Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Muti Ur Rehman

72 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

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71 Effect of Supplemental Bacterial Phytase at Different Dietary Levels of Phosphorus on Tibial Bone Characteristics and Body Weight Gain in Broilers

Authors: Saqib Saleem Abdullah, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Shela Gul Bokhari, Muti Ur Rehman, Jamil Akbar

Abstract:

A 5- weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effectiveness of Bacterial Phytase (Phyzyme®) in broilers, at different dietary levels of Phosphorous. 140 d-old broilers (Hubbard) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=4). Birds were fed corn-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 different levels of non Phytate Phosphorous (NPP) (0.45 %, 0.30 % and 0.15 %). Furthermore, the diets were supplemented with bacterial Phytase. Birds were fed ad libitum and kept under thermo neutral conditions. The parameters studied were; body weight gain (BWG), tibial bone characteristics (TBC), serum Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) levels and tibia ash percentage (TAP). BWG of the broilers was calculated at weekly interval and remaining parameters were calculated after slaughtering the birds at 35thday. Results suggested that Phytase supplementation at 0.30% NPP (Non Phytate Phosphorus + Bacterial Phytase) increased (P < 0.05) the BWG, bone length, bone weight, tibiotarsal index, medullary canal diameter and diaphysis diameter however, rubosticity index was reduced to minimum (P < 0.05) at this dietary level of phosphorous when compared with other groups. Maximum (P < 0.05) rubosticity index was observed in control group with 0% Phytase. Furthermore, Phytase addition at 0.30 % NPP also improved (P < 0.05) Ca, P and AP levels in the blood. Phytase supplementation at lower phosphorus level (0.30%NPP) improved BWG and TBC including bone density and bone quality in broilers hence it can be concluded that addition of Phytase at 0.30% NPP may prove beneficial for bone and overall performance in broilers.

Keywords: diaphysis diameter, phytase, rubosticity index, tibia

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
70 Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

Authors: Aman Ullah Khan, Muhammad Younus, Aqil Ijaz, Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Asif Idrees, Sanan Raza, Amar Nasir

Abstract:

Dengue fever and malaria are important vector-borne diseases of public health significance affecting millions of people around the globe. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus while malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoan. Generally, the consequences of Malaria are less severe compared to dengue fever. This study was designed to differentiate dengue fever and malaria on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and to compare the changes in both diseases having different causative agents transmitted by the common vector. A total of 200 patients of dengue viral infection (120 males, 80 females) were included in this prospective descriptive study. The blood samples of the individuals were first screened for malaria by blood smear examination and then the negative samples were tested by anti-dengue IgM strip. The strip positive cases were further screened by IgM capture ELISA and their complete blood count including hemoglobin estimation (Hb), total and differential leukocyte counts (TLC and DLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet counts were performed. On the basis of the severity of signs and symptoms, dengue virus infected patients were subdivided into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) comprising 70 and 100 confirmed patients, respectively. On the other hand, 30 patients were found infected with Malaria while overall 120 patients showed thrombocytopenia. The patients of DHF were found to have more leucopenia, raised hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia < 50,000/µl compared to the patients belonging to DF and malaria. On the basis of the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that patients affected by DF were at a lower risk of undergoing haematological disturbance than suffering from DHF. While, the patients infected by Malaria were found to have no significant change in their blood components.

Keywords: dengue fever, blood, serum, malaria, ELISA

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69 Numerical Study of the Dynamic Behavior of an Air Conditioning with a Muti Confined Swirling Jet

Authors: Mohamed Roudane

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to know the dynamic behavior of a multi swirling jet used for air conditioning inside a room. To conduct this study, we designed a facility to ensure proper conditions of confinement in which we placed five air blowing devices with adjustable vanes, providing multiple swirling turbulent jets. The jets were issued in the same direction and the same spacing defined between them. This study concerned the numerical simulation of the dynamic mixing of confined swirling multi-jets, and examined the influence of important parameters of a swirl diffuser system on the dynamic performance characteristics. The CFD investigations are carried out by a hybrid mesh to discretize the computational domain. In this work, the simulations have been performed using the finite volume method and FLUENT solver, in which the standard k-ε RNG turbulence model was used for turbulence computations.

