Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: tibia

33 Management of Tibial Bone Defects Following Grade Three Injury in Adults

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Kanojia

Abstract:

Background; Massive bone gaps are common following road side accidents and injury to the tibia, specially open grade three fractures. It has been seen that the diaphyseal fractures in the tibia are prone to non-union, there are certain reasons known very well, like less soft tissues around the lower third tibia, less vascularity, less options of fixation of the fractures after trauma and prolonged surgical time, operation theatre time and special surgical means. Aim of study; To know the suitability of the ilizarov ring fixators in staged treatment of the fracture of the both bones leg, including tibia, we wish to see the role of ilizarov in management of open grade three fractures which have been operated and debrided, for getting the length use of ilizaorv ring in a tertiary canter is the aim of the study.

Keywords: open fracture, staged management, ilizarov, bone grafting, lengthening

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32 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro-computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and Tb.pf than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: laser, partial vibration, osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, mice

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31 The Osteocutaneous Distal Tibia Turn-over Fillet Flap: A Novel Spare-parts Orthoplastic Surgery Option for Functional Below-knee Amputation

Authors: Harry Burton, Alexios Dimitrios Iliadis, Neil Jones, Aaron Saini, Nicola Bystrzonowski, Alexandros Vris, Georgios Pafitanis

Abstract:

This article portrays the authors’ experience with a complex lower limb bone and soft tissue defect, following chronic osteomyelitis and pathological fracture, which was managed by the multidisciplinary orthoplastic team. The decision for functional amputation versus limb salvage was deemed necessary, enhanced by the principles of “spares parts” in reconstructive microsurgery. This case describes a successful use of the osteocutaneous distal tibia turn-over fillet flap that allowed ‘lowering the level of the amputation’ from a through knee to the conventional level of a below-knee amputation to preserve the knee joint function. This case demonstrates the value of ‘spare-parts’ surgery principles and how these concepts refine complex orthoplastic approaches when limb salvage is not possible to enhance function. The osteocutaneous distal tibia turn-over fillet flap is a robust technique for modified BKA reconstructions that provides sufficient bone length to achieve a tough, sensate stump and functional knee joint.

Keywords: osteocutaneous flap, fillet flap, spare-parts surgery, Below knee amputation

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
30 2D Convolutional Networks for Automatic Segmentation of Knee Cartilage in 3D MRI

Authors: Ananya Ananya, Karthik Rao

Abstract:

Accurate segmentation of knee cartilage in 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) images for quantitative assessment of volume is crucial for studying and diagnosing osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, one of the major causes of disability in elderly people. Radiologists generally perform this task in slice-by-slice manner taking 15-20 minutes per 3D image, and lead to high inter and intra observer variability. Hence automatic methods for knee cartilage segmentation are desirable and are an active field of research. This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of 2D convolutional neural networks based fully automated methods for knee cartilage segmentation in 3D MRI. The architectures are validated based on 40 test images and 60 training images from SKI10 dataset. The proposed methods segment 2D slices one by one, which are then combined to give segmentation for whole 3D images. Proposed methods are modified versions of U-net and dilated convolutions, consisting of a single step that segments the given image to 5 labels: background, femoral cartilage, tibia cartilage, femoral bone and tibia bone; cartilages being the primary components of interest. U-net consists of a contracting path and an expanding path, to capture context and localization respectively. Dilated convolutions lead to an exponential expansion of receptive field with only a linear increase in a number of parameters. A combination of modified U-net and dilated convolutions has also been explored. These architectures segment one 3D image in 8 – 10 seconds giving average volumetric Dice Score Coefficients (DSC) of 0.950 - 0.962 for femoral cartilage and 0.951 - 0.966 for tibia cartilage, reference being the manual segmentation.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, dilated convolutions, 3 dimensional, fully automated, knee cartilage, MRI, segmentation, U-net

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29 Tibial Hemimelia Type VIIa: A Case Report

Authors: M. Medrano, M. D. M. S., L. Younes, M. D.

Abstract:

Introduction: Incidence of tibial hemimelia is 1:1,000,000. Due to pre-existing case studies and literature, there is now a better understanding of the genetics, etiology and pathoanatomy of tibial hemimelia, but an underlying cause is generally unknown. This presentation aims to discuss a rare, congenital lower limb deficiency observed in a patient in order to identify potential prenatal risk factors and future considerations for the patient’s well-being. Observation: A newborn female child, born full term via spontaneous vaginal delivery after induction of labor to unaffected and non-consanguineous parents. The prenatal course was notable for limited and disjointed prenatal care as well as maternal tobacco and marijuana use, anemia of pregnancy, and inadequate weight gain. Prenatal imaging showed lower extremity deformity with the inability to visualize tibia and bilateral clubfeet in the setting of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR). The patient presented with right equino varus deformity of the foot and right knee joint deformity. Radiological imaging showed the absence of the right tibia and varus angulation of the right foot with dislocation of the tibiotalar joint. Normal femur with lateral and mild anterior displacement of a wide fibula (Weber Type VIIa). Due to the absence of the patient’s tibia and knee extensor mechanism, the patient was not a candidate for reconstructive surgery and ultimately underwent successful right knee disarticulation. Discussion and Conclusion: By utilizing a retrospective chart review of this case, possible risk factors in prenatal care may be identified and add to existing knowledge on etiology. Hopefully, a cause can be clearly identified in the future and, thus, addressed in the prenatal period. In addition, we can investigate the patient’s well-being and adjustment post-operatively to support outpatient management of an uncommon anomaly.

