Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2973

Search results for: brake light

2973 A New Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Brake Light

Authors: Zhiyuan Tang, Ju Zhang, Wenyuan Wu

Abstract:

In this research, a car-following model with consideration of the status of the brake light is proposed. The numerical results show that the stability of the traffic flow is improved. The ability of the brake light to reduce car accident is also showed.

Keywords: brake light, car-following model, traffic flow, regional planning, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
2972 An Experimental Study of Automotive Drum Brake Vibrations

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly

Abstract:

The present paper investigates experimentally the effect coefficient of friction at different operation conditions on the variation of the brake temperature, brake force, and brake vibration with the braking time. All the experimental tests were carried out using brake dynamometer which designed and constructed in Vehicle Dynamic Laboratory. The results indicate that the brake temperature increases with the increase of the normal force and sliding speed especially with the increase of the braking time. The normal force has the effect on increasing the brake force. On the contrary, the vehicle speed has the effect on decreasing the brake force. Both the normal force and sliding speed affect the brake vibration according to the friction behavior.

Keywords: brake dynamometer, coefficient of friction, drum brake vibrations, friction behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2971 Effect of Compressibility of Brake Friction Materials on Vibration Occurrence

Authors: Mostafa Makrahy, Nouby Ghazaly, Ahmad Moaaz

Abstract:

Brakes are one of the most important safety and performance components in automobiles and airplanes. Development of brakes has mainly focused on increasing braking power and stability. Nowadays, brake noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) together with brake dust emission and pad life are very important to vehicle drivers. The main objective of this research is to define the relationship between compressibility of friction materials and their tendency to generate vibration. An experimental study of the friction-induced vibration obtained by the disc brake system of a passenger car is conducted. Three commercial brake pad materials from different manufacturers are tested and evaluated under various brake conditions against cast iron disc brake. First of all, compressibility test for the brake friction material are measured for each pad. Then, brake dynamometer is used to simulate and reproduce actual vehicle braking conditions. Finally, a comparison between the three pad specimens is conducted. The results showed that compressibility have a very significant effect on reduction the vibration occurrence.

Keywords: automotive brake, friction material, brake dynamometer, compressibility test

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2970 Comparative Analysis of VTEC Bank of Rollers Brake Testers versus Maha, Ryme and Dynamometric Platform Testers Used at Ministry of Transport Facilities

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco

Abstract:

This research objective is to compare the differences of brake measurements obtained with the same vehicle when braking on VTEQ Ministry of Transport (MOT) brake testers versus others such as Maha, Ryme and a dynamometric platform. These different types of brake testers have been used and analyzed by the mechanical engineering staffs at the mechanical laboratory at the Miguel Hernández University. Parameters of the vehicle have been controlled to be the same in all tests. Therefore, brake measurements variability will be due to the tester used. Advances and disadvantages of each brake tester have been analyzed.

Keywords: brake tester, Ministry of transport, longitudinal braking, Bank of Rollers

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
2969 Wheel Diameter and Width Influence in Variability of Brake Data Measurement at Ministry of Transport Facilities

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco

Abstract:

The brake systems of vehicles are tested periodically by a “brake tester” at Ministry of Transport (MOT) stations. This tester measures the effectiveness of vehicle. This parameter is established by the International Committee of Vehicle Inspection (CITA). In this paper, we present an investigation of the influence of the tire size on the measurements of brake force on three MOT brake testers. We performed an analysis of the vehicle braking capacity test at MOT stations. The influence of varying wheel diameter and width on the measurement of braking at MOT stations has been analyzed. Thereby, the MOT brake tester as a verification system for a vehicle has been evaluated.

Keywords: brake tester, ministry of transport facilities, wheel diameter, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2968 Research on Aerodynamic Brake Device for High-Speed Train

Authors: S. Yun, M. Kwak

Abstract:

This study is about an aerodynamic brake device for a high-speed train. In order to apply an aerodynamic brake device, an influence of the aerodynamic brake device on a high-speed train was studied aerodynamically, acoustically and dynamically. Wind tunnel test was conducted to predict an effect of braking distance reduction with a scale model of 1/30. Aerodynamic drag increases by 244% with a brake panel of a 90 degree angle. Braking distance for an emergency state was predicted to decrease by 13%.

