Deficits Hypothesis: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Mucuk, Ayşen Edirneligil


Budget and current account deficits are main problems for all countries. There are different approaches about the relationship between budget deficit and current account deficit. While Keynesian view accepts that there is a casual link between these variables, Ricardian equivalence hypothesis rejects it. The aim of this study is to analyze the validity of Keynesian view for Turkish Economy using VAR analysis with the monthly data in the period of 2006-2014. In this context, it will be used Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse-Response Function and Variance Decomposition Tests.

Keywords: budget deficit, current account deficit, Turkish economy, twin deficits

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19 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan


PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of the concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to a decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile

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18 Fruit of the General Status of Usak Provicce District of Sivasli

Authors: Ayşen Melda Çolak, Volkan Okatan, Ercan Yıldız


In our country, fruit production was determined as 17.2 million tons in 2011 according to official data. Turkey fig, apricot, cherry and quince production ranks first in the world. Almost all the regions of our country, despite the growing of fruit 54% of the total fruit production occur in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Region. However, fruit production in the country is consumed in the domestic market and export rates are often very low. In this study, a questionnaire to 100 farmers face-to-face interview. According to the survey, 40% of those in fruit and 7 da of 7 hectares land are small. 30% of soil testing for manufacturers, testing for 20% of the water. Manufacturers who deliberately fertilization rate of only 10%.

Keywords: fruit, generation, potential, Sivasli survey

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17 The External Debt in the Context of Economic Growth: The Sample of Turkey

Authors: Ayşen Edirneligil, Mehmet Mucuk


In developing countries, one of the most important restrictions about the economic growth is the lack of national savings which are supposed to finance the investments. In order to overcome this restriction and achieve the higher rate of economic growth by increasing the level of output, countries choose the external borrowing. However, there is a dispute in the literature over the correlation between external debt and economic growth. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of external debt on Turkish economic growth by using VAR analysis with the quarterly data over the period of 2002:01-2014:04. In this respect, Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse- Response Function and Variance Decomposition Tests will be used for analyses. Empirical findings show that there is no cointegration in the long run.

Keywords: external debt, economic growth, Turkish economy, time series analysis

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16 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar


In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane

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15 The Effect of Fly Ash in Dewatering of Marble Processing Wastewaters

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen


In the thermal power plants established to meet the energy need, lignite with low calorie and high ash content is used. Burning of these coals results in wastes such as fly ash, slag and flue gas. This constitutes a significant economic and environmental problems. However, fly ash can find evaluation opportunities in various sectors. In this study, the effectiveness of fly ash on suspended solid removal from marble processing wastewater containing high concentration of suspended solids was examined. Experiments were carried out for two different suspensions, marble and travertine. In the experiments, FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3 and anionic polymer A130 were used also to compare with fly ash. Coagulant/flocculant type/dosage, mixing time/speed and pH were the experimental parameters. The performances in the experimental studies were assessed with the change in the interface height during sedimentation resultant and turbidity values of treated water. The highest sedimentation efficiency was achieved with anionic flocculant. However, it was determined that fly ash can be used instead of FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 in the travertine plant as a coagulant.

Keywords: dewatering, flocculant, fly ash, marble plant wastewater

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14 Synthesis of Vic-Dioxime Palladium (II) Complex: Precursor for Deposition on SBA-15 in ScCO2

Authors: Asım Egitmen, Aysen Demir, Burcu Darendeli, Fatma Ulusal, Bilgehan Güzel


Synthesizing supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) soluble precursors would be helpful for many processes of material syntheses based on scCO2. Ligand (amphi-(1Z, 2Z)-N-(2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-N'-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyimino) were synthesized from chloro glyoxime and flourus aniline and Pd(II) complex (precursor) prepared. For scCO2 deposition method, organometallic precursor was dissolved in scCO2 and impregnated onto the SBA-15 at 90 °C and 3000 psi. Then the organometallic precursor was reduced with H2 in the CO2 mixture (150 psi H2 + 2850 psi CO2). Pd deposited support material was characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDX analyses. The Pd loading of the prepared catalyst, measured by ICP-OES showed a value of about 1.64% mol/g Pd of catalyst. Average particle size was found 5.3 nm. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst was investigated over Suzuki-Miyaura C-C coupling reaction in different solvent with K2CO3 at 50 oC. The conversion ratio was determined by gas chromatography.