Keywords: Tibial hemimelia, prenatal care, pediatric orthopedics, congenital deformity

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28 Pressure Relief in Prosthetic Sockets through Hole Implementation Using Different Materials

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme

Abstract:

Below-knee amputees commonly experience asymmetrical gait patterns. It is generally believed that ischemia is related to the formation of pressure sores due to uneven distribution of forces. Micro-vascular responses can reveal local malnutrition. Changes in local skin blood supply under various external loading conditions have been studied for a number of years. Radionuclide clearance, photo-plethysmography, trans-cutaneous oxygen tension along with other studies showed that the blood supply would be influenced by the epidermal forces, and the rate and the amount of blood supply would decrease with increased epidermal loads being shear forces or normal forces. Several cases of socket designs were investigated using Finite Element Model (FEM) and Design of Experiment (DOE) to increase flexibility and minimize the pressure at the limb/socket interface using ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polyamide 6 (PA6) or Duraform. The pressure reliefs at designated areas where reducing thickness is involved are seen to be critical in determination of amputees’ comfort and are very important to clinical applications. Implementing a hole between the Patellar Tendon (PT) and Distal Tibia (DT) would decrease stiffness and increase prosthesis range of motion where flexibility is needed. In addition, displacement and prosthetic energy storage increased without compromising mechanical efficiency and prosthetic design integrity.

Keywords: patellar tendon, distal tibia, prosthetic socket relief areas, hole implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
27 Effect of Supplemental Bacterial Phytase at Different Dietary Levels of Phosphorus on Tibial Bone Characteristics and Body Weight Gain in Broilers

Authors: Saqib Saleem Abdullah, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Shela Gul Bokhari, Muti Ur Rehman, Jamil Akbar

Abstract:

A 5- weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effectiveness of Bacterial Phytase (Phyzyme®) in broilers, at different dietary levels of Phosphorous. 140 d-old broilers (Hubbard) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=4). Birds were fed corn-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 different levels of non Phytate Phosphorous (NPP) (0.45 %, 0.30 % and 0.15 %). Furthermore, the diets were supplemented with bacterial Phytase. Birds were fed ad libitum and kept under thermo neutral conditions. The parameters studied were; body weight gain (BWG), tibial bone characteristics (TBC), serum Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) levels and tibia ash percentage (TAP). BWG of the broilers was calculated at weekly interval and remaining parameters were calculated after slaughtering the birds at 35thday. Results suggested that Phytase supplementation at 0.30% NPP (Non Phytate Phosphorus + Bacterial Phytase) increased (P < 0.05) the BWG, bone length, bone weight, tibiotarsal index, medullary canal diameter and diaphysis diameter however, rubosticity index was reduced to minimum (P < 0.05) at this dietary level of phosphorous when compared with other groups. Maximum (P < 0.05) rubosticity index was observed in control group with 0% Phytase. Furthermore, Phytase addition at 0.30 % NPP also improved (P < 0.05) Ca, P and AP levels in the blood. Phytase supplementation at lower phosphorus level (0.30%NPP) improved BWG and TBC including bone density and bone quality in broilers hence it can be concluded that addition of Phytase at 0.30% NPP may prove beneficial for bone and overall performance in broilers.

Keywords: diaphysis diameter, phytase, rubosticity index, tibia

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26 Unidentified Remains with Extensive Bone Disease without a Clear Diagnosis

Authors: Patricia Shirley Almeida Prado, Selma Paixão Argollo, Maria De Fátima Teixeira Guimarães, Leticia Matos Sobrinho

Abstract:

Skeletal differential diagnosis is essential in forensic anthropology in order to differentiate skeletal trauma from normal osseous variation and pathological processes. Thus, part of forensic anthropological field is differentiate skeletal criminal injuries from the normal skeletal variation (bone fusion or nonunion, transitional vertebrae and other non-metric traits), non-traumatic skeletal pathology (myositis ossificans, arthritis, bone metastasis, osteomyelitis) from traumatic skeletal pathology (myositis ossificans traumatic) avoiding misdiagnosis. This case shows the importance of effective pathological diagnosis in order to accelerate the identification process of skeletonized human remains. THE CASE: An unidentified skeletal remains at the medico legal institute Nina Rodrigues-Salvador, of a male young adult (29 to 40 years estimated) showing a massive heterotopic ossification on its right tibia at upper epiphysis and adjacent articular femur surface; an extensive ossification on the right clavicle (at the sternal extremity) also presenting an heterotopic ossification at right scapulae (upper third of scapulae lateral margin and infraglenoid tubercule) and at the head of right humerus at the shoulder joint area. Curiously, this case also shows an unusual porosity in certain vertebrae´s body and in some tarsal and carpal bones. Likewise, his left fifth metacarpal bones (right and left) showed a healed fracture which led both bones distorted. Based on identification, of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains literature and protocols these alterations can be misdiagnosed and this skeleton may present more than one pathological process. The anthropological forensic lab at Medico-legal Institute Nina Rodrigues in Salvador (Brazil) adopts international protocols to ancestry, sex, age and stature estimations, also implemented well-established conventions to identify pathological disease and skeletal alterations. The most compatible diagnosis for this case is hematogenous osteomyelitis due to following findings: 1: the healed fracture pattern at the clavicle showing a cloaca which is a pathognomonic for osteomyelitis; 2: the metacarpals healed fracture does not present cloaca although they developed a periosteal formation. 3: the superior articular surface of the right tibia shows an extensive inflammatory healing process that extends to adjacent femur articular surface showing some cloaca at tibia bone disease. 4: the uncommon porosities may result from hematogenous infectious process. The fractures probably have occurred in a different moments based on the healing process; the tibia injury is more extensive and has not been reorganized, while metacarpals and clavicle fracture is properly healed. We suggest that the clavicle and tibia´s fractures were infected by an existing infectious disease (syphilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis) or an existing syndrome (Gorham’s disease), which led to the development of osteomyelitis. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that different bones are affected in diverse levels. Like the metacarpals that do not show the cloaca, but then a periosteal new bone formation; then the unusual porosities do not show a classical osteoarthritic processes findings as the marginal osteophyte, pitting and new bone formation, they just show an erosive process without bone formation or osteophyte. To confirm and prove our hypothesis we are working on different clinical approaches like DNA, histopathology and other image exams to find the correct diagnostic.

