Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6944

Search results for: human papilloma virus

6944 Parental Awareness and Willingness to Vaccinate Adolescent Daughters against Human Papilloma Virus for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Eastern Region of Kenya: Towards Affirmative Action

Authors: Jacinta Musyoka, Wesley Too

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Kenya and the second most common cancer among women, yet preventable following prevention strategies put in place, which includes vaccination with Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine (HPPV) among the young adolescent girls. Kenya has the highest burden of cervical cancer and the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age and is a known frequent type of cancer amongst women. This is expected to double by 2025 if the necessary steps are not taken, which include vaccinating girls between the ages of 9 and 14 and screening women. Parental decision is critical in ensuring that their daughters receive this vaccine. Hence this study sought to establish parental willingness and factors associate with the acceptability to vaccine adolescent daughters against the human papilloma virus for cervical cancer prevention in Machakos County, Eastern Region of Kenya. Method: Cross-sectional study design utilizing a mixed methods approach was used to collect data from Nguluni Health Centre in Machakos County; Matungulu sub-county, Kenya. This study targeted all parents of adolescent girls seeking health care services in the Matungulu sub-county area who were aged 18 years and above. A total of 220 parents with adolescent girls aged 10-14 years were enrolled into the study after informed consent were sought. All ethical considerations were observed. Quantitative data were analyzed using Multivariate regression analysis, and thematic analysis was used for qualitative data related to perceptions of parents on HPVV. Results, conclusions, and recommendations- ongoing. We expect to report findings and articulate contributions based on the study findings in due course before October 2022

Keywords: adolescents, human papilloma virus, kenya, parents

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6943 Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Dysplasia and Cancer Samples from Twin Cities in Pakistan

Authors: Sana Gul, Sheeba Murad, Aneela Javed

Abstract:

Introduction: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is small DNA virus mostly infecting mucosa and cutaneous keratinocytes. So far, more than 200 Human papillomaviruses are known. HPV have been divided into high- and low-risk on the basis of their oncogenic potential. High risk HPV is considered to be the main etiological cause for cervical cancer. Objective: Current study was designed to screen the local cervical cancer patients from the twin cities of Pakistan for the occurance of high risk HPV. Methodology: A total of 67 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cervical cancer biopsies were obtained from the government hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Cervical cancer biopsies were examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the amplification of a region in the HPV-L1 gene for the general detection of the Papilloma virus and for the genotype specific detection of high risk HPV 16 and 18 using the GP5/GP6 primers and genotype specific primers respectively. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 59 out of 67 samples analyzed. 30 samples showed the presence of HPV16 while 22 samples were positive for HPV 18 . HPV subtype could not be determined in 7 samples. Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, Pakistan, human papillomavirus, HPV 16

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6942 Molecular Study of P53- and Rb-Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Breast Cancers

Authors: Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany, Saad Hasan M. Ali, Ibrahim Mohammed S. Shnawa

Abstract:

The study was aimed to define the percentage of detection of high-oncogenic risk types of HPV and their genotyping in archival tissue specimens that ranged from apparently healthy tissue to invasive breast cancer by using one of the recent versions of In Situ Hybridization(ISH) 0.2. To find out rational significance of such genotypes as well as over expressed products of mutants P53 and RB genes on the severity of underlying breast cancers. The DNA of HPV was detected in 46.5 % of tissues from breast cancers while HPV DNA in the tissues from benign breast tumours was detected in 12.5%. No HPV positive–ISH reaction was detected in healthy breast tissues of the control group. HPV DNA of genotypes (16, 18, 31 and 33) was detected in malignant group in frequency of 25.6%, 27.1%, 30.2% and 12.4%, respectively. Over expression of p53 was detected by IHC in 51.2% breast cancer cases and in 50% benign breast tumour group, while none of control group showed P53- over expression. Retinoblastoma protein was detected by IHC test in 49.7% of malignant breast tumours, 54.2% of benign breast tumours but no signal was reported in the tissues of control group. The significance prevalence of expression of mutated p53 & Rb genes as well as detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.

Keywords: human papilloma virus, P53, RB, breast cancer

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6941 The Pomade for Treatment of Bovine Papilomavirus-Induced Warts in Teats

Authors: Mehmet Kale, Ramazan Sencan, Sibel Yavru, Ahmet Ak, Nuri Mamak, Sibel Hasırcıoglu, Mesih Kocamuftuoglu, Yakup Yıldırım, Hasbi Sait Saltık

Abstract:

Bovine Papilloma Virus (BPV)-induced warts can cause mastitis, teat blindness, reduction of milk yield, udder deformities, and a difficulty in getting the teats into the milking machine. Especially, surgical operations cannot be performed in BPV-induced teat warts because of the increased sensitivity of the breast region and small-sized papillomas. Thus, there is a need to find new topical treatment methods. We have developed a pomade for treatment of BPV in cattle. The pomade is consists of lanoline, snakeskin (two special kind of snake), alcohol, vaseline, and ether. Firstly, we determined 46 cattle with teat warts. In the study, BPV antigen was detected in 28 cattle blood samples (61%) by ELISA. The pomade was applied to all BPV infected animals. The regression and recovery of warts were 100% in all animals. We advised using the pomade for treatment of BPV-induced warts in teats.