Keywords: nanoparticle, nanotube, oximes, precursor, supercritical CO2

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13 A Language Training Model for Pilots in Training

Authors: Aysen Handan Girginer


This study analyzes the possible causes of miscommunication between pilots and air traffic controllers by looking into a number of variables such as pronunciation, L1 interference, use of non-standard vocabulary. The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of the aviation LSP instructors and to apply this knowledge to the design of new curriculum. A 16-item questionnaire was administered to 60 Turkish pilots who work for commercial airlines in Turkey. The questionnaire consists of 7 open-ended and 9 Likert-scale type questions. The analysis of data shows that there are certain pit holes that may cause communication problems for pilots that can be avoided through proper English language training. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to the development of new materials and to develop a language training model that is tailored to the needs of students of flight training department at the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The results are beneficial not only to the instructors but also to the new pilots in training. Specific suggestions for aviation students’ training will be made during the presentation.

Keywords: curriculum design, materials development, LSP, pilot training

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12 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan


Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution has been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate has been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), tensile tester, differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM, respectively. Also, antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: composite polyacrylonitrile nanofiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical properties, thermal properties, silver nanoparticles

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11 The Role of British Public Opinion in the Process of the Great Britain’s Involvement in the Crimean War

Authors: Aysen Muderrisoglu


As a result of the policies constituted and pursued by Russia which aimed to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense, Crimean War broke out in 1853. Nevertheless, the Eastern policies of Russia were in contradiction with the interests of Great Britain which was the great power of the era. Yet, it did hesitate to be confronted with Russian on its route to India, so the Ottoman territorial integrity was defended. In that period, Tzar Nicholas II, to begin with, tried to eliminate a probable opposition coming from the British side, and then tried its chance to build up cooperation with Britain on the territories of the sick man. As a more positive relation was being observed between these two states before the Crimean War, Great Britain initially had adopted a neutral policy. However, in the end, Britain entered the war against Russia due to the efforts of the opposing side in the British Parliament and the rising pressure of the public opinion. The article aims to examine the role of British public opinion in the process of Great Britain’s Involvement in this war. Also, the article will try to find an answer to the following question: to what extent did the public opinion become effective on the foreign policy-making of Great Britain before the war?

Keywords: British press, Crimean war, Great Britain, public opinion

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10 Vascularized Adipose Tissue Engineering by Using Adipose ECM/Fibroin Hydrogel

Authors: Alisan Kayabolen, Dilek Keskin, Ferit Avcu, Andac Aykan, Fatih Zor, Aysen Tezcaner


Adipose tissue engineering is a promising field for regeneration of soft tissue defects. However, only very thin implants can be used in vivo since vascularization is still a problem for thick implants. Another problem is finding a biocompatible scaffold with good mechanical properties. In this study, the aim is to develop a thick vascularized adipose tissue that will integrate with the host, and perform its in vitro and in vivo characterizations. For this purpose, a hydrogel of decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) and fibroin was produced, and both endothelial cells and adipocytes that were differentiated from adipose derived stem cells were encapsulated in this hydrogel. Mixing DAT with fibroin allowed rapid gel formation by vortexing. It also provided to adjust mechanical strength by changing fibroin to DAT ratio. Based on compression tests, gels of DAT/fibroin ratio with similar mechanical properties to adipose tissue was selected for cell culture experiments. In vitro characterizations showed that DAT is not cytotoxic; on the contrary, it has many natural ECM components which provide biocompatibility and bioactivity. Subcutaneous implantation of hydrogels resulted with no immunogenic reaction or infection. Moreover, localized empty hydrogels gelled successfully around host vessel with required shape. Implantations of cell encapsulated hydrogels and histological analyses are under study. It is expected that endothelial cells inside the hydrogel will form a capillary network and they will bind to the host vessel passing through hydrogel.

Keywords: adipose tissue engineering, decellularization, encapsulation, hydrogel, vascularization

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9 Enzyme Producing Psyhrophilic Pseudomonas app. Isolated from Poultry Meats