Keywords: simulation, dynamic behavior, swirl, turbulent jet

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68 Investigating the Morphological Patterns of Lip Prints and Their Effectiveness in Individualization and Gender Determination in Pakistani Population

Authors: Makhdoom Saad Wasim Ghouri, Muneeba Butt, Mohammad Ashraf Tahir, Rashid Bhatti, Akbar Ali, Abdul Rehman, Abdul Basit, Muzzamel Rehman, Shahbaz Aslam, Farakh Mansoor, Ahmad Fayyaz, Hadia Siddiqui

Abstract:

Lip print analysis (Cheiloscopy) is the new emerging technique that might be the guardian angel in establishing the personal identity. Cheiloscopy is basically the study of elevations and depressions present on the external surface of the lips. In our study, 600 lip prints samples were taken (300 males and 300 females). Lip prints of each individual were divided into four quadrants and the upper middle portion. For general classification, middle part of the lower lip almost 10 mm wide would be taken into consideration. After analysis of lip-prints, our results show that lip prints are the unique and permanent character of every individual. No two lip print was matched with each other even of the identical twins. Our study reveals that there is equal distribution of lip print patterns among all the four quadrants of lips and the upper middle portion; these distributions were statistically analyzed by applying chi-square test which shows the significant results. In general classification, 5 lip print types/patterns were studied, Type 1 (Vertical lines), Type 2 (Branched pattern), Type 3 (Intersected pattern), Type 4 (Reticular pattern) and Type 5 (Undetermined). Type 1 and Type 2 were found to be the most frequent patterns in female population, while Type 3 and Type 4 most commonly found in male population. These results were also analyzed by applying Chi-square test, and the results show significance statistically. Thus, establishing sex determination on the basis of lip print types among the gender. Type 5 was the least common pattern among genders.

Keywords: cheiloscopy, distribution, quadrants, sex determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
67 Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Modeling of Civic Facilities Using GIS Applications: A Case Study of F-11, Islamabad

Authors: Asma Shaheen Hashmi, Omer Riaz, Khalid Mahmood, Fahad Ullah, Tanveer Ahmad

Abstract:

The urban landscapes are being change with the population growth and advancements in new technologies. The urban sprawl pattern and utilizes are related to the local socioeconomic and physical condition. Urban policy decisions are executed mostly through spatial planning. A decision support system (DSS) is very powerful tool which provides flexible knowledge base method for urban planning. An application was developed using geographical information system (GIS) for urban planning. A scenario based DSS was developed to integrate the hierarchical muti-criteria data of different aspects of urban landscape. These were physical environment, the dumping site, spatial distribution of road network, gas and water supply lines, and urban watershed management, selection criteria for new residential, recreational, commercial and industrial sites. The model provided a framework to incorporate the sustainable future development. The data can be entered dynamically by planners according to the appropriate criteria for the management of urban landscapes.

Keywords: urban, GIS, spatial, criteria

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66 An Analysis and Design of Mobile Payment System Based on NFC Technology

Authors: Shafiq ur Rehman, Zubair Ahmed Shaikh

Abstract:

This research provides the comparative study of different mobile payment system and proposes an efficient solution of mobile payment system. The research involves discovering how the mobile payment methods can be used and implemented keeping user and system interaction under consideration. The implementation of Nielsen’s heuristic and universal design principles enhanced the user’s interaction design and made the system more appropriate, understandable and visible to the end user. The design of application is greatly affected by the user driven factors. These factors help in the efficiency of the application usage.

Keywords: mobile payment system, m-commerce, usability, near field communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
65 Production of Gluten-Free Bread Using Emulsifying Salts and Rennet Casein

Authors: A. Morina, S. Ö. Muti, M. Öztürk

Abstract:

Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease observed in individuals with gluten intolerance. In this study, our aim was to create a protein matrix to mimic the functional properties of gluten. For this purpose, rennet casein and four emulsifying salts (disodium phosphate (DSP), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP)) were investigated in gluten-free bread manufacture. Compositional, textural, and visual properties of the gluten-free bread dough and gluten-free breads were investigated by a two–level factorial experimental design with two-star points (α = 1.414) and two replicates of the center point. Manufacturing gluten-free bread with rennet casein and SHMP significantly increased the bread volume (P < 0.0001, R² = 97.8). In general, utilization of rennet casein with DSP and SAPP increased bread hardness while no difference was observed in samples manufactured with TSPP and SHMP. Except for TSPP, bread color was improved by the utilization of rennet casein and DSP, SAPP, and SHMP combinations. In conclusion, it is possible to manufacture gluten-free bread with acceptable texture and color by rennet casein and SHMP.