Keywords: bovine papilloma virus, pomade, teat, udder

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6940 Inhibition of Mixed Infection Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Virus by Fullerene Compound

Authors: Dmitry Nosik, Nickolay Nosik, Elli Kaplina, Olga Lobach, Marina Chataeva, Lev Rasnetsov

Abstract:

Background and aims: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is very often associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection but HIV patients are treated with a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs which are toxic. The use of an antiviral drug which will be active against both viruses like ferrovir found in our previous studies is rather actual. Earlier we had shown that Fullerene poly-amino capronic acid (FPACA) was active in case of monoinfection of HIV-1 or HSV-1. The aim of the study was to analyze the efficiency of FPACA against mixed infection of HIV and HSV. Methods: The peripheral blood lymphocytes, CEM, MT-4 cells were simultaneously infected with HIV-1 and HSV-1. FPACA was added 1 hour before infection. Cells viability was detected by MTT assay, virus antigens detected by ELISA, syncytium formation detected by microscopy. The different multiplicity of HIV-1/HSV-1 ratio was used. Results: The double viral HIV-1/HSV-1 infection was more cytopathic comparing with monoinfections. In mixed infection by the HIV-1/HSV-1 concentration of HIV-1 antigens and syncytium formations increased by 1,7 to 2,3 times in different cells in comparison with the culture infected with HIV-1 alone. The concentration of HSV-1 increased by 1,5-1,7 times, respectively. Administration of FPACA (1 microg/ml) protected cells: HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:1) – 80,1%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:4) – 57,2%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:8) – 46,3 %; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:16) – 17,0%. Virus’s antigen levels were also reduced. Syncytium formation was totally inhibited in all cases of mixed infection. Conclusion: FPACA showed antiviral activity in case of mixed viral infection induced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus. The effect of viral inhibition increased with the multiplicity of HIV-1 in the inoculum. The mechanism of FPACA action is connected with the blocking of the virus particles adsorption to the cells and it could be suggested that it can have an antiviral activity against some other viruses too. Now FPACA could be considered as a potential drug for treatment of HIV disease complicated with opportunistic herpes viral infection.

Keywords: antiviral drug, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), herpes simplex virus (hsv), mixed viral infection

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6939 Diffraction-Based Immunosensor for Dengue NS1 Virus

Authors: Harriet Jane R. Caleja, Joel I. Ballesteros, Florian R. Del Mundo

Abstract:

The dengue fever belongs to the world’s major cause of death, especially in the tropical areas. In the Philippines, the number of dengue cases during the first half of 2015 amounted to more than 50,000. In 2012, the total number of cases of dengue infection reached 132,046 of which 701 patients died. Dengue Nonstructural 1 virus (Dengue NS1 virus) is a recently discovered biomarker for the early detection of dengue virus. It is present in the serum of the dengue virus infected patients even during the earliest stages prior to the formation of dengue virus antibodies. A biosensor for the dengue detection using NS1 virus was developed for faster and accurate diagnostic tool. Biotinylated anti-dengue virus NS1 was used as the receptor for dengue virus NS1. Using the Diffractive Optics Technology (dotTM) technique, real time binding of the NS1 virus to the biotinylated anti-NS1 antibody is observed. The dot®-Avidin sensor recognizes the biotinylated anti-NS1 and this served as the capture molecule to the analyte, NS1 virus. The increase in the signal of the diffractive intensity signifies the binding of the capture and the analyte. The LOD was found to be 3.87 ng/mL while the LOQ is 12.9 ng/mL. The developed biosensor was also found to be specific for the NS1 virus.

Keywords: avidin-biotin, diffractive optics technology, immunosensor, NS1

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6938 The Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viral Infections among Autopsy Cases in Jordan

Authors: Emad Al-Abdallat, Faris G. Bakri, Azmi Mahafza, Rayyan Al Ali, Nidaa Ababneh, Ahmed Idhair

Abstract:

Background: Morgues are high-risk areas for the spread of infection from the cadavers to the staff during the postmortem examination. Infection can spread from corpses to workers by the airborne route, by direct contact, or from needle and sharp object injuries. Objective: Knowledge about the prevalence of these infections among autopsies is prudent to appreciate any risk of transmission and to further enforce safety measures. Method: A total of 242 autopsies were tested. Age ranged from 3 days to 94 years (median 75.5 years, mean 45.3 (21.9 ± SD)). There were 172 (71%) males. Results: The cause of death was considered natural in 137 (56.6%) cases, accidental in 89 (36.8%), homicidal in 9 (3.7%), suicidal in 4 (1.7%), and unknown in 3 (1.2%). Hepatitis B surface antigen was positive in 5 (2.1%) cases. Hepatitis C virus antibody was detected in 5 (2.1%) cases and the hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction was positive in 2 of them (0.8%). HIV antibody was not detected in any of the cases. Conclusions: Autopsies can be associated with exposure to blood borne viruses. Autopsies performed during the study period were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody. Positive tests were subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. There is low prevalence of infections with these viruses in our autopsy cases. However, the risk of transmission remains a threat. Healthcare workers in the forensic departments should adhere to standard precautions.