Authors: Ali Aydin, Mert Sudagidan, Aysen Coban, Alparslan Kadir Devrim


Pseudomonas spp. (specifically, P. fluorescens and P. fragi) are considered the principal spoilage microorganisms of refrigerated poultry meats. The higher the level psychrophilic spoilage Pseudomonas spp. on carcasses at the end of processing lead to decrease the shelf life of the refrigerated product. The aim of the study was the identification of psychrophilic Pseudomonas spp. having proteolytic and lipolytic activities from poultry meats by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, investigation of protease and lipase related genes and determination of proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. In the of isolation procedure, collected chicken meat samples from local markets and slaughterhouses were homogenized and the lysates were incubated on Standard method agar and Skim Milk agar for selection of proteolytic bacteria and tributyrin agar for selection of lipolytic bacteria at +4 °C for 7 days. After detection of proteolytic and lipolytic colonies, the isolates were firstly analyzed by biochemical tests such as Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests. DNA gene sequencing analysis and comparison with GenBank revealed that 126 strong enzyme Pseudomonas spp. were identified as predominantly P. fluorescens (n=55), P. fragi (n=42), Pseudomonas spp. (n=24), P. cedrina (n=2), P. poae (n=1), P. koreensis (n=1), and P. gessardi (n=1). Additionally, protease related aprX gene was screened in the strains and it was detected in 69/126 strains, whereas, lipase related lipA gene was found in 9 Pseudomonas strains. Protease activity was determined using commercially available protease assay kit and 5 strains showed high protease activity. The results showed that psychrophilic Pseudomonas strains were present in chicken meat samples and they can produce important levels of proteases and lipases for food spoilage to decrease food quality and safety.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, chicken meat, protease, lipase

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8 Understanding Team Member Autonomy and Team Collaboration: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Ayşen Bakioğlu, Gökçen Seyra Çakır


This study aims to explore how research assistants who work in project teams experience team member autonomy and how they reconcile team member autonomy with team collaboration. The study utilizes snowball sampling. 20 research assistants who work the faculties of education in Marmara University and Yıldız Technical University have been interviewed. The analysis of data involves a content analysis MAXQDAPlus 11 which is a qualitative data analysis software is used as the data analysis tool. According to the findings of this study, emerging themes include team norm formation, team coordination management, the role of individual tasks in team collaboration, leadership distribution. According to the findings, interviewees experience team norm formation process in terms of processes, which pertain to task fulfillment, and processes, which pertain to the regulation of team dynamics. Team norm formation process instills a sense of responsibility amongst individual team members. Apart from that, the interviewees’ responses indicate that the realization of the obligation to work in a team contributes to the team norm formation process. The participants indicate that individual expectations are taken into consideration during the coordination of the team. The supervisor of the project team also has a crucial role in maintaining team collaboration. Coordination problems arise when an individual team member does not relate his/her academic field with the research topic of the project team. The findings indicate that the leadership distribution in the project teams involves two leadership processes: leadership distribution which is based on the processes that focus on individual team members and leadership distribution which is based on the processes that focus on team interaction. Apart from that, individual tasks serve as a facilitator of collaboration amongst team members. Interviewees also indicate that individual tasks also facilitate the expression of individuality.

Keywords: project teams in higher education, research assistant teams, team collaboration, team member autonomy

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7 An Analysis of Methodological Approaches of Ahmed Cevdet and Fatma Aliye towards the Ottoman Historiography in a Comparative Context

Authors: Aysen Muderrisoglu Esiner


As an intellectual, scholar, bureaucrat, and statesman, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1822-1895) was the prominent figure of “Tanzimat” (reorganization) reforms of the Ottoman State while his daughter Fatma Aliye (1862-1936) was a novelist, columnist, essayist, and women’s rights activist. His father had numerous books on law, grammar, linguistics, logic, and astronomy, moreover, Aliye accepted as the first female novelist in the Turkish literature and the Islamic world. Even if she was better known as a novelist, she also published some works on philosophy, Islam, poetry. In addition, Aliye who was one of the pioneers of the Ottoman women’s movement, also wrote historical works. Her historical works which titled as Tarih-i Osmaninin Bir Devre-i Mühimmesi Kosova Zaferi-Ankara Hezimeti (An Important Era of the Ottoman History: Kosova Victory-Ankara Defeat), and Ahmed Cevdet Paşa ve Zamanı (Ahmed Cevdet Pasha and His Time) have been generally ignored in the literature. However, Aliye’s works in history field are worth being studied in terms of her methodological approach to the Ottoman historiography. On the other hand, written by Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, such as Tarih-i Cevdet (History of Cevdet), Tezâkir (Memoir), Mâruzat (Reports, the events that took place between 1839-1876, 1890), Kısas-ı Enbiya ve Tevârîh-i Hulefa (Retaliation of the Prophets and the History of Calips), Kırım ve Kafkas Tarihçesi (Crimean and Caucasian History) are the most important works in terms of historiography in the 19th century. In contrast to the traditional methodology, Cevdet Pasha brought a new understanding to the Ottoman historiography by making a synthesis between the traditional and modern methods. In this research, the historical works of these two prominent figures of the Ottoman State will be analyzed in terms of their approaches to the Ottoman historiography while evaluating the following questions: to what extent that their use of local and foreign historical sources and their handling of the historical events differ, or if it is possible to talk about a methodological similarities in terms of historiography.