Keywords: bone disease, forensic anthropology, hematogenous osteomyelitis, human identification, human remains

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25 To What Extent Does Physical Activity and Standard of Competition Affect Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) Measurements of Bone in Accordance with Muscular Strength and Anthropometrics in British Young Males?

Authors: Joseph Shanks, Matthew Taylor, Foong Kiew Ooi, Chee Keong Chen

Abstract:

Introduction: Evidences of relationship between bone, muscle and standard of competition among young British population is limited in literature. The current literature recognises the independent and synergistic effects of fat free and fat mass as the stimulus for osteogenesis. This study assessed the extent to which physical activity (PA) and standard of competition (CS) influences quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone on a cross-sectional basis accounting for muscular strength and anthropometrics in British young males. Methods: Pre-screening grouped 66 males aged 18-25 years into controls (n=33) and district level athletes (DLAs) (n=33) as well as low (n=21), moderate (n=23) and high (n=22) physical activity categories (PACs). All participants underwent QUS measurements of bone (4 sites, i.e. dominant distal radius (DR), dominant mid-shaft tibia (DT), non-dominant distal radius (NR) and non-dominant mid-shaft tibia (NT)), isokinetic strength tests (dominant and non-dominant knee flexion and extension) and anthropometric measurements. Results: There were no significant differences between any of the groups with respect to QUS measurements of bone at all sites with regards to PACs or CS. Significant higher isokinetic strength values were observed in DLAs than controls (p < 0.05), and higher than low PACs (p < 0.05) at 60o.s-1 of concentric and eccentric measurements. No differences in subcutaneous fat thickness were found between all the groups (CS or PACs). Percentages of body fat were significantly higher (p < .05) in low than high PACs and CS groups. There were significant positive relationships between non dominant radial speed of sound and fat free mass at both DR (r=0.383, p=0.001) and NR (r=0.319, p=0.009) sites in all participants. Conclusion: The present study findings indicated that muscular strength and body fat are closely related to physical activity level and standard of competition. However, bone health status reflected by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone is not related to physical activity level and standard of competition in British young males.

Keywords: bone, muscular strength, physical activity, standard of competition

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24 Improving an Automotive Bumper Structure for Pedestrian Protection

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard, Abolfazl Khalkhali, Khashayar Ghadirinejad

Abstract:

In the present study, first, a three-dimensional finite element model of lower legform impactor according to the pedestrian protection regulation EC 78/2009 is carried out. The FE model of lower legform impactor then validated on static and dynamic tests by three main criteria which are bending angle, shear displacement and upper tibia acceleration. At the second step, the validated impactor is employed to evaluate bumper of a B-class automotive based on pedestrian protection criteria defined in EC regulation. Finally, based on some investigations an improved design for the bumper is then represented and compared with the base design. Results show that very good improvement in meeting the pedestrian protection criteria is achieved.

Keywords: pedestrian protection, legform impactor, automotive bumper, finite element method

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23 The Decrease of Collagen or Mineral Affect the Fracture in the Turkey Long Bones

Authors: P. Vosynek, T. Návrat, M. Peč, J. Pořízka, P. Diviš

Abstract:

Changes of mechanical properties and response behavior of bones is an important external sign of medical problems like osteoporosis, bone remodeling after fracture or surgery, osteointegration, or bone tissue loss of astronauts in space. Measuring of mechanical behavior of bones in physiological and osteoporotic states, quantified by different degrees of protein (collagen) and mineral loss, is thus an important topic in biomechanical research. This contribution deals with the relation between mechanical properties of the turkey long bone–tibia in physiological, demineralized, and deproteinized state. Three methods for comparison were used: densitometry, three point bending and harmonic response analysis. The results help to find correlations between the methods and estimate their possible application in medical practice.

Keywords: bone properties, long bone, osteoporosis, response behavior

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22 Design and Biomechanical Analysis of a Transtibial Prosthesis for Cyclists of the Colombian Team Paralympic

Authors: Jhonnatan Eduardo Zamudio Palacios, Oscar Leonardo Mosquera Dussan, Daniel Guzman Perez, Daniel Alfonso Botero Rosas, Oscar Fabian Rubiano Espinosa, Jose Antonio Garcia Torres, Ivan Dario Chavarro, Ivan Ramiro Rodriguez Camacho, Jaime Orlando Rodriguez

Abstract:

The training of cilsitas with some type of disability finds in the technological development an indispensable ally, generating every day advances to contribute to the quality of life allowing to maximize the capacities of the athletes. The performance of a cyclist depends on physiological and biomechanical factors, such as aerodynamic profile, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, pedaling systems, type of competition, among others. This study particularly focuses on the description of the dynamic model of a transtibial prosthesis for Paralympic cyclists. To make the model, two points are chosen: in the radius centers of rotation of the plate and pinion of the track bicycle. The parametric scheme of the track bike represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom due to the displacement in X - Y of each of the reference points of the angles of the curve profile β, cant of the velodrome α and the angle of rotation of the connecting rod φ. The force exerted on the crank of the bicycle varies according to the angles of the curve profile β, the velodrome cant of α and the angle of rotation of the crank φ. The behavior is analyzed through the Matlab R2015a software. The average strength that a cyclist exerts on the cranks of a bicycle is 1,607.1 N, the Paralympic cyclist must perform a force on each crank about 803.6 N. Once the maximum force associated with the movement has been determined, it is continued to the dynamic modeling of the transtibial prosthesis that represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom with displacement in X - Y in relation to the angles of rotation of the hip π, knee γ and ankle λ. Subsequently, an analysis of the kinematic behavior of the prosthesis was carried out by means of SolidWorks 2017 and Matlab R2015a, which was used to model and analyze the variation of the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the λ prosthesis. The reaction forces generated in the prosthesis were performed on the ankle of the prosthesis, performing the summation of forces on the X and Y axes. The same analysis was then applied to the tibia of the prosthesis and the socket. The reaction force of the parts of the prosthesis varies according to the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the prosthesis λ. Therefore, it can be deduced that the maximum forces experienced by the ankle of the prosthesis is 933.6 N on the X axis and 2.160.5 N on the Y axis. Finally, it is calculated that the maximum forces experienced by the tibia and the socket of the transtibial prosthesis in high performance competitions is 3.266 N on the X axis and 1.357 N on the Y axis. In conclusion, it can be said that the performance of the cyclist depends on several physiological factors, linked to biomechanics of training. The influence of biomechanical factors such as aerodynamics, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, or non-circular pedaling systems on the cyclist performance.

Keywords: biomechanics, dynamic model, paralympic cyclist, transtibial prosthesis

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21 Photoelastic Analysis of the Proximal Femur in Deviations of the Mechanical Axis of the Lower Limb

Authors: S. F. Fakhouri, M.M. Shimano, D. Maranho, C. A. Araújo, M. V. Guimarães, A. C. Shimano, J. B. Volpon

Abstract:

Pathological deviations of the mechanical axis of the lower limbs deeply alter the stress distributions on the femur and tibia and the hip, knee, and ankle articulations. The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of pathological deviations in different levels of the lower limbs in the distribution of stress in the proximal femur region using photoelasticity of plane transmission. For most of the types of deviations studied, the results showed that the internal stress was generally higher in the calcar region than in the trochanteric region, followed by the third distal of the femur head. This study allowed for the development of better criteria for the correction of angular deviations and helped identify the deviations that are most harmful to the mechanical axis in terms of the effects on the bone and the articular effort of the lower limbs. These results will lead to future improvements in studies on prostheses.

Keywords: alignment, deviations, inferior limbs, mechanical axis, photoelasticity, stress

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20 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing in Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad N. Shuid, Azri Jalil, Sabarul A. Mokhtar, Mohd F. Khamis, Norliza Muhammad

Abstract:

Micro-CT provides a 3-D image of fracture callus, which can be used to calculate quantitative parameters. In this study, micro-CT was used to assess the fracture healing of orchidectomised rats, an androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. The effect of testosterone (hormone replacement) on fracture healing was also assessed with micro-CT. The rats were grouped into orchidectomised-control (ORX), sham-operated (SHAM), and orchidectomised; and injected with testosterone intramuscularly once weekly (TEN). Treatment duration was six weeks. The fracture was induced and fixed with plates and screws in the right tibia of all the rats. An in vitro micro-CT was used to scan the fracture callus area which consisted of 100 axial slices above and below fracture line. The analysis has shown that micro-CT was able to detect a significant difference in the fracture healing rate of ORX and TEN groups. In conclusion, micro-CT can be used to assess fracture healing in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. This imaging tool can be used to test agents that influence fracture healing in the androgen-deficient model.

Keywords: androgen, fracture, orchidectomy, osteoporosis

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19 Visco-Hyperelastic Finite Element Analysis for Diagnosis of Knee Joint Injury Caused by Meniscal Tearing

Authors: Eiji Nakamachi, Tsuyoshi Eguchi, Sayo Yamamoto, Yusuke Morita, H. Sakamoto

Abstract:

In this study, we aim to reveal the relationship between the meniscal tearing and the articular cartilage injury of knee joint by using the dynamic explicit finite element (FE) method. Meniscal injuries reduce its functional ability and consequently increase the load on the articular cartilage of knee joint. In order to prevent the induction of osteoarthritis (OA) caused by meniscal injuries, many medical treatment techniques, such as artificial meniscus replacement and meniscal regeneration, have been developed. However, it is reported that these treatments are not the comprehensive methods. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism of OA induction, the mechanical characterization of meniscus under the condition of normal and injured states is carried out by using FE analyses. At first, a FE model of the human knee joint in the case of normal state – ‘intact’ - was constructed by using the magnetron resonance (MR) tomography images and the image construction code, Materialize Mimics. Next, two types of meniscal injury models with the radial tears of medial and lateral menisci were constructed. In FE analyses, the linear elastic constitutive law was adopted for the femur and tibia bones, the visco-hyperelastic constitutive law for the articular cartilage, and the visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive law for the meniscus, respectively. Material properties of articular cartilage and meniscus were identified using the stress-strain curves obtained by our compressive and the tensile tests. The numerical results under the normal walking condition revealed how and where the maximum compressive stress occurred on the articular cartilage. The maximum compressive stress and its occurrence point were varied in the intact and two meniscal tear models. These compressive stress values can be used to establish the threshold value to cause the pathological change for the diagnosis. In this study, FE analyses of knee joint were carried out to reveal the influence of meniscal injuries on the cartilage injury. The following conclusions are obtained. 1. 3D FE model, which consists femur, tibia, articular cartilage and meniscus was constructed based on MR images of human knee joint. The image processing code, Materialize Mimics was used by using the tetrahedral FE elements. 2. Visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive equation was formulated by adopting the generalized Kelvin model. The material properties of meniscus and articular cartilage were determined by curve fitting with experimental results. 3. Stresses on the articular cartilage and menisci were obtained in cases of the intact and two radial tears of medial and lateral menisci. Through comparison with the case of intact knee joint, two tear models show almost same stress value and higher value than the intact one. It was shown that both meniscal tears induce the stress localization in both medial and lateral regions. It is confirmed that our newly developed FE analysis code has a potential to be a new diagnostic system to evaluate the meniscal damage on the articular cartilage through the mechanical functional assessment.