Keywords: autopsy, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Jordan

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6937 Abnormal Pap Smear Detection by Application of Revised Bethesda System in Commercial Sex Workers and a Control Group: A Comparative Study

Authors: Priyanka Manghani, Manthan Patel, Rahul Peddawad

Abstract:

Cervical Cancer is a major public health hurdle in the area of women’s health. The most common cause of Cervical Cancer is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Human papilloma virus has various genotypes, with HPV 16 and HPV 18 being the major etiological factor causing carcinoma of the Cervix. Early screening and detection by Papanicolaou Smears (PAP) is an effective method for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. In case of existing pre- malignant lesions /cervical dysplasia’s found with HPV 16 or 18, appropriate follow up can be done to prevent it from developing into a neoplasm. Aims and Objectives: Primary Aim; To study various abnormal cervical cytology reports as detected by Pap Smear Tests, using the Bethesda System in women at a Tertiary Care Hospital. Secondary Aim; To discuss the importance of Pap smear in Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Materials and Methods: Our study is a prospective study, based on 101 women who attended the Out-patient department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a tertiary care hospital in age group 20-40 years with chief complaints of white/foul vaginal discharge, post-coital Bleeding, low back pain, irregular menstruation, etc. 60 women, who were tested, of the total no of women, were commercial sex workers, thus being a high-risk group for HPV infection. All women underwent conventional cytology. For all the abnormal smears, further cervical biopsies were done, and the final diagnosis was done on the basis of histopathology (gold standard). Results: In all these patients, 16 patients presented with normal smears out of which 2 belonged to the category of commercial sex workers (3.33%) and 14 being from the normal/control group (34.15%). 44 women presented with inflammatory smears out of which 30 were commercial sex workers (50%) and 14 from the control Group (34.15%). A total of 11 women presented with infectious etiology with 6 being commercial sex workers (10%) and 5 (12.2%) being in the control group. A total of 8 patients presented with low-grade squamous intra epithelial lesion (LSIL) with 7 (11.7%) being commercial sex workers and 1(2.44%) patient belonging to the control group. A Total of 7 patients presented with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) with 6 (10%) being commercial sex workers and 1 (2.44%) belonging to the control group. 9 patients in total presented with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) with 6(10%) being commercial sex workers and 3 (7.32%) belonging to the control group. Squamous cell carcinoma(SCC) presence was found only in 1(1.7%) commercial sex worker. Conclusion – We conclude that HSIL, LSIL, SCC and sexually related infections are comparatively more common in vulnerable groups such as sex workers due to a variety of factors such as multiple sexual partners and poor genital hygiene. Early screening and follow up interventions are highly needed for them along with Health education for risk factors and to emphasize on the importance of Pap smear screening.

Keywords: cervical cancer, papanicolaou (pap) smear, bethesda system, neoplasm

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6936 A Comparative Study of Virus Detection Techniques

Authors: Sulaiman Al amro, Ali Alkhalifah

Abstract:

The growing number of computer viruses and the detection of zero day malware have been the concern for security researchers for a large period of time. Existing antivirus products (AVs) rely on detecting virus signatures which do not provide a full solution to the problems associated with these viruses. The use of logic formulae to model the behaviour of viruses is one of the most encouraging recent developments in virus research, which provides alternatives to classic virus detection methods. In this paper, we proposed a comparative study about different virus detection techniques. This paper provides the advantages and drawbacks of different detection techniques. Different techniques will be used in this paper to provide a discussion about what technique is more effective to detect computer viruses.

Keywords: computer viruses, virus detection, signature-based, behaviour-based, heuristic-based

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6935 Facile Synthetic Process for Lamivudine and Emtricitabine

Authors: Devender Mandala, Paul Watts

Abstract:

Cis-Nucleosides mainly lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) are an important tool in the treatment of Human immune deficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human T-Lymotropoic virus (HTLV). Lamivudine and emtricitabine are potent nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTI). These two drugs are synthesized by a four-stage process from the starting materials: menthyl glyoxylate hydrate and 1,4-dithane-2,5-diol to produce the 5-hydroxy oxathiolane which upon acetylation with acetic anhydride to yield 5-acetoxy oxathiolane. Then glycosylation of this acetyl product with silyl protected nucleoside to produce the intermediate. The reduction of this intermediates can provide the final targets. Although there are several different methods reported for the synthesis of lamivudine and emtricitabine as a single enantiomer, we required an efficient route, which was suitable for large-scale synthesis to support the development of these compounds. In this process, we successfully prepared the intermediates of lamivudine and emtricitabine without using any solvents and catalyst, thus promoting the green synthesis. All the synthesized compound were confirmed by TLC, GC, Mass, NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

Keywords: emtricitabine, green synthesis, lamivudine, nucleoside

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6934 Nutritional Status of People Living with Human Immuno Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Attending Anti-Retro Viral Treatment Clinic of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal

Authors: Ghimire K., Mehta R. S., Parajuli P., Chettri R.

Abstract:

Background: Malnutrition is a common hallmark of Human Immuno Virus (HIV) disease. It plays a synergistic role in immunosuppression which is initiated by Human Immuno Virus itself, and malnutrition forms an independent risk factor for disease progression. Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess the nutritional status of the people living with Human Immuno Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome attending the Anti-Retro viral Treatment Clinic and find the association of nutritional status with different socio-demographic variables. Methods: A total of 101 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were selected by convenient sampling technique. The study was conducted at the ART clinic of BPKIHS. A subjective global assessment tool was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The study demonstrated that the mean age of the respondents was 40.97+8.650 years. 65.3% were well-nourished, and 34.7% of the participants were mildly/moderately malnourished, whereas none of them were severely malnourished. BMI was statistically significant with education status, family income, and duration of illness of the participants, and nutritional status was statistically significant with gender, marital status, education status, and family history of HIV. Conclusion: On the basis of the result, it can be concluded that more than half of the respondents were well nourished. Gender, marital status, and education are associated with nutritional status.