Keywords: aerodynamic brake, braking distance, drag coefficient, high-speed train, wind-tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2967 Development of Detachable Brake System for Moving Apparatus

Authors: Bong-Keun Jung, Jung-Yeon Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate usability of detachable brake system for moving apparatus such as baby strollers, manual wheelchairs or walkers. The current brake system was proposed to prevent that moving apparatus slip on sloping roadways when unattended as current built-in manual brake for the moving apparatus is not able to react for the matter. The developed detachable brake system enacted by force sensor on the hand grip showed the possibilities to prevent unexpected accident due to uncontrolled stroller or wheelchair use. To investigate the quality and acceptance of this new technology, standard stroller testbed was built and the use of moving apparatus which attached to the proposed brake system was analyzed through video recording. Additional usability questionnaires were given to test users for measuring usability issues.

Keywords: brake system, stroller, wheelchair, usability test

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
2966 Dynamic Investigation of Brake Squeal Problem in The Presence of Kinematic Nonlinearities

Authors: Shahroz Khan, Osman Taha Şen

Abstract:

In automotive brake systems, brake noise has been a major problem, and brake squeal is one of the critical ones which is an instability issue. The brake squeal produces an audible sound at high frequency that is irritating to the human ear. To study this critical problem, first a nonlinear mathematical model with three degree of freedom is developed. This model consists of a point mass that simulates the brake pad and a sliding surface that simulates the brake rotor. The model exposes kinematic and clearance nonlinearities, but no friction nonlinearity. In the formulation, the friction coefficient is assumed to be constant and the friction force does not change direction. The nonlinear governing equations of the model are first obtained, and numerical solutions are sought for different cases. Second, a computational model for the squeal problem is developed with a commercial software, and computational solutions are obtained with two different types of contact cases (solid-to-solid and sphere-to-plane). This model consists of three rigid bodies and several elastic elements that simulate the key characteristics of a brake system. The response obtained from this model is compared with numerical solutions in time and frequency domain.

Keywords: contact force, nonlinearities, brake squeal, vehicle brake

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2965 Comparative Assessment of ABS and Disk Brake Systems

Authors: Saleh Mobasseri, Mohammad Mobasseri

Abstract:

The article refers to the history of the rise of brake system and described it’s importance in passenger’s lives. The disc brake system performance and ABS are also compared with each other by the kinetic and kinematic analysis of the braking system,and evaluate the impact of each parameters is checked on the vehicle stopping distance. Anti−lock braking system (ABS) is one of the most important features that affect on vehicle safety and for this reason much efforts have been made to improve this system. The objectives of the anti−lock system (ABS) are as follows: Preventing the wheels from locking, achieving maximum technical momentum in terms of braking,stability,reducing stopping distances. In this paper,we study the comparative of ABS brake and disc brake.

Keywords: anti−lock braking System (ABS), stopping distances, booster, car stability, force exerted on the brake pedal

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2964 Probability of Passing the Brake Test at Ministry of Transport Facilities of Each City at Alicante Region from Spain

Authors: Carolina Senabre Blanes, Sergio Valero Verdú, Emilio Velasco SáNchez

Abstract:

This research objective is to obtain a percentage of success for each Ministry of Transport (MOT) facilities of each city of the Alicante region from Comunidad Valenciana from Spain by comparing results obtained by using different brake testers. It has been studied which types of brake tester are being used at each city nowadays. Different types of brake testers are used at each city, and the mechanical engineering staffs from the Miguel Hernández University have studied differences between all of them, and have obtained measures from each type. A percentage of probability of success will be given to each MOT station when you try to pass the exam with the same car with same characteristics and the same wheels. In other words, parameters of the vehicle have been controlled to be the same at all tests; therefore, brake measurements variability will be due to the type of testers could be used at the MOT station. A percentage of probability to pass the brake exam at each city will be given by comparing results of tests.