Keywords: Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, Fatma Aliye, historiography, methodology

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6 Effect of Proteoliposome Concentration on Salt Rejection Rate of Polysulfone Membrane Prepared by Incorporation of Escherichia coli and Halomonas elongata Aquaporins

Authors: Aysenur Ozturk, Aysen Yildiz, Hilal Yilmaz, Pinar Ergenekon, Melek Ozkan


Water scarcity is one of the most important environmental problems of the World today. Desalination process is regarded as a promising solution to solve drinking water problem of the countries facing with water shortages. Reverse osmosis membranes are widely used for desalination processes. Nano structured biomimetic membrane production is one of the most challenging research subject for improving water filtration efficiency of the membranes and for reducing the cost of desalination processes. There are several researches in the literature on the development of novel biomimetic nanofiltration membranes by incorporation of aquaporin Z molecules. Aquaporins are cell membrane proteins that allow the passage of water molecules and reject all other dissolved solutes. They are present in cell membranes of most of the living organisms and provide high water passage capacity. In this study, GST (Glutathione S-transferas) tagged E. coli aquaporinZ and H. elongate aquaporin proteins, which were previously cloned and characterized, were purified from E. coli BL21 cells and used for fabrication of modified Polysulphone Membrane (PS). Aquaporins were incorporated on the surface of the membrane by using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) phospolipids as carrier liposomes. Aquaporin containing proteoliposomes were immobilized on the surface of the membrane with m-phenylene-diamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) rejection layer. Water flux, salt rejection and glucose rejection performances of the thin film composite membranes were tested by using Dead-End Reactor Cell. In this study, effect of proteoliposome concentration, and filtration pressure on water flux and salt rejection rate of membranes were investigated. Type of aquaporin used for membrane fabrication, flux and pressure applied for filtration were found to be important parameters affecting rejection rates. Results suggested that optimization of concentration of aquaporin carriers (proteoliposomes) on the membrane surface is necessary for fabrication of effective composite membranes used for different purposes.

Keywords: aquaporins, biomimmetic membranes, desalination, water treatment

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5 Gains and Pitfalls of Participating on International Staff Exchange Programs: Individual Experiences of Academic Staff of Makerere University, Uganda

Authors: David Onen


Staff exchanges amongst different work organizations are a growing international phenomenon. In higher education in particular, it is not only the staff participating on international exchange programs, but their students as well. The practice of exchanging staff is premised on the belief that participating members of staff would not only get the chance to network with colleagues from partner institutions but also gain the opportunity for knowledge sharing and skills development. As a result, it would not only benefit the participating individual staff but their institutions too. However, in practice, staff exchange programs everywhere are not all ‘a bed of roses’. In fact, some of the programs seem to be laden with unapparent source of trouble or danger for the participating staff. This paper is a report on an on-going study investigating the experiences of members of academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda who have ever participated on international staff exchange programs. The study is aimed at documenting individual experiences in order to stimulate, not only a debate, but practical ways of enriching the experiences of staff who engage on well-meant international staff exchange programs. The study has employed an exploratory survey research design in which self-administered questionnaire and interview guide are being used to collect data from university academic staff respondents selected through snow-ball and purposive sampling techniques. Data have been analysed with the use of appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics as well as content analysis techniques. Preliminary study findings reveal that the majority of the respondents (95.5%) were, to a large extent, fully satisfied with their participation on the staff exchange programs. Many attested to gaining new experience (97%), networking (75%), gaining new knowledge (94%), acquiring new skills (88%), and therefore bringing to their institutions something ‘new’ and ‘beneficial’. However, a reasonably large percentage (57%) of the participants too expressed dissatisfaction in the institutional support that Makerere University gave them during their participation on the exchange programs. Some respondents reported about the ‘unfriendly welcome’ they received upon returning ‘home’ because colleagues detested how they were chosen to participate on such programs. The researcher thus concluded that international staff exchange programs are truly beneficial to both the participating staff and their institutions though with pitfalls. The researcher thus recommended for mutual and preferably equal engagement of the participating institutions on staff exchange programs if such programs are to benefit both the participating staff and institutions. Besides, exchange programs require clear terms of cooperation including on how staff are selected, facilitated and what are expected of the sending and host institutions as well as the concerned staff.