Keywords: finite element analysis, hyperelastic constitutive law, knee joint injury, meniscal tear, stress concentration

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18 The Existence of a Sciatic Artery in Congenital Lower Limb Deformities

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

Abstract:

Persistent sciatic artery is a rare anatomical vascular variation resulting from a lack of regression of the embryonic dorsal axial artery. The axial artery is the main artery supplying the lower limb during development in the first trimester. The current research includes 206 sciatic artery cases in 171 patients between 1864 and 2012. It aims to identify the risk factor of sciatic artery aneurysm in congenital limb anomalies. Sciatic artery aneurysm was diagnosed incidentally in amniotic band syndrome (ABS) existing with no congenital anomaly in 0.7% or with double knee in 0.7%, with the tibia in 0.7% and with hemihypertrophy or soft tissue hypertrophy in 1.4%. Therefore, the current study indicates a relationship the same gene responsible for the congenital limb deformities may be responsible for non-regression of the sciatic artery. Furthermore, pediatricians should refer cases of congenital limb anomalies for vascular evaluation prior to corrective surgical intervention.

Keywords: amniotic band syndrome, congenital limb deformities, double knee, sciatic artery, sciatic artery aneurysm , soft tissue hypertrophy

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17 Effects of Insulin on Osseointegration around Implant in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xing Wang, Lin Feng, Lingling E., Hongchen Liu

Abstract:

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) there is poorer quality osseointegration than in non-diabetic (n-DM) patients, and the success of dental implants is less. Recent studies have demonstrated that insulin could stimulate bone cells to produce and accelerate implant osseointegration in DM patients.This raised the question whether insulin could provide local bone anabolic effects in non-diabetic patients. In this study,48 SD rats were divided into four groups randomly: DM group, DM+insulin group, n-DM group, n-DM + insulin group. All rats were implanted the titanium implant near the epiphyseal end of tibia, then the DM + insulin and n-DM + insulin group received twice-daily subcutaneous injections of insulin (10U/day).Two,four and eight weeks after implantation, rats were killed in batches. Histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone formation and osseointegration. The amount of newly formed bone, Implant–bone contact and the expression of OCN,RUNX2 in the DM+insulin, n-DM and n-DM+insulin group were significantly more than in the DM group (p<0.05). Compared with the n-DM group,the Implant–bone contact and expression of OCN,RUNX2 were significantly increased in n-DM+insulin group (p< 0.05). Taken together,these observations provide evidence that insulin has the potential to increase bone formation and osseointegration around implant not only in diabetic subjects but also in non-diabetic subject.

Keywords: insulin, diabetes mellitus, osseointegration, dental implants

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16 A Radiographic Survey of Eggshell Powder Effect on Tibial Bone Defect Repair Tested in Dog

Authors: M. Yadegari, M. Nourbakhsh, N. Arbabzadeh

Abstract:

The skeletal system injuries are of major importance. In addition, it is recommended to use materials for hard tissue repair in open or closed fractures. It is important to use complex minerals with a beneficial effect on hard tissue repair, stimulating cell growth in the bone. Materials that could help avoid bone fracture inflammatory reaction and speed up bone fracture repair are of utmost importance in the treatment of bone fractures. Similar to minerals, the inner eggshell membrane consists of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins with the high pH, high calcium absorptive capacity and with faster bone fracture repair ability. In the present radiographic survey, eggshell-derived bone graft substitutes were used for bone defect repair in 8 dog tibia, measuring bone density on the day of implant placement and 30 and 60 days after placement. In fact, the result of this study shows the difference in bone growth and misshapen bones between treatment and control sites. Cell growth was adequate in treatment sites and misshapen bones were less frequent here than in control sites.

Keywords: bone repair, eggshell powder, implant, radiography

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15 Virtual Test Model for Qualification of Knee Prosthesis

Authors: K. Zehouani, I. Oldal

Abstract:

Purpose: In the human knee joint, degenerative joint disease may happen with time. The standard treatment of this disease is the total knee replacement through prosthesis implanting. The reason lies in the fact that this phenomenon causes different material abrasion as compare to pure sliding or rolling alone. This study focuses on developing a knee prosthesis geometry, which fulfills the mechanical and kinematical requirements. Method: The MSC ADAMS program is used to describe the rotation of the human knee joint as a function of flexion, and to investigate how the flexion and rotation movement changes between the condyles of a multi-body model of the knee prosthesis as a function of flexion angle (in the functional arc of the knee (20-120º)). Moreover, the multi-body model with identical boundary conditions is constituted, and the numerical simulations are carried out using the MSC ADAMS program system. Results: It is concluded that the use of the multi-body model reduces time and cost since it does not need to manufacture the tibia and the femur as it requires for the knee prosthesis of the test machine. Moreover, without measuring or by dispensing with a test machine for the knee prosthesis geometry, approximation of the results of our model to a human knee is carried out directly. Conclusion: The pattern obtained by the multi-body model provides an insight for future experimental tests related to the rotation and flexion of the knee joint concerning the actual average and friction load.

