Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 658

Search results for: longitudinal braking

658 Analysis of Cascade Control Structure in Train Dynamic Braking System

Authors: B. Moaveni, S. Morovati


In recent years, increasing the usage of railway transportations especially in developing countries caused more attention to control systems railway vehicles. Consequently, designing and implementing the modern control systems to improve the operating performance of trains and locomotives become one of the main concerns of researches. Dynamic braking systems is an important safety system which controls the amount of braking torque generated by traction motors, to keep the adhesion coefficient between the wheel-sets and rail road in optimum bound. Adhesion force has an important role to control the braking distance and prevent the wheels from slipping during the braking process. Cascade control structure is one of the best control methods for the wide range of industrial plants in the presence of disturbances and errors. This paper presents cascade control structure based on two forward simple controllers with two feedback loops to control the slip ratio and braking torque. In this structure, the inner loop controls the angular velocity and the outer loop control the longitudinal velocity of the locomotive that its dynamic is slower than the dynamic of angular velocity. This control structure by controlling the torque of DC traction motors, tries to track the desired velocity profile to access the predefined braking distance and to control the slip ratio. Simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the introduced methodology in dynamic braking system.

Keywords: cascade control, dynamic braking system, DC traction motors, slip control

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657 Magnetic Braking System of an Elevator in the Event of Sudden Breakage of the Hoisting Cable

Authors: Amita Singha


The project describes the scope of magnetic braking. The potential applications of the braking system can be a de-accelerating system to increase the safety of an elevator or any guided rail transportation system.

Keywords: boost and buck converter, electromagnet, elevator, ferromagnetic material, sensor, solenoid, timer

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
656 Cargo Securement Standards and Braking Maneuvers

Authors: Jose A. Romero, Frank Otremba, Alejandro A. Lozano-Guzman


Road safety is affected by many factors, involving the vehicle, the infrastructure, and the environment. Many efforts have been thus made to improve road safety through rational standards for the different systems involved in freight transportation. Cargo shifting and falling have been recognized as critical and contributive effects for road crashes. To avoid such situations, regional and international standards have been implemented, aiming to prevent such types of cargo-related accidents. In particular, there are specific compulsory standard requirements to maintain the cargo on the vehicle without shifting, when the vehicle performs an emergency braking maneuver. In this paper, a simulation is presented to analyze the effect of the vibration of the cargo on the braking distance of the vehicle. Such vibration can lead to a poor cargo restraining, and higher braking efficiency, as a result of the decoupling of the cargo mass from the vehicle mass. Such higher braking efficiency, on the order of 4.4%, further suggests a greater demand for the current braking standards.

Keywords: road safety, cargo securement, shifting cargo, vehicle dynamics, ABS

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
655 Practical Model of Regenerative Braking Using DC Machine and Boost Converter

Authors: Shah Krupa Rajendra, Amit Kumar


Increasing use of traditional vehicles driven by internal combustion engine is responsible for the environmental pollution. Further, it leads to depletion of limited energy resources. Therefore, it is required to explore alternative energy sources for the transportation. The promising solution is to use electric vehicle. However, it suffers from limited driving range. Regenerative braking increases the range of the electric vehicle to a certain extent. In this paper, a novel methodology utilizing regenerative braking is described. The model comprising of DC machine, feedback based boost converter and micro-controller is proposed. The suggested method is very simple and reliable. The proposed model successfully shows the energy being saved into during regenerative braking process.

Keywords: boost converter, DC machine, electric vehicle, micro-controller, regenerative braking

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654 Select-Low and Select-High Methods for the Wheeled Robot Dynamic States Control

Authors: Bogusław Schreyer


The paper enquires on the two methods of the wheeled robot braking torque control. Those two methods are applied when the adhesion coefficient under left side wheels is different from the adhesion coefficient under the right side wheels. In case of the select-low (SL) method the braking torque on both wheels is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the lower adhesion. In the select-high (SH) method the torque is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the higher adhesion. The SL method is securing stable and secure robot behaviors during the braking process. However, the efficiency of this method is relatively low. The SH method is more efficient in terms of time and braking distance but in some situations may cause wheels blocking. It is important to monitor the velocity of all wheels and then take a decision about the braking torque distribution accordingly. In case of the SH method the braking torque slope may require significant decrease in order to avoid wheel blocking.