Keywords: brake tester, Mot station, probability to pass the exam, brake tester characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2963 Aerodynamic Brake Study of Reducing Braking Distance for High-Speed Trains

Authors: Phatthara Surachon, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an aerodynamic brake study of reducing braking distance for high-speed trains (HST) using aerodynamic brakes as inspiration from the applications on the commercial aircraft wings. In case of emergency, both braking distance and stopping time are longer than the usual situation. Therefore, the passenger safety and the HST driving control management are definitely obtained by reducing the time and distance of train braking during emergency situation. Due to the limited study and implementation of the aerodynamic brake in HST, the possibility in use and the effectiveness of the aerodynamic brake to the train dynamic movement during braking are analyzed and considered. Regarding the aircraft’s flaps that applied in the HST, the areas of the aerodynamic brake acted as an additional drag force during train braking are able to vary depending on the operating angle and the required dynamic braking force. The HST with a varying speed of 200 km/h to 350 km/h is taken as a case study of this paper. The results show that the stopping time and the brake distance are effectively reduced by the aerodynamic brakes. The mechanical brake and its maintenance are effectively getting this benefit by extending its lifetime for longer use.

Keywords: high-speed train, aerodynamic brake, brake distance, drag force

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2962 Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine

Authors: Gurlal Singh, Rupinder Singh

Abstract:

The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.

Keywords: exhaust gas, automobiles, solenoid, airbrake

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
2961 Design and Control of a Knee Rehabilitation Device Using an MR-Fluid Brake

Authors: Mina Beheshti, Vida Shams, Mojtaba Esfandiari, Farzaneh Abdollahi, Abdolreza Ohadi

Abstract:

Most of the people who survive a stroke need rehabilitation tools to regain their mobility. The core function of these devices is a brake actuator. The goal of this study is to design and control a magnetorheological brake which can be used as a rehabilitation tool. In fact, the fluid used in this brake is called magnetorheological fluid or MR that properties can change by variation of the magnetic field. The braking properties can be set as control by using this feature of the fluid. In this research, different MR brake designs are first introduced in each design, and the dimensions of the brake have been determined based on the required torque for foot movement. To calculate the brake dimensions, it is assumed that the shear stress distribution in the fluid is uniform and the fluid is in its saturated state. After designing the rehabilitation brake, the mathematical model of the healthy movement of a healthy person is extracted. Due to the nonlinear nature of the system and its variability, various adaptive controllers, neural networks, and robust have been implemented to estimate the parameters and control the system. After calculating torque and control current, the best type of controller in terms of error and control current has been selected. Finally, this controller is implemented on the experimental data of the patient's movements, and the control current is calculated to achieve the desired torque and motion.

Keywords: rehabilitation, magnetorheological fluid, knee, brake, adaptive control, robust control, neural network control, torque control

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2960 Design of an Eddy Current Brake System for the Use of Roller Coasters Based on a Human Factors Engineering Approach

Authors: Adam L. Yanagihara, Yong Seok Park

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to converge upon a design of a brake system that could be used for a roller coaster found at an amusement park. It was necessary to find what could be deemed as a “comfortable” deceleration so that passengers do not feel as if they are suddenly jerked and pressed against the restraining harnesses. A human factors engineering approach was taken in order to determine this deceleration. Using a previous study that tested the deceleration of transit vehicles, it was found that a -0.45 G deceleration would be used as a design requirement to build this system around. An adjustable linear eddy current brake using permanent magnets would be the ideal system to use in order to meet this design requirement. Anthropometric data were then used to determine a realistic weight and length of the roller coaster that the brake was being designed for. The weight and length data were then factored into magnetic brake force equations. These equations were used to determine how the brake system and the brake run layout would be designed. A final design for the brake was determined and it was found that a total of 12 brakes would be needed with a maximum braking distance of 53.6 m in order to stop a roller coaster travelling at its top speed and loaded to maximum capacity. This design is derived from theoretical calculations, but is within the realm of feasibility.

Keywords: eddy current brake, engineering design, design synthesis, human factors engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2959 Analysis of Structure-Flow Interaction for Water Brake Mechanism

Authors: Murat Avci, Fatih Kosar, Ismail Yilmaz

Abstract:

In this study, structure-flow interaction for water brake mechanism is studied with Abaqus CEL approach. The water brake mechanism is used for dynamic systems such as sled system on rail. For the achievement of these system tests, structure-flow interaction should be investigated in detail. This study is about a sled test of an aircraft subsystem which rises to supersonic speeds thanks to rocket engines. To decrease or to stop the thrusting rocket sleds, water brake mechanisms are used. Water brake mechanism provides the deceleration of the structures that have supersonic speeds. Therefore, structure-flow interaction may cause damage to the water brake mechanism. To verify all design revisions with system tests are so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, structure-flow interaction that belongs to water brake mechanism is solved with Abaqus CEL approach. Fluid and deformation on the structure behaviors are modeled at the same time thanks to CEL approach. Provided analysis results are corrected with the dynamic tests. Deformation zones seen in numerical analysis are also observed in dynamic tests. Finally, Johnson-Cook material model parameters used for this analysis are proven, and it is understood that these parameters can be used for dynamic analysis like water brake mechanism.