Keywords: nutritional status, people living with HIV/AIDS, ART treatment, Nepal

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6933 Investigation Two Polymorphism of hTERT Gene (Rs 2736098 and Rs 2736100) and miR- 146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Alaheh Gholami Roud-Majany, Zahra Razavi, Massoud Hoshmand

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is multi step disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of hTERT and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of hTERT genotypes and miR-146a genotypes in cervical cancer. Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of hTERT and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, hTERT ( rs 2736098) GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical cancer in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of hTERT rs 2736098 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: polymorphism of hTERT gene, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, cervical cancer, virus

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6932 Zika Virus NS5 Protein Potential Inhibitors: An Enhanced in silico Approach in Drug Discovery

Authors: Pritika Ramharack, Mahmoud E. S. Soliman

Abstract:

The re-emerging Zika virus is an arthropod-borne virus that has been described to have explosive potential as a worldwide pandemic. The initial transmission of the virus was through a mosquito vector, however, evolving modes of transmission has allowed the spread of the disease over continents. The virus already been linked to irreversible chronic central nervous system (CNS) conditions. The concerns of the scientific and clinical community are the consequences of Zika viral mutations, thus suggesting the urgent need for viral inhibitors. There have been large strides in vaccine development against the virus but there are still no FDA-approved drugs available. Rapid rational drug design and discovery research is fundamental in the production of potent inhibitors against the virus that will not just mask the virus, but destroy it completely. In silico drug design allows for this prompt screening of potential leads, thus decreasing the consumption of precious time and resources. This study demonstrates an optimized and proven screening technique in the discovery of two potential small molecule inhibitors of Zika virus Methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This in silico “per-residue energy decomposition pharmacophore” virtual screening approach will be critical in aiding scientists in the discovery of not only effective inhibitors of Zika viral targets, but also a wide range of anti-viral agents.

Keywords: NS5 protein inhibitors, per-residue decomposition, pharmacophore model, virtual screening, Zika virus

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6931 Biopsy Proven Polyoma (BK) Virus in Saudi Kidney Recipients – Prevalence, Clinicopathological Features and Clinico-Pathological Correlations

Authors: Sarah Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Khaled Alsaad, Abdullah Al-Sayyari

Abstract:

Objectives: To study the prevalence, clinicopathological features, risk factors and outcome of biopsy proven polyoma (BK) virus infection among Saudi kidney transplant recipients and compare them to negative BK virus group. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all the patients with biopsy-proven polyoma (BK) virus infection in King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh between 2005 and 2011. The details of clinical presentation, the indication for kidney biopsy, the laboratory findings at presentation, the natural history of the disease, thepathological findings, the prognosis as well as the response to therapy were all recorded. Results: Kidney biopsy was performed in 37 cases of unexplained graft dysfunction. BK virus was found in 10 (27%). Out of those 10, 3 (30%) ended with graft failure. BK virus occurred in all patients who received ATG induction therapy 100% versus 59.3% in the non BK virus patients (p=0.06). Furthermore, the risk of BK virus was much less in those who received acyclovir as an anti-viral prophylaxis as compared to those who did not receive it (p=0.01). Also, patients with BK virus weighed much less (mean 46.7±20.6 Kgs) than those without BK virus at time of transplantation (mean 64.3±12.1). Graft survival was better among deceased donor kidneys compared to living ones (P=0.016) and with older age (P=0.005). Conclusion: Our findings suggest the involvement of ATG induction therapy, the lack of antiviral prophylaxis therapy and lower weight at transplant as significant risk factors for the development of BK virus infection.

Keywords: BKVAN, BKV, kidney transpant, Saudi Arabia

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6930 Household Low Temperature MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) Virus Inactivation Using a Hot Bubble Column Evaporator

Authors: Adrian Garrido Sanchis, Richard Pashley

Abstract:

The MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) virus was used as a surrogate to estimate the inactivation rates for enteric viruses when using a hot air bubble column evaporator (HBCE) system in the treatment of household wastewater. In this study, we have combined MS2 virus surface charging properties with thermal inactivation rates, using an improved double layer plaque assay technique, in order to assess the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water. When bubbling a continuous flow of dry air, at 200°C, only heats the aqueous solution in the bubble column to about 50°C. Viruses are not inactivated by this solution temperature, as confirmed separately from water bath heating experiments. Hence, the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water appeared to be caused entirely by collisions between the hot air bubbles and the virus organisms. This new energy efficient treatment for water reuse applications can reduce the thermal energy required to only 25% (about 113.7 kJ/L) of that required for boiling (about 450 kJ/L).

Keywords: MS2 virus inactivation, water reuse, hot bubble column evaporator, water treatment

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6929 Evaluation of Chemopreventive Activity of Medicinal Plant, Gromwell Seed against Tumor Promoting Stage

Authors: Harukuni Tokuda, Takanari Arai, Xu FengHao, Nobutaka Suzuki

Abstract:

In our continuous search for anti-tumor promoting, chemopreventive active potency from natural source material, a kind of healthy tea, Gromwell seed (Coix lachryma-jobi) ext., and including compounds Monoolein and Trilinolein have been screened using the in vitro synergistic assay indicated by inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by TPA. In assay, Gromwell seed aqueous extract and hot aqueous extract exhibited the potential inhibitory effects on EBV-EA activation without strong cytotoxicity on Raji cells. In our experimental system, the inhibitory effects of both Gromwell extracts and compounds were greater than that of beta-carotene, which is known anti-tumor promoting agent and/or chemopreventive agent. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effect on EBV-EA activation induced by TPA. The percentages of the inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA activation for these materials were 60% and 30% at concentration 100 μg. Based on the results obtained in vitro, we studied the inhibitory effect of compounds, in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin papilloma using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a potential promoter. The control animals showed a 100% incidence of papilloma at 20 weeks after DMBA-TPA tumor promotion, while treatment with compounds reduced the percentage of number of tumor to 60 % after 20 weeks. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies showing chemopreventive activity against TPA promoting stage and these data support the effective potency of carcinogenic stage in clinical evaluation of integrative oncology.