Keywords: select-high, select-low, torque distribution, wheeled robots

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653 Aerodynamic Brake Study of Reducing Braking Distance for High-Speed Trains

Authors: Phatthara Surachon, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong


This paper presents an aerodynamic brake study of reducing braking distance for high-speed trains (HST) using aerodynamic brakes as inspiration from the applications on the commercial aircraft wings. In case of emergency, both braking distance and stopping time are longer than the usual situation. Therefore, the passenger safety and the HST driving control management are definitely obtained by reducing the time and distance of train braking during emergency situation. Due to the limited study and implementation of the aerodynamic brake in HST, the possibility in use and the effectiveness of the aerodynamic brake to the train dynamic movement during braking are analyzed and considered. Regarding the aircraft’s flaps that applied in the HST, the areas of the aerodynamic brake acted as an additional drag force during train braking are able to vary depending on the operating angle and the required dynamic braking force. The HST with a varying speed of 200 km/h to 350 km/h is taken as a case study of this paper. The results show that the stopping time and the brake distance are effectively reduced by the aerodynamic brakes. The mechanical brake and its maintenance are effectively getting this benefit by extending its lifetime for longer use.

Keywords: high-speed train, aerodynamic brake, brake distance, drag force

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652 Comparative Analysis of VTEC Bank of Rollers Brake Testers versus Maha, Ryme and Dynamometric Platform Testers Used at Ministry of Transport Facilities

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco


This research objective is to compare the differences of brake measurements obtained with the same vehicle when braking on VTEQ Ministry of Transport (MOT) brake testers versus others such as Maha, Ryme and a dynamometric platform. These different types of brake testers have been used and analyzed by the mechanical engineering staffs at the mechanical laboratory at the Miguel Hernández University. Parameters of the vehicle have been controlled to be the same in all tests. Therefore, brake measurements variability will be due to the tester used. Advances and disadvantages of each brake tester have been analyzed.

Keywords: brake tester, Ministry of transport, longitudinal braking, Bank of Rollers

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651 Comparative Assessment of ABS and Disk Brake Systems

Authors: Saleh Mobasseri, Mohammad Mobasseri


The article refers to the history of the rise of brake system and described it’s importance in passenger’s lives. The disc brake system performance and ABS are also compared with each other by the kinetic and kinematic analysis of the braking system,and evaluate the impact of each parameters is checked on the vehicle stopping distance. Anti−lock braking system (ABS) is one of the most important features that affect on vehicle safety and for this reason much efforts have been made to improve this system. The objectives of the anti−lock system (ABS) are as follows: Preventing the wheels from locking, achieving maximum technical momentum in terms of braking,stability,reducing stopping distances. In this paper,we study the comparative of ABS brake and disc brake.

Keywords: anti−lock braking System (ABS), stopping distances, booster, car stability, force exerted on the brake pedal

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
650 Mechanism to Optimize Landing Distance in Order to Minimize Tyre Wear during Braking

Authors: H. V. H. De Soysa, N. D. Hiripitiya, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage


This research was based on developing a mechanism in order to optimize the landing distance. Short distance braking and long distance braking may cause several issues for the aircraft including tyre wearing. The worst case occurs with short distance landing. The issues related to short distance landing were identified after conducting interviews with pilots, aeronautical engineers and technicians. A model was constructed in order to optimize the landing distance. The device started to function at the point where the main wheels of the aircraft touchdown the runway. It was found that implementing this device to the aircraft benefits to optimize the landing distance. This could lead to rectifying several issues occurred due to improper braking distances.