Keywords: celiac disease, gluten-free bread, emulsified salts, rennet casein, rice flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
64 A 'Four Method Framework' for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: software architecture, architecture erosion, prescriptive architecture, descriptive architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
63 Magnetohydrodynamic 3D Maxwell Fluid Flow Towards a Horizontal Stretched Surface with Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malika, Farzana, Abdul Rehman

Abstract:

The study deals with the steady, 3D MHD boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid flow due to a horizontal surface stretched exponentially in two lateral directions. The temperature at the boundary is assumed to be distributed exponentially and possesses convective boundary conditions. The governing nonlinear system of partial differential equations along with associated boundary conditions is simplified using a suitable transformation and the obtained set of ordinary differential equations is solved through numerical techniques. The effects of important involved parameters associated with fluid flow and heat flux are shown through graphs.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, exponentially stretched surface, Maxwell fluid, numerical solution

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62 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems

Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman

Abstract:

The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.

Keywords: fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
61 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CBD, CdS, CdTe, CSS

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60 Detection of Selected Heavy Metals in Raw Milk: Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Huma Naeem, Saif-Ur-Rehman Kashif, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry

Abstract:

Milk plays a significant role in the dietary requirements of human beings as it is a single source that provides various essential nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentration in the raw milk marketed in Data Gunj Baksh Town of Lahore. A total of 180 samples of raw milk were collected in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season from five colonies of Data Gunj Baksh Town, Lahore. The milk samples were subjected to heavy metal analysis (Cr, Cu) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated high levels of Cr and Cu in post-monsoon seasons. Heavy metals were detected in milk in all samples under study and exceeded the standards given by FAO.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrophotometer, chromium, copper, heavy metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
59 Green Technology for the Treatment of Industrial Effluent Contaminated with Dyes

Authors: Afzaal Gulzar, Shafaq Mubarak, M. Zia-Ur-Rehman

Abstract:

Industrial waste waters put environmental constrains to the water quality of aqueous reserves. Number of techniques has been used to treat them before disposal to water bodies. In this work a novel green approach is study by using poultry waste eggshells as a low cost efficient adsorbent for the dyes present in industrial effluent of textile and paper industries. The developed technique not only used to treat contaminated waters but also resulted in the utilization of poultry eggshell waste which in turn assists in solid waste management. Batch sorption studies like contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, temp and pH has been conducted to find the optimum adsorption parameters.

Keywords: green technology, solid waste management, industrial effluent, eggshell waste utilization, waste water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
58 Approaches to Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Subjected to Different Supports, Loadings and Boundary Conditions: A Literature Review

Authors: Fazl E. Ahad, Shi Dongyan, Anees Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Plates are one of the most important structural components used in many industries like aerospace, marine and various other engineering fields and thus motivate designers and engineers to study the vibrational characteristics of these structures. This paper is a review of existing literature on vibration analysis of plates. Focus has been kept on prominent studies related to isotropic plates based on Mindlin plate theory; however few citations on orthotropic plates and higher order shear deformation theories have also been included. All citations are in English language. This review is aimed to provide contemporarily relevant survey of papers on vibrational characteristics of thick plates and will be useful for scientists, designers and researchers to locate important and relevant literature/research quickly.

Keywords: mindlin plates, vibrations, arbitrary boundary conditions, mode shapes, natural frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
57 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique of CdS Used in Closed Space Sublimation of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Z. Mahmood, F. U. Babar, S. Naz, H. U. Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Ellipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here). The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper-indium–gallium-selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %. The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD), cadmium sulphide (CdS), CdTe, CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
56 Application of Soft Sets to Non-Associative Rings

Authors: Inayatur Rehman

Abstract:

Molodtstove developed the theory of soft sets which can be seen as an effective tool to deal with uncertainties. Since the introduction of this concept, the application of soft sets has been restricted to associative algebraic structures (groups, semi groups, associative rings, semi-rings etc.). Acceptably, though the study of soft sets, where the base set of parameters is a commutative structure, has attracted the attention of many researchers for more than one decade. But on the other hand there are many sets which are naturally endowed by two compatible binary operations forming a non-associative ring and we may dig out examples which investigate a non-associative structure in the context of soft sets. Thus it seems natural to apply the concept of soft sets to non-commutative and non-associative structures. In present paper, we make a new approach to apply Molodtsoves notion of soft sets to LA-ring (a class of non-associative ring). We extend the study of soft commutative rings from theoretical aspect.