Keywords: gromwell seed, medicinal plant, chemoprevention, pharmaceutical medicine

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6928 Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Das-Elisa Method in Georgia

Authors: Maia Kukhaleishvili, Ekaterine Bulauri, Iveta Megrelishvili, Tamar Shamatava, Tamar Chipashvili

Abstract:

Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus strain. Selection of resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015- 2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DASELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY (21.4%) and PLRV (19.7%) virus presence in collected samples was relatively high compared to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentrations. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia) and PVM virus (3.12%) was characterized with low prevalence. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9% of samples were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the results it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infections are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term control of potato viral infection, especially seed-potatoes, must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.

Keywords: virus, potato, infection, diseases

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6927 Eradication of Apple mosaic virus from Corylus avellana L. via Cryotherapy and Confirmation of Virus-Free Plants via Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Ergun Kaya

Abstract:

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is an ilarvirus causing harmful damages and product loses in many plant species. Because of xylem and phloem vessels absence, plant meristem tissues used for meristem cultures are virus-free, but sometimes only meristem cultures are not sufficient for virus elimination. Cryotherapy, a new method based on cryogenic techniques, is used for virus elimination. In this technique, 0.1-0.3mm meristems are excised from organized shoot apex of a selected in vitro donor plant and these meristems are frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using suitable cryogenic technique. The aim of this work was to develop an efficient procedure for ApMV-free hazelnut via cryotherapy technique and confirmation of virus-free plants using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR technique. 100% virus free plantlets were obtained using droplet-vitrification method involved cold hardening in vitro cultures of hazelnut, 24 hours sucrose preculture of meristems on MS medium supplemented with 0.4M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets.

Keywords: droplet vitrification, hazelnut, liquid nitrogen, PVS2

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6926 Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Camel Pox, Contagious Ecthyma and Papilloma Viruses in Clinical Samples of Camels Using a Multiplex PCR

Authors: A. I. Khalafalla, K. A. Al-Busada, I. M. El-Sabagh

Abstract:

Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. They may be caused by three distinct viruses: camelpox virus (CMPV), camel contagious ecthyma virus (CCEV) and camel papillomavirus (CAPV). These diseases are difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify CMPV and CCEV, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost- and time–saving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation a multiplex PCR assays able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets, and was applied to the detection of 110 tissue samples. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. In conclusion, this rapid, sensitive and specific assay is considered a useful method for identifying three important viruses in specimens from camels and as part of a molecular diagnostic regime.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, diagnosis, pox and pox-like diseases, camels

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6925 Diverse Sensitivity to Ultraviolet Radiation of DNA and RNA Viruses

Authors: Nickolay Nosik, Dmitry Nosik, Marina Bochkova, Nina Kondrashina, Olga Lobach

Abstract:

The bactericidal effect of UV radiation is known for long time and widely used for inactivation of pathogens but for viruses it is not so uniform. Due to a wide variety of viruses their sensitivity to UV radiation is quite different and not quite predictable. The goal of the study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of UV radiation ( 254 nm) of the viruses of social importance (HIV), as well as test-viruses (poliovirus, adenovirus) used for the evaluation of the viral inactivation efficacy of germicides. Methods: DNA viruses- adenovirus, type 5; Herpes simplex virus (HSV), type 1, and RNA viruses–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), type 1 and poliovirus, type 1 (Sabin strain) were obtained from State collection of viruses ( The D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology). The source of UV radiation was a 15-watt low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (over 60% 254nm). The samples of 5cm2 were placed direct under the UV lamp flow (h-0.3m). Log reduction value was used as a marker for the rate of virus inactivation. Results: The data obtained indicate that poliovirus (one of the viruses most resistant to chemical germicides) and HSV are rather sensitive to UV radiation ( D90 =250-311 J/m2). Adenovirus is much more resistant to UV radiation (750 J/m2 ). The kinetics of adenovirus inactivation : 0 min- 5.0 lg TCID50, 10 min - 5,0, 15 min -4,0, 30 min – 3.5, 60 min – 1,0, 75 min -0,5 lg TCID50, 90 min –virus not detectable. HIV is most resistant to UV radiation among the studied viruses. It takes more than 4 hrs to inactivate the virus on the surface. D90 = 2000 J/m2 Conclusion: The results of the study show that there is no direct dependence between sensitivity to UV light and the size of the virion or presence\absence of the envelope of the virus. Poliovirus and adenovirus are small viruses (20-30nm poliovirus and 70-90nm adenovirus) and both are non-enveloped viruses but adenovirus 3-fold more resistant to UV radiation than poliovirus. It can be expected that viruses with more complicate structure, like Herpes virus (200nm) or HIV (80-100 nm), would be more sensitive to UV light. However, the very high resistance of HIV to UV radiation needs further investigation. The diverse resistance of the different viruses to UV radiation should be taken into the account when UV light is used to inactivate infectious viruses in hospitals and other public environments.