Keywords: aircraft, mechanism, optimize landing distance, runway

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649 Research on Aerodynamic Brake Device for High-Speed Train

Authors: S. Yun, M. Kwak


This study is about an aerodynamic brake device for a high-speed train. In order to apply an aerodynamic brake device, an influence of the aerodynamic brake device on a high-speed train was studied aerodynamically, acoustically and dynamically. Wind tunnel test was conducted to predict an effect of braking distance reduction with a scale model of 1/30. Aerodynamic drag increases by 244% with a brake panel of a 90 degree angle. Braking distance for an emergency state was predicted to decrease by 13%.

Keywords: aerodynamic brake, braking distance, drag coefficient, high-speed train, wind-tunnel test

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648 MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking

Authors: Tohru Kawabe


In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control) method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: sliding mode control, model predictive control, integral action, electric vehicle, slip suppression

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647 UML Model for Double-Loop Control Self-Adaptive Braking System

Authors: Heung Sun Yoon, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we present an activity diagram model for double-loop control self-adaptive braking system. Since activity diagram helps to improve visibility of self-adaption, we can easily find where improvement is needed on double-loop control. Double-loop control is adopted since the design conditions and actual conditions can be different. The system is reconfigured in runtime by using double-loop control. We simulated to verify and validate our model by using MATLAB. We compared single-loop control model with double-loop control model. Simulation results show that double-loop control provides more consistent brake power control than single-loop control.

Keywords: activity diagram, automotive, braking system, double-loop, self-adaptive, UML, vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
646 Designing an Aerodynamic Braking in Order to Increase Power and Speed of Braking System of Vehicles

Authors: Hamidreza Ahmadi, Majid Abbasalizadeh, Ghasem Yazdani, Masoud Ahmadi


In this paper a special kind of aerodynamic system as a spoiler has been designed and tried to show effects of this devise on braking system of vehicle. Moreover, position of this spoiler has been considered in order to find optimum point from safety and highest rate of braking view for spoiler. Fluent software is our main tool to calculate rate of extra force that is produced by spoiler and this article has been tried to use various figures that are showed effects of spoiler at different speeds, angles and also heights. Other major points in this paper are static pressure of vehicle at different speed and statues. Undoubtedly, shape of spoiler would be very important, so in this investigation spoiler has been designed and proposed after a lot of simulation for different shape of spoiler. In the end, there is very important part as validation since these simulations must be validated by experimental way to prove our claims. In this case, a special kind of BMW has been simulated and results have been compared by experimental results that have been presented by BMW Company. Difference between simulation results and experimental results are very little and it could be a suitable validation for this project.

Keywords: drag force, down force, vehicle, spoiler

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
645 Wear Map for Cu-Based Friction Materials with Different Contents of Fe Reinforcement

Authors: Haibin Zhou, Pingping Yao, Kunyang Fan


Copper-based sintered friction materials are widely used in the brake system of different applications such as engineering machinery or high-speed train, due to the excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological performance. Considering the diversity of the working conditions of brake system, it is necessary to identify well and understand the tribological performance and wear mechanisms of friction materials for different conditions. Fe has been a preferred reinforcement for copper-based friction materials, due to its ability to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of material. Wear map is well accepted as a useful research method for evaluation of wear performances and wear mechanisms over a wider range of working conditions. Therefore, it is significantly important to construct a wear map which can give out the effects of work condition and Fe reinforcement on tribological performance of Cu-based friction materials. In this study, the copper-based sintered friction materials with the different addition of Fe reinforcement (0-20 vol. %) were studied. The tribological tests were performed against stainless steel in a ring-on-ring braking tester with varying braking energy density (0-5000 J/cm2). The linear wear and friction coefficient were measured. The worn surface, cross section and debris were analyzed to determine the dominant wear mechanisms for different testing conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the wear map and wear mechanism map were established, in terms of braking energy density and the addition of Fe. It was found that with low contents of Fe and low braking energy density, adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of friction materials. Oxidative wear and abrasive wear mainly occurred under moderate braking energy density. In the condition of high braking energy density, with both high and low addition of Fe, delamination appeared as the main wear mechanism.