Keywords: gains, exchange programs, higher education, pitfalls

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4 The Role of User Participation on Social Sustainability: A Case Study on Four Residential Areas

Authors: Hasan Taştan, Ayşen Ciravoğlu


The rapid growth of the human population and the environmental degradation associated with increased consumption of resources raises concerns on sustainability. Social sustainability constitutes one of the three dimensions of sustainability together with environmental and economic dimensions. Even though there is not an agreement on what social sustainability consists of, it is a well known fact that it necessitates user participation. The fore, this study aims to observe and analyze the role of user participation on social sustainability. In this paper, the links between user participation and indicators of social sustainability have been searched. In order to achieve this, first of all a literature review on social sustainability has been done; accordingly, the information obtained from researches has been used in the evaluation of the projects conducted in the developing countries considering user participation. These examples are taken as role models with pros and cons for the development of the checklist for the evaluation of the case studies. Furthermore, a case study over the post earthquake residential settlements in Turkey have been conducted. The case study projects are selected considering different building scales (differing number of residential units), scale of the problem (post-earthquake settlements, rehabilitation of shanty dwellings) and the variety of users (differing socio-economic dimensions). Decisionmaking, design, building and usage processes of the selected projects and actors of these processes have been investigated in the context of social sustainability. The cases include: New Gourna Village by Hassan Fathy, Quinta Monroy dwelling units conducted in Chile by Alejandro Aravena and Beyköy and Beriköy projects in Turkey aiming to solve the problem of housing which have appeared after the earthquake happened in 1999 have been investigated. Results of the study possible links between social sustainability indicators and user participation and links between user participation and the peculiarities of place. Results are compared and discussed in order to find possible solutions to form social sustainability through user participation. Results show that social sustainability issues depend on communities' characteristics, socio-economic conditions and user profile but user participation has positive effects on some social sustainability indicators like user satisfaction, a sense of belonging and social stability.

Keywords: housing projects, residential areas, social sustainability, user participation

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3 The Determination of Pb and Zn Phytoremediation Potential and Effect of Interaction between Cadmium and Zinc on Metabolism of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum)

Authors: Nurdan Olguncelik Kaplan, Aysen Akay


Nowadays soil pollution has become a global problem. External added polluters to the soil are destroying and changing the structure of the soil and the problems are becoming more complex and in this sense the correction of these problems is going to be harder and more costly. Cadmium has got a fast mobility in the soil and plant system because of that cadmium can interfere very easily to the human and animal food chain and in the same time this can be very dangerous. The cadmium which is absorbed and stored by the plants is causing to many metabolic changes of the plants like; protein synthesis, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme (nitrate reductase) activation, photo and chlorophyll synthesis. The biological function of cadmium is not known over the plants and it is not a necessary element. The plant is generally taking in small amounts the cadmium and this element is competing with the zinc. Cadmium is causing root damages. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is an important nutraceutical because of its high content of flavonoids, minerals and vitamins, and their nutritionally balanced amino-acid composition. Buckwheat has relatively high biomass productivity, is adapted to many areas of the world, and can flourish in sterile fields; therefore buckwheat plants are widely used for the phytoremediation process.The aim of this study were to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of the high-yielding plant Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in soils contaminated with Cd and Zn. The soils were applied to differrent doses cd(0-12.5-25-50-100 mg Cd kg−1 soil in the form of 3CdSO4.8H2O ) and Zn (0-10-30 mg Zn kg−1 soil in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O) and incubated about 60 days. Later buckwheat seeds were sown and grown for three mounth under greenhouse conditions. The test plants were irrigated by using pure water after the planting process. Buckwheat seeds (Gunes and Aktas species) were taken from Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research. After harvest, Cd and Zn concentrations of plant biomass and grain, yield and translocation factors (TFs) for Cd and Cd were determined. Cadmium accumulation in biomass and grain significantly increased in dose-dependent manner. Long term field trials are required to further investigate the potential of buckwheat to reclaimed the soil. But this could be undertaken in conjunction with actual remediation schemes. However, the differences in element accumulation among the genotypes were affected more by the properties of genotypes than by the soil properties. Gunes genotype accumulated higher lead than Aktas genotypes.