Keywords: HIV, HSV, inhibition of viruses, UV radiation

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6924 Plasmablastic Lymphoma a New Entity in Patients with HIV Infections

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon, recently described B-cell derived lymphoma that is most commonly seen in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Here we report a case of PBL in a 35 year old man with HIV who presented with multiple subcutaneous swellings all over the body and oral mucosal lesions.The biopsy report was suggestive of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was done which showed, lymphoma cells, positive for MUM1, CD 138, and VS 38. The proliferation index (MIB) was 95%. Final report was consistent with the diagnosis of Plasmablastic Lymphoma. The lesion completely regressed after treatment with systemic chemotherapy. Up to date, only a few cases of plasmablastic lymphoma have been reported from India. Increased frequency of this lymphoma in HIV patients and rarity of the tumour, along with rapid response of the same to chemotherapy, make this case a unique one. Hence the knowledge about this new entity is important for clinicians who deal with HIV patients.

Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), oral cavity lesion, plasmablastic lymphoma, subcutaneous swelling

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6923 Global Analysis of HIV Virus Models with Cell-to-Cell

Authors: Hossein Pourbashash

Abstract:

Recent experimental studies have shown that HIV can be transmitted directly from cell to cell when structures called virological synapses form during interactions between T cells. In this article, we describe a new within-host model of HIV infection that incorporates two mechanisms: infection by free virions and the direct cell-to-cell transmission. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of the model. We show that if the basic reproduction number R0 1, the virus is cleared and the disease dies out; if R0 > 1, the virus persists in the host. We also prove that the unique positive equilibrium attracts all positive solutions under additional assumptions on the parameters.

Keywords: HIV virus model, cell-to-cell transmission, global stability, Lyapunov function, second compound matrices

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6922 Impact of Totiviridae L-A dsRNA Virus on Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Host: Transcriptomic and Proteomic Approach

Authors: Juliana Lukša, Bazilė Ravoitytė, Elena Servienė, Saulius Serva

Abstract:

Totiviridae L-A virus is a persistent Saccharomyces cerevisiae dsRNA virus. It encodes the major structural capsid protein Gag and Gag-Pol fusion protein, responsible for virus replication and encapsulation. These features also enable the copying of satellite dsRNAs (called M dsRNAs) encoding a secreted toxin and immunity to it (known as killer toxin). Viral capsid pore presumably functions in nucleotide uptake and viral mRNA release. During cell division, sporogenesis, and cell fusion, the virions remain intracellular and are transferred to daughter cells. By employing high throughput RNA sequencing data analysis, we describe the influence of solely L-A virus on the expression of genes in three different S. cerevisiae hosts. We provide a new perception into Totiviridae L-A virus-related transcriptional regulation, encompassing multiple bioinformatics analyses. Transcriptional responses to L-A infection were similar to those induced upon stress or availability of nutrients. It also delves into the connection between the cell metabolism and L-A virus-conferred demands to the host transcriptome by uncovering host proteins that may be associated with intact virions. To better understand the virus-host interaction, we applied differential proteomic analysis of virus particle-enriched fractions of yeast strains that harboreither complete killer system (L-A-lus and M-2 virus), M-2 depleted orvirus-free. Our analysis resulted in the identification of host proteins, associated with structural proteins of the virus (Gag and Gag-Pol). This research was funded by the European Social Fund under the No.09.3.3-LMT-K-712-19-0157“Development of Competences of Scientists, other Researchers, and Students through Practical Research Activities” measure.

Keywords: totiviridae, killer virus, proteomics, transcriptomics

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6921 Chikungunya Virus Infection among Patients with Febrile Illness Attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Authors: Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda, Saka Saheed Baba, Tawa Monilade Adisa, Mustapha Bala Abubakar

Abstract:

Background: Chikungunya (CHIK) virus, a previously anecdotally described arbovirus, is now assuming a worldwide public health burden. The CHIK virus infection is characterized by potentially life threatening and debilitating arthritis in addition to the high fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache and rash. Method: Three hundred and seventy (370) serum samples were collected from outpatients with febrile illness attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, and was used to detect for Chikungunya (CHIK) virus IgG and IgM antibodies using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). Result: Out of the 370 sera tested, 39 (10.5%) were positive for presence of CHIK virus antibodies. A total of 24 (6.5%) tested positive for CHIK virus IgM only while none (0.0%) was positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG only and 15 (4.1%) of the serum samples were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. A significant difference (p<0.0001) was observed in the distribution of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to gender. The males had prevalence of 8.5% IgM antibodies as against 4.6% observed in females. On the other hand 4.6% of the females were positive for concurrent CHIK virus IgG and IgM antibodies when compared to a prevalence of 3.4% observed in males. Only the age groups ≤ 60 years and the undisclosed age group were positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG and/or IgM antibodies. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies among the study subjects Analysis of the prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to clinical presentation (as observed by Clinicians) of the patients revealed that headache and fever were the most frequently encountered ailments. Conclusion: The CHIK virus IgM and concurrent IgM and IgG antibody prevalence rates of 6.5% and 4.1% observed in this study indicates a current infection and the lack of IgG antibody alone observed shows that the infection is not endemic but sporadic. Recommendation: Further studies should be carried to establish the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus infection vis-à-vis vector dynamics in the study area. A comprehensive study need to be carried out on the molecular characterization of the CHIK virus circulating in Nigeria with a view to developing CHIK virus vaccine.