Keywords: Cu-based friction materials, Fe reinforcement, wear map, wear mechanism

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644 Module Based Review over Current Regenerative Braking Landing Gear

Authors: Madikeri Rohit


As energy efficiency is the key concern in many aircraft manufacturing companies regenerative braking is a technique using which energy lost due to friction while braking can be regained. In the operation of an aircraft, significant energy is lost during deceleration or braking which occurs during its landing phase. This problem can be overcome using Regenerative Breaking System (RBS) in landing gear. The major problem faced is regarding the batteries and the overall efficiency gained in competence with the added weight. As the amount of energy required to store is huge we need batteries with high capacity for storage. Another obstacle by using high capacity batteries is the added weight which undermines the efficiency obtained using RBS. An approach to this problem is to either use the obtained energy immediately without storage or to store in other forms such as mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic. Problem faced with mechanical systems is the weight of the flywheel needed to obtain required efficiency. Pneumatic and hydraulic systems are a better option at present. Using hydraulic systems for storing energy is efficient as it integrates into the overall hydraulic system present in the aircraft. Another obstacle is faced with the redundancy of this system. Conventional braking must be used along with RBS in order to provide redundancy. Major benefits obtained using RBS is with the help of the energy obtained during landing which can be used of engine less taxing. This reduces fuel consumption as well as noise and air pollution. Another added benefit of using RBS is to provide electrical supply to lighting systems, cabin pressurization system and can be used for emergency power supply in case of electric failure. This paper discusses about using RBS in landing gear, problems, prospects and new techniques being pursued to improve RBS.

Keywords: regenerative braking, types of energy conversion, landing gear, energy storage

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643 Design of Target Selection for Pedestrian Autonomous Emergency Braking System

Authors: Tao Song, Hao Cheng, Guangfeng Tian, Chuang Xu


An autonomous emergency braking system is an advanced driving assistance system that enables vehicle collision avoidance and pedestrian collision avoidance to improve vehicle safety. At present, because the pedestrian target is small, and the mobility is large, the pedestrian AEB system is faced with more technical difficulties and higher functional requirements. In this paper, a method of pedestrian target selection based on a variable width funnel is proposed. Based on the current position and predicted position of pedestrians, the relative position of vehicle and pedestrian at the time of collision is calculated, and different braking strategies are adopted according to the hazard level of pedestrian collisions. In the CNCAP standard operating conditions, comparing the method of considering only the current position of pedestrians and the method of considering pedestrian prediction position, as well as the method based on fixed width funnel and variable width funnel, the results show that, based on variable width funnel, the choice of pedestrian target will be more accurate and the opportunity of the intervention of AEB system will be more reasonable by considering the predicted position of the pedestrian target and vehicle's lateral motion.

Keywords: automatic emergency braking system, pedestrian target selection, TTC, variable width funnel

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642 Self-Organizing Map Network for Wheeled Robot Movement Optimization

Authors: Boguslaw Schreyer


The paper investigates the application of the Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to the wheeled robot starting and braking dynamic states. In securing wheeled robot stability as well as minimum starting and braking time, it is important to ensure correct torque distribution as well as proper slope of braking and driving moments. In this paper, a correct movement distribution has been formulated, securing optimum adhesion coefficient and good transversal stability of a wheeled robot. A neural tuner has been proposed to secure the above properties, although most of the attention is attached to the SOM network application. If the delay of the torque application or torque release is not negligible, it is important to change the rising and falling slopes of the torque. The road/surface condition is also paramount in robot dynamic states control. As the road conditions may randomly change in time, application of the SOM network has been suggested in order to classify the actual road conditions.