Keywords: biomechanics, knee joint, rotation, flexion, kinematics, MSC ADAMS

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14 Osteometry of the Long Bones of Adult Chinkara (Gazella bennettii): A Remarkable Example of Sexual Dimorphism

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was 1) to measure osteometric parameters of the long bones of the adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data 2) to study sexual dimorphism in the adult Chinkara through osteometry and 3) to estimate body weight from the measurements of greatest length and shaft of the long bones. For this purpose, after taking body measurements of adult Chinkara after mortality, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age were buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Various osteometric parameters of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia and metatarsal were measured through the digital calliper. Statistically significant (P < 0.05), differences in some of the osteometrical parameters between male and female adult Chinkara were observed. Sexual dimorphism exit between the long bones of male and female adult Chinkara. In both male and female Chinkara value obtained for the estimated body weight from humeral, metacarpal and metatarsal measurements were near to the actual body weight of the adult Chinkara. In conclusion, the present study estimates preliminary data on long bones osteometrics and suggests that the morphometric details of the male and female adult Chinkara have differed morphometrically from each other.

Keywords: body mass measurements, Chinkara, long bones, morphometric, sexual dimorphism

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13 Comparative Gross Anatomical Studies of the Long Bones of the Adult Chinkara and in the Adult Beetal Goat

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib –ur- Rehman, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to examine the osteomorphological differences between the long bones of adult Chinkara and an adult Beetal goat, using visual observation, which has still not studied. The osseous remains of these small-sized ungulates often encountered, but cannot distinguish, because of the lack of literature. Specimens of the adult Chinkara of known age and sex for osteomorphological studies are collected from the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan, while the bones of adult Beetal goats are obtained after slaughtering in a slaughterhouse. The research is carried out at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. In this research, the main morphological features recorded in the long bones of thoracic limb and pelvic limb of the adult Chinkara, by comparing them to those of the Beetal goat. The most important differences between the two species are noted in the scapula, the humerus, the radius and ulna, the metacarpal, femur, tibia metatarsal and phalanges. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the morphology of the long bones of adult Chinkara has different from the Beetal goat in various points of view. Based on these recorded points, long bones of these two species can easily be differentiated. The study is helpful in zooarcheological, comparative osteometric studies, for forensic specialists and veterinary anatomists.

Keywords: Beetal goat, Chinkara, comparative morphological features, long bones, osteology

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12 Prenatal Lead Exposure and Postpartum Depression: An Exploratory Study of Women in Mexico

Authors: Nia McRae, Robert Wright, Ghalib Bello

Abstract:

Introduction: Postpartum depression is a prevalent mood disorder that is detrimental to the mental and physical health of mothers and their newborns. Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal that is associated with hormonal imbalance and mental impairments. The hormone changes that accompany pregnancy and childbirth may be exacerbated by Pb and increase new mothers’ susceptibility to postpartum depression. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the only study that investigates the association between prenatal Pb exposure and postpartum depression. Identifying risk factors can contribute to improved prevention and treatment strategies for postpartum depression. Methods: Data was derived from the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stress (PROGRESS) study which is an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort. Postpartum depression was identified by a score of 13 or above on the 10-Item Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 6-months and 12-months postpartum. Pb was measured in the blood (BPb) in the second and third trimester and in the tibia and patella 1-month postpartum. Quantile regression models were used to assess the relationship between BPb and postpartum depression. Results: BPb in the second trimester was negatively associated with the 80th percentile of depression 6-months postpartum (β: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.01). No significant association was found between BPb in the third trimester and depression 6-months postpartum. BPb in the third trimester exhibited an inverse relationship with the 60th percentile (β: -0.23; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.06), 70th percentile (β: -0.31; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.10), and 90th percentile of depression 12-months postpartum (β: -0.36; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.03). There was no significant association between BPb in the second trimester and depression 12-months postpartum. Bone Pb concentrations were not significantly associated with postpartum depression. Conclusion: The negative association between BPb and postpartum depression may support research which demonstrates lead is a nontherapeutic stimulant. Further research is needed to verify these results and identify effect modifiers.

Keywords: depression, lead, postpartum, prenatal

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11 Relationship Between Dynamic Balance, Jumping Performance and Q-angle in Soccer Players

Authors: Tarik Ozmen

Abstract:

The soccer players need good dynamic balance and jumping performance for dribbling, crossing rival, and to be effective in high balls during soccer game. The quadriceps angle (Q-angle) is used to assess biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint in the musculoskeletal medicine. The Q angle is formed by the intersection of two lines drawing from the anterior superior iliac spine to the centre of the patella and to the midline of the tibia tuberosity. Studies have shown that the Q angle is inversely associated with quadriceps femoris strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Thirty male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 15.23 ± 0.56 years, height, 170 ± 8.37 cm, weight, 61.36 ± 6.04 kg) participated as volunteer in this study. Dynamic balance of the participants were evaluated at directions of anterior (A), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) with Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Each participant was instructed to reach as far as with the non-dominant leg in each of the 3 directions while maintaining dominant leg stance. Leg length was used to normalize excursion distances by dividing the distance reached by leg length and then multiplying the result by 100. The jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump using a contact mat. A universal (standard) goniometer was used to measure the Q angle in standing position. The Q angle was not correlated with directions of SEBT (A: p = 0.32, PM: p = 0.06, PL: p = 0.37). The squat jump height was not correlated with Q-angle (p = 0.21). The findings of this study suggest that there are no significant relationships between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Further studies should investigate relationship between balance ability, athletic performance and Q-angle with larger sample size in soccer players.