Keywords: buckwheat, cadmium, phytoremediation, zinc

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2 Open Space Use in University Campuses with User Requirements Analysis: The Case of Eskişehir Osmangazi University Meşelik Campus

Authors: Aysen Celen Ozturk, Hatice Dulger


University may be defined as a teaching institution consisting of faculties, institutes, colleges, and units that have undergraduate and graduate education, scientific research and publications. It has scientific autonomy and public legal personality. Today, universities are not only the institutions in which students and lecturers experience education, training and scientific work. They also offer social, cultural and artistic activities that strengthen the link with the city. This also incorporates all city users into the campus borders. Thus, universities contribute to social and individual development of the country by providing science, art, socio-cultural development, communication and socialization with people of different cultural and social backgrounds. Moreover, universities provide an active social life, where the young population is the majority. This enables the sense of belonging to the users to develop, to increase the interaction between academicians and students, and to increase the learning / producing community by continuing academic sharing environments outside the classrooms. For this reason, besides academic spaces in university campuses, the users also need closed and open spaces where they can socialize, spend time together and relax. Public open spaces are the most important social spaces that individuals meet, express themselves and share. Individuals belonging to different socio-cultural structures and ethnic groups maintain their social experiences with the physical environment they are in, the outdoors, and their actions and sharing in these spaces. While university campuses are being designed for their individual and social development roles, user needs must be determined correctly and design should be realized in this direction. While considering that requirements may change over time, user satisfaction should be questioned at certain periods and new arrangements should be made in existing applications in the direction of current demands. This study aims to determine the user requirements through the case of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Meşelik Campus / Turkey. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) questionnaire, cognitive mapping and deep interview methods are used in the research process. All these methods show that the students, academicians and other officials in the Meşelik Campus of Eskişehir Osmangazi University find way finding elements insufficient and are in need of efficient landscape design and social spaces. This study is important in terms of determining the needs of the users as a design input. This will help improving the quality of common space in Eskişehir Osmangazi University and in other similar universities.

Keywords: university campuses, public open space, user requirement, post occupancy evaluation

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1 Influence of Torrefied Biomass on Co-Combustion Behaviors of Biomass/Lignite Blends

Authors: Aysen Caliskan, Hanzade Haykiri-Acma, Serdar Yaman


Co-firing of coal and biomass blends is an effective method to reduce carbon dioxide emissions released by burning coals, thanks to the carbon-neutral nature of biomass. Besides, usage of biomass that is renewable and sustainable energy resource mitigates the dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. However, most of the biomass species has negative aspects such as low calorific value, high moisture and volatile matter contents compared to coal. Torrefaction is a promising technique in order to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass through thermal treatment. That is, this technique improves the calorific value of biomass along with serious reductions in the moisture and volatile matter contents. In this context, several woody biomass materials including Rhododendron, hybrid poplar, and ash-tree were subjected to torrefaction process in a horizontal tube furnace at 200°C under nitrogen flow. In this way, the solid residue obtained from torrefaction that is also called as 'biochar' was obtained and analyzed to monitor the variations taking place in biomass properties. On the other hand, some Turkish lignites from Elbistan, Adıyaman-Gölbaşı and Çorum-Dodurga deposits were chosen as coal samples since these lignites are of great importance in lignite-fired power stations in Turkey. These lignites were blended with the obtained biochars for which the blending ratio of biochars was kept at 10 wt% and the lignites were the dominant constituents in the fuel blends. Burning tests of the lignites, biomasses, biochars, and blends were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer up to 900°C with a heating rate of 40°C/min under dry air atmosphere. Based on these burning tests, properties relevant to burning characteristics such as the burning reactivity and burnout yields etc. could be compared to justify the effects of torrefaction and blending. Besides, some characterization techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also conducted for the untreated biomass and torrefied biomass (biochar) samples, lignites and their blends to examine the co-combustion characteristics elaborately. Results of this study revealed the fact that blending of lignite with 10 wt% biochar created synergistic behaviors during co-combustion in comparison to the individual burning of the ingredient fuels in the blends. Burnout and ignition performances of each blend were compared by taking into account the lignite and biomass structures and characteristics. The blend that has the best co-combustion profile and ignition properties was selected. Even though final burnouts of the lignites were decreased due to the addition of biomass, co-combustion process acts as a reasonable and sustainable solution due to its environmentally friendly benefits such as reductions in net carbon dioxide (CO2), SOx and hazardous organic chemicals derived from volatiles.

Keywords: burnout performance, co-combustion, thermal analysis, torrefaction pretreatment

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