Keywords: slip control, SOM network, torque distribution, wheeled Robot

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641 Modelling Consistency and Change of Social Attitudes in 7 Years of Longitudinal Data

Authors: Paul Campbell, Nicholas Biddle


There is a complex, endogenous relationship between individual circumstances, attitudes, and behaviour. This study uses longitudinal panel data to assess changes in social and political attitudes over a 7-year period. Attitudes are captured with the question 'what is the most important issue facing Australia today', collected at multiple time points in a longitudinal survey of 2200 Australians. Consistency of attitudes, and factors predicting change over time, are assessed. The consistency of responses has methodological implications for data collection, specifically how often such questions ought to be asked of a population. When change in attitude is observed, this study assesses the extent to which individual demographic characteristics, personality traits, and broader societal events predict change.

Keywords: attitudes, longitudinal survey analysis, personality, social values

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640 Behavior Fatigue Life of Wind Turbine Rotor with Longitudinal Crack Growth

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Tchina, H. Kebir


This study concerned the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine rotor. Before all, we have studied the loads applied to the rotor, which allows the knowledge their effect on the fatigue. We also studied the movement of the longitudinal cracked rotor in order to determine stress, strain and displacement. Moreover, to study the issues of cracks in the critical zone ABAQUS software is used, which based to the finite element to give the results. In the first we compared the first six modes shapes between cracking and uncracking of HAWT rotor. In the second part, we show the evolution of six first naturals frequencies with longitudinal crack propagation. Finally, we conclude that the residual change in the naturals frequencies can be used as in shaft crack diagnosis predictive maintenance.

Keywords: wind turbine rotor, natural frequencies, longitudinal crack growth, life time

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639 A Survey on Quasi-Likelihood Estimation Approaches for Longitudinal Set-ups

Authors: Naushad Mamode Khan


The Com-Poisson (CMP) model is one of the most popular discrete generalized linear models (GLMS) that handles both equi-, over- and under-dispersed data. In longitudinal context, an integer-valued autoregressive (INAR(1)) process that incorporates covariate specification has been developed to model longitudinal CMP counts. However, the joint likelihood CMP function is difficult to specify and thus restricts the likelihood based estimating methodology. The joint generalized quasilikelihood approach (GQL-I) was instead considered but is rather computationally intensive and may not even estimate the regression effects due to a complex and frequently ill conditioned covariance structure. This paper proposes a new GQL approach for estimating the regression parameters (GQLIII) that are based on a single score vector representation. The performance of GQL-III is compared with GQL-I and separate marginal GQLs (GQL-II) through some simulation experiments and is proved to yield equally efficient estimates as GQL-I and is far more computationally stable.

Keywords: longitudinal, com-Poisson, ill-conditioned, INAR(1), GLMS, GQL

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638 Energy Saving Study of Mass Rapid Transit by Optimal Train Coasting Operation

Authors: Artiya Sopharak, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong


This paper presents an energy-saving study of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) using an optimal train coasting operation. For the dynamic train movement with four modes of operation, including accelerating mode, constant speed or cruising mode, coasting mode, and braking mode are considered in this study. The acceleration rate, the deceleration rate, and the starting coasting point are taken into account the optimal train speed profile during coasting mode with considering the energy saving and acceptable travel time comparison to the based case with no coasting operation. In this study, the mathematical method as a Quadratic Search Method (QDS) is conducted to carry out the optimization problem. A single train of MRT services between two stations with a distance of 2 km and a maximum speed of 80 km/h is taken to be the case study. Regarding the coasting mode operation, the results show that the longer distance of costing mode, the less energy consumption in cruising mode and the less braking energy. On the other hand, the shorter distance of coasting mode, the more energy consumption in cruising mode and the more braking energy.