Keywords: balance, jump height, Q angle, soccer

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
10 Biomechanical Prediction of Veins and Soft Tissues beneath Compression Stockings Using Fluid-Solid Interaction Model

Authors: Chongyang Ye, Rong Liu

Abstract:

Elastic compression stockings (ECSs) have been widely applied in prophylaxis and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The medical function of ECS is to improve venous return and increase muscular pumping action to facilitate blood circulation, which is largely determined by the complex interaction between the ECS and lower limb tissues. Understanding the mechanical transmission of ECS along the skin surface, deeper tissues, and vascular system is essential to assess the effectiveness of the ECSs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the leg-ECS system integrated with a 3D fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model of the leg-vein system was constructed to analyze the biomechanical properties of veins and soft tissues under different ECS compression. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the human leg was divided into three regions, including soft tissues, bones (tibia and fibula) and veins (peroneal vein, great saphenous vein, and small saphenous vein). The ECSs with pressure ranges from 15 to 26 mmHg (Classes I and II) were adopted in the developed FE-FSI model. The soft tissue was assumed as a Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model with the fixed bones, and the ECSs were regarded as an orthotropic elastic shell. The interfacial pressure and stress transmission were simulated by the FE model, and venous hemodynamics properties were simulated by the FSI model. The experimental validation indicated that the simulated interfacial pressure distributions were in accordance with the pressure measurement results. The developed model can be used to predict interfacial pressure, stress transmission, and venous hemodynamics exerted by ECSs and optimize the structure and materials properties of ECSs design, thus improving the efficiency of compression therapy.

Keywords: elastic compression stockings, fluid-solid interaction, tissue and vein properties, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
9 Finite Element Modeling of a Lower Limb Based on the East Asian Body Characteristics for Pedestrian Protection

Authors: Xianping Du, Runlu Miao, Guanjun Zhang, Libo Cao, Feng Zhu

Abstract:

Current vehicle safety standards and human body injury criteria were established based on the biomechanical response of Euro-American human body, without considering the difference in the body anthropometry and injury characteristics among different races, particularly the East Asian people with smaller body size. Absence of such race specific design considerations will negatively influence the protective performance of safety products for these populations, and weaken the accuracy of injury thresholds derived. To resolve these issues, in this study, we aim to develop a race specific finite element model to simulate the impact response of the lower extremity of a 50th percentile East Asian (Chinese) male. The model was built based on medical images for the leg of an average size Chinese male and slightly adjusted based on the statistical data. The model includes detailed anatomic features and is able to simulate the muscle active force. Thirteen biomechanical tests available in the literature were used to validate its biofidelity. Using the validated model, a pedestrian-car impact accident taking place in China was re-constructed computationally. The results show that the newly developed lower leg model has a good performance in predicting dynamic response and tibia fracture pattern. An additional comparison on the fracture tolerance of the East Asian and Euro-American lower limb suggests that the current injury criterion underestimates the degree of injury of East Asian human body.

Keywords: lower limb, East Asian body characteristics, traffic accident reconstruction, finite element analysis, injury tolerance

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8 In Vivo Response of Scaffolds of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic

Authors: Ana Claudia Muniz Rennó, Karina Nogueira

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the in vivo tissue response of the introduction of the bioactive mesh (BM) scaffolds using a model of tibial bone defect implants in rats. Although a previous in vivo study demonstrated a highly positive response of particulate bioactive materials in the morphological and biomechanical properties of the bone callus, the effects of material with superior bioactivity, present in form of meshes have not been studied yet. Eighty male Wistar rats with 3 mm tibial defects were used. Animals were divided into four groups: intact group (IG) – tibia without any injury; bone defect day zero (0dD) – bone defects, sacrificed immediately after injury; bone defect control group (CG) – bone defects without any filler and bone defect filled with BM scaffold. The animals of BM and CG groups were sacrificed 15, 30 and 45 days post-injury to compare the temporal-special effects of the scaffolds on bone healing. The histological analysis revealed an organized newly formed bone at 30 and 45 days post-surgery in the BM. Also, this group presented an increased COX-2 expression on days 15 and 30 post-surgery. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that, BM presented a positive immunoexpression of RUNX-2 during all periods evaluated. The biomechanical analysis revealed that at 15 day after surgery, no significant statistically difference was observed between BM and CG and both groups had significantly higher values of maximal load compared to 0dG and significantly lower values than IG. On days 30 and 45 post-surgery, BM presented statistically lower values of maximal load compared to the CG. Nevertheless, at the same periods, BM did not show statistically significant difference compared to the IG maximal load values (p > 0, 05). Our results revealed that the implantation of the BM scaffolds was effective in stimulating newly bone formation.

Keywords: bone, biomaterials, scaffolds, cartilage

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
7 Prediction Model of Body Mass Index of Young Adult Students of Public Health Faculty of University of Indonesia

Authors: Yuwaratu Syafira, Wahyu K. Y. Putra, Kusharisupeni Djokosujono

Abstract:

Background/Objective: Body Mass Index (BMI) serves various purposes, including measuring the prevalence of obesity in a population, and also in formulating a patient’s diet at a hospital, and can be calculated with the equation = body weight (kg)/body height (m)². However, the BMI of an individual with difficulties in carrying their weight or standing up straight can not necessarily be measured. The aim of this study was to form a prediction model for the BMI of young adult students of Public Health Faculty of University of Indonesia. Subject/Method: This study used a cross sectional design, with a total sample of 132 respondents, consisted of 58 males and 74 females aged 21- 30. The dependent variable of this study was BMI, and the independent variables consisted of sex and anthropometric measurements, which included ulna length, arm length, tibia length, knee height, mid-upper arm circumference, and calf circumference. Anthropometric information was measured and recorded in a single sitting. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis were used to create the prediction equation for BMI. Results: The male respondents had an average BMI of 24.63 kg/m² and the female respondents had an average of 22.52 kg/m². A total of 17 variables were analysed for its correlation with BMI. Bivariate analysis showed the variable with the strongest correlation with BMI was Mid-Upper Arm Circumference/√Ulna Length (MUAC/√UL) (r = 0.926 for males and r = 0.886 for females). Furthermore, MUAC alone also has a very strong correlation with BMI (r = 0,913 for males and r = 0,877 for females). Prediction models formed from either MUAC/√UL or MUAC alone both produce highly accurate predictions of BMI. However, measuring MUAC/√UL is considered inconvenient, which may cause difficulties when applied on the field. Conclusion: The prediction model considered most ideal to estimate BMI is: Male BMI (kg/m²) = 1.109(MUAC (cm)) – 9.202 and Female BMI (kg/m²) = 0.236 + 0.825(MUAC (cm)), based on its high accuracy levels and the convenience of measuring MUAC on the field.