Keywords: aircraft, rocket, structure-flow, supersonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2958 Effects of Humidity and Silica Sand Particles on Vibration Generation by Friction Materials of Automotive Brake System

Authors: Mostafa M. Makrahy, Nouby M. Ghazaly, G. T. Abd el-Jaber

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental study of vibration generated by friction materials of an automotive disc brake system using brake test rig. Effects of silica sand particles which are available on the road surface as an environmental condition with a size varied from 150 μm to 600 μm are evaluated. Also, the vibration of the brake disc is examined against the friction material in humidity environment conditions under variable rotational speed. The experimental results showed that the silica sand particles have significant contribution on the value of vibration amplitude which enhances with increasing the size of silica sand particles at different speed conditions. Also, it is noticed that the friction material is sensitive to humidity and the vibration magnitude increases under wet testing conditions. Moreover, it can be reported that with increasing the applied pressure and rotational speed of the braking system, the vibration amplitudes decrease for all cases.

Keywords: disc brake vibration, friction-induced vibration, silica sand particles, brake operational and environmental conditions

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2957 Effects of Ingredients Proportions on the Friction Performance of a Brake Pad Material

Authors: Rukiye Ertan

Abstract:

In this study, a brake friction material composition was investigated experimentally related to the effects of the friction modifiers and abrasive proportions on the tribological properties. The investigation was based on a simple experimental formulation, consisting of seven friction materials with different proportions of abrasives (ZrSiO4 and Fe2O3) and friction modifiers (cashew dust). The friction materials were evaluated using a Chase friction tester. The tribological properties, such as the wear resistance and friction stability, depending on the test temperature and the number of braking were obtained related to the friction material ingredient proportions. The results showed that the tribological properties of the brake pad were greatly affected by the abrasive and then cashew dust proportion.

Keywords: brake pad, friction, wear, abrasives

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
2956 Investigation of Effect of Mixture Ratio and Compaction Pressure of Reinforced with Miscanthus Fibre Brake Pad Samples

Authors: M. Unaldi, R. Kus

Abstract:

Brake pads are important parts of the braking system and they are made of different materials. Use of asbestos fibre can cause health risks. The goal of this study is to determine the effect of ecological brake pad samples which are produced under different compaction pressure values and mixture ratios by using miscanthus as reinforcement component on the density, hardness, wear rate and compression strength properties, and friction coefficients changes of ecological brake pad samples. Miscanthus powder, cashew powder, alumina powder, phenolic resin powder, and calcite powder mixtures were used to produce ecological brake pad samples. The physical properties of the brake pad samples produced under different mixture ratios and compaction pressures values were determined to assign their effects on them by using Taguchi experimental design. Mixture ratios and compaction pressures values were chosen as the factors with three-levels. Experiments are conducted to L₉(3⁴) Taguchi orthogonal array design. The results showed that hardness value is very much affected both compaction pressure values and mixture ratios than the other physical properties. When reinforcing component ratio within the mixture and compaction pressure value is increased, hardness and compression strength values of the all samples are also increased. All test results taking into account, the ideal compaction value for used components and mixture ratios were determined as 200 MPa.