Keywords: energy saving, coasting mode, mass rapid transit, quadratic search method

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637 Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Longitudinal Seismic Response of Tunnels under Asynchronous Earthquake

Authors: Peng Li, Er-xiang Song


Numerical analysis of longitudinal tunnel seismic response due to spatial variation of earthquake ground motion is an important issue that cannot be ignored in the design and safety evaluation of tunnel structures. In this paper, numerical methods for analysis of tunnel longitudinal response under asynchronous seismic wave is extensively studied, including the improvement of the 1D time-domain finite element method, three dimensional numerical simulation technique for the site asynchronous earthquake response as well as the 3-D soil-tunnel structure interaction analysis. The study outcome will be beneficial to aid further research on the nonlinear meticulous numerical analysis and seismic response mechanism of tunnel structures under asynchronous earthquake motion.

Keywords: asynchronous input, longitudinal seismic response, tunnel structure, numerical simulation, traveling wave effect

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636 Study and Construction on Signalling System during Reverse Motion Due to Obstacle

Authors: S. M. Yasir Arafat


Driving models are needed by many researchers to improve traffic safety and to advance autonomous vehicle design. To be most useful, a driving model must state specifically what information is needed and how it is processed. So we developed an “Obstacle Avoidance and Detection Autonomous Car” based on sensor application. The ever increasing technological demands of today call for very complex systems, which in turn require highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that high performance can be achieved and maintained under adverse conditions. Based on a developed model of brakes operation, the controller of braking system operation has been designed. It has a task to enable solution to the problem of the better controlling of braking system operation in a more accurate way then it was the case now a day.

Keywords: automobile, obstacle, safety, sensing

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635 Investigation of Changes of Physical Properties of the Poplar Wood in Radial and Longitudinal Axis at Chaaloos Zone

Authors: Afshin Veisi


In this study, the physical properties of wood in poplar wood (Populous sp.) were analyzed in longitudinal and radial directions of the stem. Three Populous Alba tree were cut in chaloos zone and from each tree, 3 discs were selected at 130cm, half of tree and under of crown. The test samples from pith to bark (heartwood to sapwood) were prepared from these discs for measuring the involved properties such as, wet, dry and critical specific gravity, porosity, volume shrinkage and swelling based on the ASTM standard, and data in two radial and longitudinal directions in the trank were statistically analyzed. Such as, variations of wet, dry and critical specific gravity had in radial direction respectively: irregular increase, increase and increase, and in longitudinal direction respectively: irregular decrease, irregular increase and increase. Results of variations to moisture content and porosity show that in radial direction respectively: irregular increasing and decreasing, and in longitudinal direction from down to up respectively: irregular decreasing and stability. Volume shrinkage and swelling variations show in radial direction irregular and in longitudinal axial regular decreasing.

Keywords: poplar wood, physical properties, shrinkage, swelling, critical specific gravity, wet specific gravity, dry specific gravity

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634 Modelling the Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Accelerating and Braking Behaviour of Drivers

Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav, Nagendra R. Velaga


Driving under the influence of alcohol impairs the driving performance and increases the crash risks worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of different Blood Alcohol Concentrations (BAC) on the accelerating and braking behaviour of drivers with the help of driving simulator experiments. Eighty-two licensed Indian drivers drove on the rural road environment designed in the driving simulator at BAC levels of 0.00%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08% respectively. Driving performance was analysed with the help of vehicle control performance indicators such as mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force of the participants. Preliminary analysis reported an increase in mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force with increasing BAC levels. Generalized linear mixed models were developed to quantify the effect of different alcohol levels and explanatory variables such as driver’s age, gender and other driver characteristic variables on the driving performance indicators. Alcohol use was reported as a significant factor affecting the accelerating and braking performance of the drivers. The acceleration model results indicated that mean acceleration of the drivers increased by 0.013 m/s², 0.026 m/s² and 0.027 m/s² for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Results of the brake pedal force model reported that mean brake pedal force of the drivers increased by 1.09 N, 1.32 N and 1.44 N for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Age was a significant factor in both the models where one year increase in drivers’ age resulted in 0.2% reduction in mean acceleration and 19% reduction in mean brake pedal force of the drivers. It shows that driving experience could compensate for the negative effects of alcohol to some extent while driving. Female drivers were found to accelerate slower and brake harder as compared to the male drivers which confirmed that female drivers are more conscious about their safety while driving. It was observed that drivers who were regular exercisers had better control on their accelerator pedal as compared to the non-regular exercisers during drunken driving. The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol which deteriorates their driving performance. Drunk driving state can be differentiated from sober driving state by observing the accelerating and braking behaviour of the drivers. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety.