Keywords: body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, prediction model, ulna length

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
6 Positive Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Promotion of Angiogenesis Markers in the Striatum of Parkinsonian Rats

Authors: S. A. Hashemvarzi, A. Heidarianpour, Z. Fallahmohammadi, M. Pourghasem, M. Kaviani

Abstract:

Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative in the central nervous system characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in loss of dopamine release in the striatum. Non-drug treatment options such as Stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups: Normal (N), Sham (S), Parkinson’s (P), Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP), Exercised Parkinson’s (EP) and Stem cells transplanted + Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP). To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats with 6-8 weeks old. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells in 5 microliter of medium were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on the treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels. Results: VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP), especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: The findings implicate that the BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats.

Keywords: stem cells, treadmill training, neurotrophic factors, Parkinson

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
5 Effect of Retained Posterior Horn of Medial Meniscus on Functional Outcome of ACL Reconstructed Knees

Authors: Kevin Syam, Devendra K. Chauhan, Mandeep Singh Dhillon

Abstract:

Background: The posterior horn of medial meniscus (PHMM) is a secondary stabilizer against anterior translation of tibia. Cadaveric studies have revealed increased strain on the ACL graft and greater instrumented laxity in Posterior horn deficient knees. Clinical studies have shown higher prevalence of radiological OA after ACL reconstruction combined with menisectomy. However, functional outcomes in ACL reconstructed knee in the absence of Posterior horn is less discussed, and specific role of posterior horn is ill-documented. This study evaluated functional and radiological outcomes in posterior horn preserved and posterior horn sacrificed ACL reconstructed knees. Materials: Of the 457 patients who had ACL reconstruction done over a 6 year period, 77 cases with minimum follow up of 18 months were included in the study after strict exclusion criteria (associated lateral meniscus injury, other ligamentous injuries, significant cartilage degeneration, repeat injury and contralateral knee injuries were excluded). 41 patients with intact menisci were compared with 36 patients with absent posterior horn of medial meniscus. Radiological and clinical tests for instability were conducted, and knees were evaluated using subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and the Orthopadische Arbeitsgruppe Knie score (OAK). Results: We found a trend towards significantly better overall outcome (OAK) in cases with intact PHMM at average follow-up of 43.03 months (p value 0.082). Cases with intact PHMM had significantly better objective stability (p value 0.004). No significant differences were noted in the subjective IKDC score (p value 0.526) and the functional OAK outcome (category D) (p value 0.363). More cases with absent posterior horn had evidence of radiological OA (p value 0.022) even at mid-term follow-up. Conclusion: Even though the overall OAK and subjective IKDC scores did not show significant difference between the two subsets, the poorer outcomes in terms of objective stability and radiological OA noted in the absence of PHMM, indicates the importance of preserving this important part of the meniscus.

Keywords: ACL, functional outcome, knee, posterior of medial meniscus

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
4 Design of a Low-Cost, Portable, Sensor Device for Longitudinal, At-Home Analysis of Gait and Balance

Authors: Claudia Norambuena, Myissa Weiss, Maria Ruiz Maya, Matthew Straley, Elijah Hammond, Benjamin Chesebrough, David Grow

Abstract:

The purpose of this project is to develop a low-cost, portable sensor device that can be used at home for long-term analysis of gait and balance abnormalities. One area of particular concern involves the asymmetries in movement and balance that can accompany certain types of injuries and/or the associated devices used in the repair and rehabilitation process (e.g. the use of splints and casts) which can often increase chances of falls and additional injuries. This device has the capacity to monitor a patient during the rehabilitation process after injury or operation, increasing the patient’s access to healthcare while decreasing the number of visits to the patient’s clinician. The sensor device may thereby improve the quality of the patient’s care, particularly in rural areas where access to the clinician could be limited, while simultaneously decreasing the overall cost associated with the patient’s care. The device consists of nine interconnected accelerometer/ gyroscope/compass chips (9-DOF IMU, Adafruit, New York, NY). The sensors attach to and are used to determine the orientation and acceleration of the patient’s lower abdomen, C7 vertebra (lower neck), L1 vertebra (middle back), anterior side of each thigh and tibia, and dorsal side of each foot. In addition, pressure sensors are embedded in shoe inserts with one sensor (ESS301, Tekscan, Boston, MA) beneath the heel and three sensors (Interlink 402, Interlink Electronics, Westlake Village, CA) beneath the metatarsal bones of each foot. These sensors measure the distribution of the weight applied to each foot as well as stride duration. A small microntroller (Arduino Mega, Arduino, Ivrea, Italy) is used to collect data from these sensors in a CSV file. MATLAB is then used to analyze the data and output the hip, knee, ankle, and trunk angles projected on the sagittal plane. An open-source program Processing is then used to generate an animation of the patient’s gait. The accuracy of the sensors was validated through comparison to goniometric measurements (±2° error). The sensor device was also shown to have sufficient sensitivity to observe various gait abnormalities. Several patients used the sensor device, and the data collected from each represented the patient’s movements. Further, the sensors were found to have the ability to observe gait abnormalities caused by the addition of a small amount of weight (4.5 - 9.1 kg) to one side of the patient. The user-friendly interface and portability of the sensor device will help to construct a bridge between patients and their clinicians with fewer necessary inpatient visits.

Keywords: biomedical sensing, gait analysis, outpatient, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217