Keywords: brake pad, eco-friendly materials, hardness, Miscanthus, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
2955 Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions on Multi-Cylinder Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Operated with B5 Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Pradip Lingfa, L. M. Das, S. N. Naik

Abstract:

In the last three decades the world has been confronting an energy crisis caused by the decreased of fossil resources, and increased of environmental problems. This situation resulted in a search for an alternative fuel. Non-edible vegetable oils are promising sources for producing liquid fuels. In the present experimental investigation, the engine tests were carried out for performance and exhaust emissions on 2.5 L Turbo-charged diesel engine fuelled with 5% biodiesel blend obtained from non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha, Karanja, and Castor Seeds. The engine tests were carried out at full throttle position with various engine speeds of 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2750 and 3000 rpm respectively. After test, it was observed that 5% Jatropha biodiesel blend have highest brake power of 46.65 kW and less brake specific fuel consumptions of 225.8 kg/kW-hr compared to other two biodiesel blends of brake power of 45.99 kW, 45.81 kW and brake specific fuel consumption of 234.34, 236.55 kg/kW-hr respectively. The brake specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blends increase at increasing speeds for all biodiesel blends. NOx emissions for biodiesel blends were observed to be higher compared to diesel fuel during the entire range of engine operations. The emission characteristics like CO, HC and smoke were lowered at all engine speed conditions compared to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel blend, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, emission, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
2954 The Effect of Volume Fraction of Nano-Alumina Strengthening on AC4B Composite Characteristics through the Stir Casting Method as a Material Brake Shoe

Authors: Benny Alexander, Ikhlashia N. Fadhilah, Muhammad R. Pasha, Michelle Julia, Anne Z. Syahrial

Abstract:

Brake shoe is a component that serves to reduce speed or stop the train's speed by utilizing the friction force. Generally, the material used as a brake shoe is cast iron, where cast iron itself is a heavy, expensive, and easily worn material. Aluminum matrix composites are one of candidates for the cast iron replacement material as the basic material for brake shoe. The matrix in the composite used is Aluminum AC4B. Reinforcement used in aluminum matrix composites is nano-alumina, where the use of nano-alumina of 0.25%, 0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4%, and 0.5% volume fraction will be tested. The sample is made using the stir casting method; then, it will be tested mechanically. The use of nano-alumina as a reinforcement will increase the strength of the matrix. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing is used to test the distribution of reinforcing particles due to stirring. Therefore, the addition of nano-alumina will improve AC4B aluminum matrix composites.

Keywords: aluminium matrix composites, brake shoe application, stir casting, nano-alumina

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2953 Co-Simulation Approach Using CFD for Transient Brake Cooling Simulations

Authors: Harshad Kulkarni, Krishna Veeraraghavan, Nicholas Amato

Abstract:

The brake system is a critical component for vehicles as its main function is to inhibit motion by converting the kinetic energy of the vehicle into heat by friction. Heat energy generated by this conversion process must be dissipated away to the surroundings to protect the brake system from overheating. Ensuring the correct functioning of the brake system under various load scenarios is a safety issue. Experimental testing of the brake system under various scenarios is challenging and time consuming. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations process that accounts for the effect of conduction, convection, and radiation heat fluxes transfer can be used to predict the brake system component temperatures and allow detailed investigation of heat flux distribution for various operating conditions and material properties with a shorter turnaround time. Building a reliable, repeatable, and an efficient, scalable CFD process for brake cooling applications can be a challenge. This paper summarizes CFD methodology using a co-simulation approach for brake cooling for two specific scenarios, an alpine descent where the vehicle is constantly braking during downhill travel and a repeated drive cycle where the vehicle is accelerating and decelerating. In the co-simulation approach, steady state fluid and transient solid rigid body rotation simulations are solved separately within the same simulation file, and the two-way coupling of the two simulations are done over several cycles to allow the transfer of heat energy between fluid and solid simulations. Steady state fluid simulation solves for the convective and radiative heat transfer, and transient solid rigid body rotation solves for the conduction by modelling the rotational effects of the brake. In comparison to the test data, the brake cooling simulation methodology using the co-simulation approach accurately predicts temperature trends at brake disc probe locations. Streamlined process developed here can help engineers to easily setup the CFD model to perform design exploration and optimization studies of the brake systems to accurately predict temperature distribution on critical components and visualize the heated airflow around the brake system.