Keywords: Chikungunya virus, IgM and IgG antibodies, febrile patients, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

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6920 First Surveillance Results Bring No Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Spillback in Bats of Central-Southern Italy

Authors: Hiba Dakroub, Danilo Russo, Luca Cistrone, Francesco Serra, Giovanna Fusco, Esterina De Carlo, Maria Grazia Amoroso

Abstract:

The question of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and the cycle of transmission between humans and animals is still unanswered. One serious concern associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is that the virus might spill back from humans to wildlife, which would render some animal species reservoirs of the human virus. The aim of the present study is to monitor the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 reverse infection from humans to bats, by performing bat surveillance from different sites in Central-Southern Italy. We collected 240 droppings or saliva from 129 bats and tested them using specific and general primers of SARS-COV-2 and coronaviruses respectively. All samples, including 127 nasal swabs and 113 fecal droppings resulted negative for SARS-COV-2, and these results were confirmed by testing the samples with the Droplet Digital PCR. Also, an end-point RT-PCR was performed and no sample showed specific bands. The absence of SARS-CoV-2 in the bats we surveyed is a first step towards a better understanding of reverse transmission to bats of this virus. We hope our first contribution will encourage the establishment of systematic surveillance of wildlife, and specifically bats, to help prevent reverse zoonotic episodes that would jeopardize human health as well as biodiversity conservation and management.

Keywords: coronaviruses, bats, zoonotic viruses, spillback, SARS-CoV-2

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6919 Isolation and Elimination of Latent and Productive Herpes Simplex Virus from the Sacral and Trigeminal Ganglions

Authors: Bernard L. Middleton, Susan P. Cosgrove

Abstract:

There is an immediate need for alternative anti-herpetic treatment options effective for both primary infections and reoccurring reactivations of herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Alternatives currently approved for the purposes of clinical administration includes antivirals and a reduced set of nucleoside analogues. The present article tests a treatment based on a systemic understanding of how the herpes virus affects cell inhibition and breakdown and targets different phases of the viral cycle, including the entry stage, reproductive cross mutation, and cell-to-cell infection. The treatment consisted of five immunotherapeutic core compounds (5CC), which were hypothesized to be capable of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies. The tested 5CC were noted as being functional in the application of eliminating the DNA synthesis of herpes viral interferon (IFN) - induced cellular antiviral response. They were here found to neutralize antiviral reproduction by blocking cell-to-cell infection. The activity of the 5CC was tested on RC-37 in vitro using an assay plaque reduction and in vivo against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5CC was 0.0009% for HSV-1 plaque formation and 0.0008% for HSV-2 plaque formation. Further tests were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to anti-herpetic drugs in Vero cells after virus entry. There were high-level markers of the 5CC virucidal activity in the viral suspension of HSV-1 and HSV-2. These concentrations of the 5CC are nontoxic and reduced plaque formation by 98.2% for HSV-1 and 93.0% for HSV-2. Virus HSV-1 and HSV-2 titers were reduced significantly by 5CC to the point of being negative, ranging 0.01–0.09 in 72%. The results concluded the 5CC as being an effective treatment option for the herpes simplex virus.

Keywords: synergy pharmaceuticals, herpes treatment, herpes cure, synergy pharmaceuticals treatment

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6918 DNA Vaccine Study against Vaccinia Virus Using In vivo Electroporation

Authors: Jai Myung Yang, Na Young Kim, Sung Ho Shin

Abstract:

The adverse reactions of current live smallpox vaccines and potential use of smallpox as a bioterror weapon have heightened the development of new effective vaccine for this infectious disease. In the present study, DNA vaccine vector was produced which was optimized for expression of the vaccinia virus L1 antigen in the mouse model. A plasmid IgM-tL1R, which contains codon-optimized L1R gene, was constructed and fused with an IgM signal sequence under the regulation of a SV40 enhancer. The expression and secretion of recombinant L1 protein was confirmed in vitro 293 T cell. Mice were administered the DNA vaccine by electroporation and challenged with vaccinia virus. We observed that immunization with IgM-tL1R induced potent neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge. Isotyping studies reveal that immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibody predominated after the immunization, indicative of a T helper type 1 response. Our results suggest that an optimized DNA vaccine, IgM-tL1R, can be effective in stimulating anti-vaccinia virus immune response and provide protection against lethal orthopoxvirus challenge.

Keywords: DNA vaccine, electroporation, L1R, vaccinia virus

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6917 Interference of Polymers Addition in Wastewaters Microbial Survey: Case Study of Viral Retention in Sludges

Authors: Doriane Delafosse, Dominique Fontvieille

Abstract:

Background: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) generally display significant efficacy in virus retention yet, are sometimes highly variable, partly in relation to large fluctuating loads at the head of the plant and partly because of episodic dysfunctions in some treatment processes. The problem is especially sensitive when human enteric viruses, such as human Noroviruses Genogroup I or Adenoviruses, are in concern: their release downstream WWTP, in environments often interconnected to recreational areas, may be very harmful to human communities even at low concentrations. It points out the importance of WWTP permanent monitoring from which their internal treatment processes could be adjusted. One way to adjust primary treatments is to add coagulants and flocculants to sewage ahead settling tanks to improve decantation. In this work, sludge produced by three coagulants (two organics, one mineral), four flocculants (three cationic, one anionic), and their combinations were studied for their efficacy in human enteric virus retention. Sewage samples were coming from a WWTP in the vicinity of the laboratory. All experiments were performed three times and in triplicates in laboratory pilots, using Murine Norovirus (MNV-1), a surrogate of human Norovirus, as an internal control (spiking). Viruses were quantified by (RT-)qPCR after nucleic acid extraction from both treated water and sediment. Results: Low values of sludge virus retention (from 4 to 8% of the initial sewage concentration) were observed with each cationic organic flocculant added to wastewater and no coagulant. The largest part of the virus load was detected in the treated water (48 to 90%). However, it was not counterbalancing the amount of the introduced virus (MNV-1). The results pertained to two types of cationic flocculants, branched and linear, and in the last case, to two percentages of cations. Results were quite similar to the association of a linear cationic organic coagulant and an anionic flocculant, though suggesting that differences between water and sludges would sometimes be related to virus size or virus origins (autochthonous/allochthonous). FeCl₃, as a mineral coagulant associated with an anionic flocculant, significantly increased both auto- and allochthonous virus retention in the sediments (15 to 34%). Accordingly, virus load in treated water was lower (14 to 48%) but with a total that still does not reach the amount of the introduced virus (MNV-1). It also appeared that the virus retrieval in a bare 0.1M NaCl suspension varied rather strongly according to the FeCl₃ concentration, suggesting an inhibiting effect on the molecular analysis used to detect the virus. Finally, no viruses were detected in both phases (sediment and water) with the combination branched cationic coagulant-linear anionic flocculant, which was later demonstrated as an effect, here also, of polymers on the virus detection-molecular analysis. Conclusions: The combination of FeCl₃-anionic flocculant gave its highest performance to the decantation-based virus removal process. However, large unbalanced values in spiking experiments were observed, suggesting that polymers cast additional obstacles to both elution buffer and lysis buffer on their way to reach the virus. The situation was probably even worse with autochthonous viruses already embedded into sewage's particulate matter. Polymers and FeCl₃ also appeared to interfere in some steps of molecular analyses. More attention should be paid to such impediments wherever chemical additives are considered to be used to enhance WWTP processes. Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the ABIOLAB laboratory (Montbonnot Saint-Martin, France) and by the ASPOSAN association. Field experiments were possible thanks to the Grand Chambéry WWTP authorities (Chambéry, France).

Keywords: flocculants-coagulants, polymers, enteric viruses, wastewater sedimentation treatment plant

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6916 Prevalent Features of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017

Authors: Lei Zhou, Dan Li, Ruiqi Ren, Chao Li, Yali Wang, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Timothy M. Uyeki, Qun Li

Abstract:

Since the first human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in early 2013, 1533 cases of laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) virus infections were reported and confirmed as of September 13, 2017. The fifth epidemic was defined as starting from September 1, 2016, and the number of A(H7N9) cases has surged since the end of December in 2016. On February 18, 2017, the A(H7N9) cases who were infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was reported from Southern China. The HPAI A(H7N9) cases were identified and then an investigation and analyses were conducted to assess whether disease severity in humans has changed with HPAI A(H7N9) compared with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infection. Methods: All confirmed cases with A(H7N9) virus infections reported throughout mainland China from September 1, 2016, to September 13, 2017, were included. Cases' information was extracted from field investigation reports and the notifiable infectious surveillance system to describe the demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used to compare HPAI A(H7N9) cases with all LPAI A(H7N9) cases reported during the fifth epidemic. Results: A total of 27 cases of HPAI A(H7N9) virus were identified infection from five provinces, including Guangxi (44%), Guangdong (33%), Hunan (15%), Hebei (4%) and Shangxi (4%). The median age of cases of HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection was 60 years (range, 15 to 80) and most of them were male (59%) and lived in rural areas (78%). All 27 cases had live poultry related exposures within 10 days before their illness onset. In comparison with LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were significantly more likely to live in rural areas (78% vs. 51%; p = 0.006), have exposure to the sick or dead poultry (56% vs. 19%; p = 0.000), and be hospitalized earlier (median 3 vs. 4 days; p = 0.007). No significant differences were observed in median age, sex, prevalence of underlying chronic medical conditions, median time from illness onset to first medical service seeking, starting antiviral treatment, and diagnosis. Although the median time from illness onset to death (9 vs. 13 days) was shorter and the overall case-fatality proportion (48% vs. 38%) was higher for HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients than for LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection was associated with exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas when visited live poultry market or in the backyard. In the fifth epidemic in mainland China, HPAI A (H7N9) case-patients were hospitalized earlier than LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the mortality of HPAI A (H7N9) case-patients was obviously higher than that of LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, indicating a potential severity change of HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection.

Keywords: Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), case-patients, poultry

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6915 Haplotypes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Different HIV-1 Groups from the Netherlands

Authors: A. Alyami, S. Christmas, K. Neeltje, G. Pollakis, B. Paxton, Z. Al-Bayati

Abstract:

The Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecule plays an important role in immunomodulation. To date, 16 untranslated regions (UTR) HLA-G haplotypes have been previously defined by sequenced SNPs in the coding region. From these, UTR-1, UTR-2, UTR-3, UTR-4, UTR-5, UTR-6 and UTR-7 are the most frequent 3’UTR haplotypes at the global level. UTR-1 is associated with higher levels of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G expression, whereas UTR-5 and UTR-7 are linked with low levels of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G expression. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection results in the progressive loss of immune function in infected individuals. The virus escape mechanism typically includes T lymphocytes and NK cell recognition and lyses by classical HLA-A and B down-regulation, which has been associated with non-classical HLA-G molecule up-regulation, respectively. We evaluated the haplotypes of the HLA-G 3′ untranslated region frequencies observed in three HIV-1 groups from the Netherlands and their susceptibility to develop infection. The three groups are made up of mainly men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU) and a high-risk-seronegative (HRSN) group. DNA samples were amplified with published primers prior sequencing. According to our results, the low expresser frequencies show higher in HRSN compared to other groups. This is indicating that 3’UTR polymorphisms may be identified as potential prognostic biomarkers to determine susceptibility to HIV.

Keywords: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) , men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU), high-risk-seronegative (HRSN) group, high-untranslated region (UTR)

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