Keywords: soft sets, LA-rings, soft LA-rings, soft ideals, soft prime ideals, idealistic soft LA-rings, LA-ring homomorphism

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55 A Gender Sensitive Labour Policy for Gilgit Baltistan

Authors: Ayesha Obaid, Abdur Rehman Cheema

Abstract:

This study is about understanding the role of the gender division of work that has been assigned to men and women in different societies and cultures and its impact on labour force participation through economic development. Development in Gilgit Baltistan has been challenging due to its geographical conditions and the human development indicators are lower than the rest of the Pakistan. Various socioeconomic factors are identified that play an important role in determining the choices and roles men and women undertake for contributing towards the labour force. Our research highlights the areas lagging behind in gender equality in the labour market. The availability and access of gender over these socioeconomic resources determine gender mainstreaming in the labour market. It is a need of time that gender gaps should be addressed at the grass root level by the policy makers to enhance the growth and improve human development indicators.

Keywords: gender division of work, human development, indicators of socioeconomic factors, labour force

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
54 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
53 How Information Sharing Can Improve Organizational Performance?

Authors: Syed Abdul Rehman Khan

Abstract:

In today’s world, information sharing plays a vital role in successful operations of supply chain; and boost to the profitability of the organizations (end-to-end supply chains). Many researches have been completed over the role of information sharing in supply chain. In this research article, we will investigate the ‘how information sharing can boost profitability & productivity of the organization; for this purpose, we have developed one conceptual model and check to that model through collected data from companies. We sent questionnaire to 369 companies; and will filled form received from 172 firms and the response rate was almost 47%. For the data analysis, we have used Regression in (SPSS software) In the research findings, our all hypothesis has been accepted significantly and due to the information sharing between suppliers and manufacturers ‘quality of material and timely delivery’ increase and also ‘collaboration & trust’ will become more stronger and these all factors will lead to the company’s profitability directly and in-directly. But unfortunately, companies could not avail the all fruitful benefits of information sharing due to the fear of ‘compromise confidentiality or leakage of information’.

Keywords: collaboration, information sharing, risk factor, timely delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
52 Insecticide Efficacy against Jassids in Egg Plants

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, Farhan Ali, Muhammad Saeed-Ur-Rehman

Abstract:

Jassids are considered as serious sucking pests in eggplants. Jassids can be controlled using imidacloprid, but it can also result in non-target ecological impacts on eco-system. It can also result in reduced population of predators of jassids in the field. An experiment was conducted on jassids, Amrasca sp. reared on eggplant leaves were treated with insecticide imidacloprid at lower, recommended and higher doses including 1L, 2L, 3L respectively. 3rd instar larvae and adults of jassids were exposed to lower, recommended, higher doses. Mortality tests were repeated three times for each dose and insect growth stage. Imidacloprid was sprayed on the leaves followed by drying. Data was recorded for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 hours after spraying insecticide on the leaves. Results showed that higher mortality was observed in higher and recommended doses, while slow mortality was observed in the case of lower dose. It can be asserted that higher and recommended doses causing immediate mortality of insects are better to control Amrasca sp. in the field, it will not cause immediate resistance development in insects against imidacloprid.

Keywords: Amrasca sp., imidacloprid, egg plant, efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
51 Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of Suaeda Heterophylla to Abiotic Stresses

Authors: Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Zaheer Ahmed, Salman Gulzar, Bilquees Gul, Jan Alam, Ahmad K. Hegazy, Abdel Rehman A. Alatar, M. Ajmal Khan

Abstract:

Seed germination and recovery from salt stress of an annual halophyte Suaeda heterophylla (Kar. and Kir.) Bunge to different iso-osmotic concentrations (0, -0.46, -0.92, -1.38, -1.84, and -2.30 MPa) of NaCl and PEG-6000 at 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35°C in both 12-h temperature and light regimes and in complete darkness were studied. Maximum number of seeds germinated in distilled water and increase in concentrations of both NaCl and PEG-6000 decreased germination at all temperature regimes, light and dark conditions, with higher inhibition in NaCl than PEG-6000. Recovery of germination and viability of seeds were lower in NaCl than PEG-6000 both in the light and dark. Moderate alternate temperatures (20/30°C) and 12-h photoperiod were found to be the optimal for seed germination and recovery. Better seed germination of S. heterophylla when osmotic potential caused both by NaCl and PEG 6000 is lower, temperature regime of 20/30°C and light regime is for 12 h.