Keywords: conduction, convection, drive cycle, fluid-solid coupling, radiation, rigid body motion, steady fluid, transient solid

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2952 Exploration of Copper Fabric in Non-Asbestos Organic Brake-Pads for Thermal Conductivity Enhancement

Authors: Vishal Mahale, Jayashree Bijwe, Sujeet K. Sinha

Abstract:

Range of thermal conductivity (TC) of Friction Materials (FMs) is a critical issue since lower TC leads to accumulation of frictional heat on the working surface, which results in excessive fade while higher TC leads to excessive heat flow towards back-plate resulting in boiling of brake-fluid leading to ‘spongy brakes’. This phenomenon prohibits braking action, which is most undesirable. Therefore, TC of the FMs across the brake pads should not be high while along the brake pad, it should be high. To enhance TC, metals in the forms of powder and fibers are used in the FMs. Apart from TC improvement, metals provide strength and structural integrity to the composites. Due to higher TC Copper (Cu) powder/fiber is a most preferred metallic ingredient in FM industry. However, Cu powders/fibers are responsible for metallic wear debris generation, which has harmful effects on aquatic organisms. Hence to get rid of a problem of metallic wear debris generation and to keep the positive effect of TC improvement, incorporation of Cu fabric in NAO brake-pads can be an innovative solution. Keeping this in view, two realistic multi-ingredient FM composites with identical formulations were developed in the form of brake-pads. Out of which one composite series consisted of a single layer of Cu fabric in the body of brake-pad and designated as C1 while double layer of Cu fabric was incorporated in another brake-pad series with designation of C2. Distance of Cu fabric layer from the back-plate was kept constant for C1 and C2. One more composite (C0) was developed without Cu fabric for the sake of comparison. Developed composites were characterized for physical properties. Tribological performance was evaluated on full scale inertia dynamometer by following JASO C 406 testing standard. It was concluded that Cu fabric successfully improved fade resistance by increasing conductivity of the composite and also showed slight improvement in wear resistance. Worn surfaces of pads and disc were analyzed by SEM and EDAX to study wear mechanism.

Keywords: brake inertia dynamometer, copper fabric, non-asbestos organic (NAO) friction materials, thermal conductivity enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
2951 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Palm Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Jalpit B. Prajapati, Ketankumar G. Patel

Abstract:

Palm oil may be employed in diesel engine as an alternative fuel. Biofuel has so far been backed by government policies in the quest for low carbon fuel in the near future and promises to ensure energy security through partially replacing fossil fuels. This paper presents an experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics by using palm oil in diesel engine. The properties of palm oil can be compared favorably with the characteristics required for internal combustion engine fuels especially diesel engine. Experiments will be performed for fixed compression ratio i.e. 18 using biodiesel-diesel blends i.e. B0, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 with load variation from no load to full load and compared with base cases i.e. engine using diesel as a fuel. The parameters studied in performance characteristics are brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, in emission characteristics are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. After experimental results B20 (20% palm oil and 80% diesel) is best in performance, but NOx formation is little higher in B20.

Keywords: palm biodiesel, performance, emission, diesel-biodiesel blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2950 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
2949 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-Washed and Dry-Washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil

Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto

Abstract:

In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.

Keywords: biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
2948 Modelling the Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Accelerating and Braking Behaviour of Drivers

Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav, Nagendra R. Velaga

Abstract:

Driving under the influence of alcohol impairs the driving performance and increases the crash risks worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of different Blood Alcohol Concentrations (BAC) on the accelerating and braking behaviour of drivers with the help of driving simulator experiments. Eighty-two licensed Indian drivers drove on the rural road environment designed in the driving simulator at BAC levels of 0.00%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08% respectively. Driving performance was analysed with the help of vehicle control performance indicators such as mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force of the participants. Preliminary analysis reported an increase in mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force with increasing BAC levels. Generalized linear mixed models were developed to quantify the effect of different alcohol levels and explanatory variables such as driver’s age, gender and other driver characteristic variables on the driving performance indicators. Alcohol use was reported as a significant factor affecting the accelerating and braking performance of the drivers. The acceleration model results indicated that mean acceleration of the drivers increased by 0.013 m/s², 0.026 m/s² and 0.027 m/s² for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Results of the brake pedal force model reported that mean brake pedal force of the drivers increased by 1.09 N, 1.32 N and 1.44 N for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Age was a significant factor in both the models where one year increase in drivers’ age resulted in 0.2% reduction in mean acceleration and 19% reduction in mean brake pedal force of the drivers. It shows that driving experience could compensate for the negative effects of alcohol to some extent while driving. Female drivers were found to accelerate slower and brake harder as compared to the male drivers which confirmed that female drivers are more conscious about their safety while driving. It was observed that drivers who were regular exercisers had better control on their accelerator pedal as compared to the non-regular exercisers during drunken driving. The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol which deteriorates their driving performance. Drunk driving state can be differentiated from sober driving state by observing the accelerating and braking behaviour of the drivers. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety.

