Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: O. T. Olateju

3 The Use of Rice Husk Ash as a Stabilizing Agent in Lateritic Clay Soil

Authors: J. O. Akinyele, R. W. Salim, K. O. Oikelome, O. T. Olateju

Abstract:

Rice Husk (RH) is the major byproduct in the processing of paddy rice. The management of this waste has become a big challenge to some of the rice producers, some of these wastes are left in open dumps while some are burn in the open space, and these two actions have been contributing to environmental pollution. This study evaluates an alternative waste management of this agricultural product for use as a civil engineering material. The RH was burn in a controlled environment to form Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The RHA was mix with lateritic clay at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% proportion by weight. Chemical test was conducted on the open burn and controlled burn RHA with the lateritic clay. Physical test such as particle size distribution, Atterberg limits test, and density test were carried out on the mix material. The chemical composition obtained for the RHA showed that the total percentage compositions of Fe2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 were found to be above 70% (class “F” pozzolan) which qualifies it as a very good pozzolan. The coefficient of uniformity (Cu) was 8 and coefficient of curvature (Cc) was 2 for the soil sample. The Plasticity Index (PI) for the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8. 10% was 21.0, 18.8, 16.7, 14.4, 12.4 and 10.7 respectively. The work concluded that RHA can be effectively used in hydraulic barriers and as a stabilizing agent in soil stabilization.

Keywords: rice husk ash, pozzolans, paddy rice, lateritic clay

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2 The Impact of Access to Microcredit Programme on Women Empowerment: A Case Study of Cowries Microfinance Bank in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Adijat Olubukola Olateju

Abstract:

Women empowerment is an essential developmental tool in every economy especially in less developed countries; as it helps to enhance women's socio-economic well-being. Some empirical evidence has shown that microcredit has been an effective tool in enhancing women empowerment, especially in developing countries. This paper therefore, investigates the impact of microcredit programme on women empowerment in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study used Cowries Microfinance Bank (CMB) as a case study bank, and a total of 359 women entrepreneurs were selected by simple random sampling technique from the list of Cowries Microfinance Bank. Selection bias which could arise from non-random selection of participants or non-random placement of programme, was adjusted for by dividing the data into participant women entrepreneurs and non-participant women entrepreneurs. The data were analyzed with a Propensity Score Matching (PSM) technique. The result of the Average Treatment Effect on the Treated (ATT) obtained from the PSM indicates that the credit programme has a significant effect on the empowerment of women in the study area. It is therefore, recommended that microfinance banks should be encouraged to give loan to women and for more impact of the loan to be felt by the beneficiaries the loan programme should be complemented with other programmes such as training, grant, and periodic monitoring of programme should be encouraged.

Keywords: empowerment, microcredit, socio-economic wellbeing, development

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1 Application of Electrical Resistivity Surveys on Constraining Causes of Highway Pavement Failure along Ajaokuta-Anyigba Road, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Moroof, O. Oloruntola, Sunday Oladele, Daniel, O. Obasaju, Victor, O Ojekunle, Olateju, O. Bayewu, Ganiyu, O. Mosuro

Abstract:

Integrated geophysical methods involving Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2D resistivity survey were deployed to gain an insight into the influence of the two varying rock types (mica-schist and granite gneiss) underlying the road alignment to the incessant highway failure along Ajaokuta-Anyigba, North-central Nigeria. The highway serves as a link-road for the single largest cement factory in Africa (Dangote Cement Factory) and two major ceramic industries to the capital (Abuja) via Lokoja. 2D Electrical Resistivity survey (Dipole-Dipole Array) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) (Schlumberger array) were employed. Twenty-two (22) 2D profiles were occupied, twenty (20) conducted about 1 m away from the unstable section underlain by mica-schist with profile length each of approximately 100 m. Two (2) profiles were conducted about 1 m away from the stable section with a profile length of 100 m each due to barriers caused by the drainage system and outcropping granite gneiss at the flanks of the road. A spacing of 2 m was used for good image resolution of the near-surface. On each 2D profile, a range of 1-3 VES was conducted; thus, forty-eight (48) soundings were acquired. Partial curve matching and WinResist software were used to obtain the apparent and true resistivity values of the 1D survey, while DiprofWin software was used for processing the 2-D survey. Two exposed lithologic sections caused by abandoned river channels adjacent to two profiles as well as the knowledge of the geology of the area helped to constrain the VES and 2D processing and interpretation. Generally, the resistivity values obtained reflect the parent rock type, degree of weathering, moisture content and competency of the tested area. Resistivity values < 100; 100 – 950; 1000 – 2000 and > 2500 ohms-m were interpreted as clay, weathered layer, partly weathered layer and fresh basement respectively. The VES results and 2-D resistivity structures along the unstable segment showed similar lithologic characteristics and sequences dominated by clayey substratum for depths range of 0 – 42.2 m. The clayey substratum is a product of intensive weathering of the parent rock (mica-schist) and constitutes weak foundation soils, causing highway failure. This failure is further exacerbated by several heavy-duty trucks which ply the section round the clock due to proximity to two major ceramic industries in the state and lack of drainage system. The two profiles on the stable section show 2D structures that are remarkably different from those of the unstable section with very thin topsoils, higher resistivity weathered substratum (indicating the presence of coarse fragments from the parent rock) and shallow depth to the basement (1.0 – 7. 1 m). Also, the presence of drainage and lower volume of heavy-duty trucks are contributors to the pavement stability of this section of the highway. The resistivity surveys effectively delineated two contrasting soil profiles of the subbase/subgrade that reflect variation in the mineralogy of underlying parent rocks.

Keywords: clay, geophysical methods, pavement, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 58