Keywords: seed germination, abiotic stresses, Suaeda heterophylla, molecular biology

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
50 Emperical Correlation for Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity of Spherical Shaped Food Products under Forced Convection Environment

Authors: M. Riaz, Inamur Rehman, Abhishek Sharma

Abstract:

The present work is the development of an experimental method for determining the thermal diffusivity variations with temperature of selected regular shaped solid fruits and vegetables subjected to forced convection cooling. Experimental investigations were carried on the sample chosen (potato and brinjal), which is approximately of spherical geometry. The variation of temperature within the food product is measured at several locations from centre to skin, under forced convection environment using a deep freezer, maintained at -10°C.This method uses one dimensional Fourier equation applied to regular shapes. For this, the experimental temperature data obtained from cylindrical and spherical shaped products during pre-cooling was utilised. Such temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles can be readily used with other information such as degradation rate, etc. to evaluate thermal treatments based on cold air cooling methods for storage of perishable food products.

Keywords: thermal diffusivity, skin temperature, precooling, forced convection, regular shaped

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49 Reformed Curricula for the Religious Educational Institutions in Pakistan and the Muslim World

Authors: Hafiz Khubaib Ur Rehman Awan

Abstract:

Education used to play a central role in the formation and transfiguration of society since early times, owing in part to the centrality of scripture and its study in the human circles. According to the Islamic purpose of education, its pivotal contribution in the society is to produce a balanced growth of the entire persona of an individual through training the spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings, and bodily senses such that faith is infused into the whole personality. The purpose of this study is to attempt the exploration of the development of the Islamic religious curriculum in the Islamic world with an emphasis on Pakistan because this homeland came into existence under the name of Islam. This study persists of necessary historical background on the curricular reform of religious education in Pakistan and their impact on it and the suburban countries. However, the mainstay of this paper bases on reform in the religious education curriculum and the challenges faced by Pakistan and the Islamic world. Some suggestions are positioned at the end for areas of Islamic religious education and the improvement of Islamic curricular reform, especially in Pakistan and generally in Muslim countries.

Keywords: curricula, religious educational institutions, Pakistan, Muslim world, educational, religious , curricula

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
48 Modification Effect of CeO2 on Pt-Pd Nano Sized Catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

Authors: Ateeq Ur Rehman

Abstract:

This article deals with the promotional effects of CeO2 on PtPd/CeO2-OMC electrocatalysts. The synthesized catalysts are characterized using different physicochemical techniques and evaluated in a formic acid oxidation fuel cell. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis shows that CeO2 modification increases the surface area of OMC from 1005 m2/g to 1119 m2/g. SEM, XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the presence of CeO2 enhances the active metal(s) dispersion on the CeO2-OMC surface. The average particle size of the dispersed metal decreases with the increase of Pt/Pd ratio on CeO2-OMC support. Cyclic voltametry measurement of Pd/CeO2-OMC gives 12 % higher anodic current activity with 83 mV negative shift of the peak potential as compared to unmodified Pd/OMC. In bimetallic catalysts, the addition of Pt improves the activity and stability of the catalysts significantly. Among the bimetallic samples, Pd3Pt1/CeO2-OMC displays superior current density (74.6 mA/cm2), which is 28.3 times higher than that of Pt/CeO2-OMC. It also shows higher stability in extended period of runs with least indication of CO poisoning effects.