Keywords: alcohol, acceleration, braking behaviour, driving simulator

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2947 Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in the City of Bogota

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Rodrigo Morillo Castaño, Juan Rolón Ríos

Abstract:

The government of Colombia has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric air quality and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the air is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has big cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85 and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at 3600 rpm and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E40 mixture, where was obtained an increases of the brake power of 8.81 % and a reduction on brake specific fuel consumption of 2.5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, HC and CO in 9.72, 52.88 and 76.66 % respectively compared to the results obtained with the E10 blend. This behaviour is because the E40 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the oxygen for the combustion process, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 106.25 %.

Keywords: emissions, ethanol, gasoline, engine, performance

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2946 Analysis of Brake System for Vehicle Off-Road

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

In elapsing of the years it elaborates automobile it is developing automobiles more and more modern that, every year, the vehicles recently of the assembly lines, practically they push for the past produced models there is very little time. Those innovations didn't also pass unperceived in 0respect the safety of the vehicles. It is in this development apprenticeship the brakes systems equipped more and more with resources sophisticated. In that way, before of that context, this research tried to project a brake system for a vehicle off-road and to analyze your acting as the brakes efficiency: distances traveled and time, concluding with possible improvements in the system.

Keywords: brakes system, off-road, vehicle acting, automotive and mechanical engineering

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2945 A Study of Light in Zoroastrianism and Ancient Iranian Traditions: A Case of Mathnavi

Authors: Farideh Aramideh

Abstract:

The aim of this essay is to study the light in Zoroastrianism, and Masnavi by Rumi. The use of light goes back to thousand years B.C. the light in the legacy of ancient Iranian wisdom has been used in Mithraism, Zurvanism, Zoroastrianism and Manichaean religion and spirituality has been emanated in the world through the light. Ontology and angelology and the sacredness of fire in Zoroastrianism have been interpreted according to the concept of light. The ruling atmosphere on mazdaism world is the world which is full of light and angels, and light is one of the basis of worldview in ancient Iranian mysticism, especially Zoroastrianism and Manichaean, continued widely in Islamic mysticism, and also it always provokes discussions among scholars and mystics especially Iranian mystics. Light and fire are used as the signs and symbols of God's existence, The Shining lights emanated from the sacred essence of God, knowledge, and mysticism, love, discovering the wisdom and a way to God. Rumi speaks eloquently about light in Masnavi, and by using the light; he could render his readers the fundamental mystic subjects such as the true existence of God, the verity of prophets and saints, intuition of God, spiritual states of union with God and abiding in God, which are the most complicated mystic terms.

Keywords: zoroastrianism, myticims, Masnavi, light

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2944 Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Low Light Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Induced by Low Light Stress at Active Tillering Stage

Authors: Darshan Panda, Lambodar Behera, M. J. Baig, Sudhanshu Sekhar

Abstract:

Low light intensity is a significant limitation for grain yield and quality in rice. However, yield is not significantly reduced in low-light tolerant rice varieties. The work, therefore, planned for comparative transcriptome profiling under low light stress to decipher the genes involved and molecular mechanism of low light tolerance in rice. At the active tillering stage, 50% low light exposure for one day, three days, and five days were given to Swarnaprabha (low light tolerant) and IR8 (low light sensitive) rice varieties. Illumina (HiSeq) platform was used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 6,652 and 12,042 genes were differentially expressed due to low light intensity in Swarnaprabha and IR8, respectively, as compared to control. CAB, LRP, SBPase, MT15, TF PCL1, and Photosystem I & II complex related gene expressions were mostly increased in Swarnaprabha upon the longer duration of low light exposure, which was not found in IR8 as compared to control. Their expressions were validated by qRT-PCR. The overall study suggested that the maintenance of grain yield in the tolerant variety under low light might be the result of accelerated expression of the genes, which enable the plant to keep the photosynthetic processes moving at the same pace even under low light.

Keywords: rice, low light, photosynthesis, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 103