Keywords: CeO2, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), nano particles, formic acid fuel cell

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47 Enhanced Modification Effect of CeO2 on Pt-Pd Binary Catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

Authors: Azeem Ur Rehman, Asma Tayyaba

Abstract:

This article deals with the promotional effects of CeO2 on PtPd/CeO2-OMC electro catalysts. The synthesized catalysts are characterized using different physico chemical techniques and evaluated in a formic acid oxidation fuel cell. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis shows that CeO2 modification increases the surface area of OMC from 1005 m2/g to 1119 m2/g. SEM, XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the presence of CeO2 enhances the active metal(s) dispersion on the CeO2-OMC surface. The average particle size of the dispersed metal decreases with the increase of Pt/Pd ratio on CeO2-OMC support. Cyclic voltametry measurement of Pd/CeO2-OMC gives 12 % higher anodic current activity with 83 mV negative shift of the peak potential as compared to unmodified Pd/OMC. In bimetallic catalysts, the addition of Pt improves the activity and stability of the catalysts significantly. Among the bimetallic samples, Pd3Pt1/CeO2-OMC displays superior current density (74.6 mA/cm2), which is 28.3 times higher than that of Pt/CeO2-OMC. It also shows higher stability in extended period of runs with least indication of CO poisoning effects.

Keywords: CeO2, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), electro catalyst, formic acid fuel cell

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46 The Viability of Islamic Finance and Its Impact on Global Financial Stability: Evidence from Practical Implications

Authors: Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Muhammad Saarim Ghazi, Amir Khalil ur Rehman

Abstract:

This study examines the factors which influence and contribute towards the financial viability of Islamic finance and its impact on global financial stability. However, the purpose of this paper is to differentiate the practical implications of both Islamic and conventional finance on global financial stability. The Islamic finance is asset backed financing which creates wealth through trade, commerce and believes in risk and return sharing. Islamic banking is asset driven as against to conventional banking which is liability driven. In order to introduce new financial products for market, financial innovation in Islamic finance must be within the Shari’ah parameters that are tested against the ‘Maqasid al-Shari’ah’. Interest-based system leads to income and wealth inequalities and mis-allocation of resources. Moreover, this system has absence of just and equitable aspect of distribution that may exploit either the debt holder or the financier. Such implications are reached to a tipping point that leaves only one choice: change or face continued decline and misery.

Keywords: viability, global financial stability, practical implications, asset driven, tipping point

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45 Studies on the Prevalence and Determination of Associated Risk Factors of Babesia in Goats of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Rao Zahid Abbas, Wasim Babar, Arbab Sikandar

Abstract:

Babesiosis is an infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host (variety of vertebrates) including small ruminants and is responsible for decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to evaluate the prevalence of Babesia and its relation with various associated factors in district Toba Tek Singh, Central Punjab, Pakistan in 2009-2010. A total 10.84% (50/461) out of 461 examined cases for Babesia were found positive for Babesia infection. Month-wise peak prevalence was observed in July (17.95%), while no positive case was recorded in Dec-2009 and Jan-2010. The prevalence of infection in different goat breeds was found as non-significant (P < 0.05) for Babesia infection. The prevalence of Babesia was found significantly (P < 0.05) dependent to the goat age and sex. The feeding system, housing system, floor type and herd size revealed strong correlation with Babesia prevalence, while watering system and body conditions were found to be non-significant (P < 0.05), and hence it is suggested that with the improvement of management precautions Babesiosis can be avoided.

Keywords: Babesia, goat, prevalence, Pakistan, risk factors

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44 A Brain Controlled Robotic Gait Trainer for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Qazi Umer Jamil, Abubakr Siddique, Mubeen Ur Rehman, Nida Aziz, Mohsin I. Tiwana

Abstract:

This paper discusses a brain controlled robotic gait trainer for neurorehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients. Patients suffering from Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) become unable to execute motion control of their lower proximities due to degeneration of spinal cord neurons. The presented approach can help SCI patients in neuro-rehabilitation training by directly translating patient motor imagery into walkers motion commands and thus bypassing spinal cord neurons completely. A non-invasive EEG based brain-computer interface is used for capturing patient neural activity. For signal processing and classification, an open source software (OpenVibe) is used. Classifiers categorize the patient motor imagery (MI) into a specific set of commands that are further translated into walker motion commands. The robotic walker also employs fall detection for ensuring safety of patient during gait training and can act as a support for SCI patients. The gait trainer is tested with subjects, and satisfactory results were achieved.

Keywords: brain computer interface (BCI), gait trainer, spinal cord injury (SCI), neurorehabilitation

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43 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study

Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.

Keywords: Navier’s condition, Newtonian fluid model, chemical reaction, heat source/sink

Procedia PDF Downloads 90