Keywords: alcohol, acceleration, braking behaviour, driving simulator

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633 Wheel Diameter and Width Influence in Variability of Brake Data Measurement at Ministry of Transport Facilities

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco


The brake systems of vehicles are tested periodically by a “brake tester” at Ministry of Transport (MOT) stations. This tester measures the effectiveness of vehicle. This parameter is established by the International Committee of Vehicle Inspection (CITA). In this paper, we present an investigation of the influence of the tire size on the measurements of brake force on three MOT brake testers. We performed an analysis of the vehicle braking capacity test at MOT stations. The influence of varying wheel diameter and width on the measurement of braking at MOT stations has been analyzed. Thereby, the MOT brake tester as a verification system for a vehicle has been evaluated.

Keywords: brake tester, ministry of transport facilities, wheel diameter, efficiency

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632 Model of Elastic Fracture Toughness for Ductile Metal Pipes with External Longitudinal Cracks

Authors: Guoyang Fu, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li


The most common type of cracks that appear on metal pipes is longitudinal cracks. For ductile metal pipes, the existence of plasticity eases the stress intensity at the crack front and consequently increases the fracture resistance. It should be noted that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) has been widely accepted by engineers. In order to make the LEFM applicable to ductile metal materials, the increase of fracture toughness due to plasticity should be excluded from the total fracture toughness of the ductile metal. This paper aims to develop a model of elastic fracture toughness for ductile metal pipes with external longitudinal cracks. The derived elastic fracture toughness is a function of crack geometry and material properties of the cracked pipe. The significance of the derived model is that the well-established LEFM can be used for ductile metal material in predicting the fracture failure.

Keywords: Ductile metal pipes, elastic fracture toughness, longitudinal crack, plasticity

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631 An Experimental Study of Automotive Drum Brake Vibrations

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly


The present paper investigates experimentally the effect coefficient of friction at different operation conditions on the variation of the brake temperature, brake force, and brake vibration with the braking time. All the experimental tests were carried out using brake dynamometer which designed and constructed in Vehicle Dynamic Laboratory. The results indicate that the brake temperature increases with the increase of the normal force and sliding speed especially with the increase of the braking time. The normal force has the effect on increasing the brake force. On the contrary, the vehicle speed has the effect on decreasing the brake force. Both the normal force and sliding speed affect the brake vibration according to the friction behavior.

Keywords: brake dynamometer, coefficient of friction, drum brake vibrations, friction behavior

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630 Analysis of Wheel Lock up Effects on Skidding Distance for Heavy Vehicles

Authors: Mahdieh Zamzamzadeh, Ahmad Abdullah Saifizul, Rahizar Ramli


The road accidents involving heavy vehicles have been showing worrying trends and, year after year, have increased the concern and awareness levels on safety of roads and transportations especially in developing countries like Malaysia. Statistics of road crashes continue to show that there are many contributing factors on the capability of a heavy vehicle to stop on safe distance and ultimately prevent traffic crashes. However, changes in the road condition due to weather variations and the vehicle dynamic specifications such as loading conditions and speed are the main risk factors because they will affect a heavy vehicle’s braking performance due to losing control and not being able to stop the vehicle, and in many cases will cause wheel lock up and accordingly skidding. Predicting heavy vehicle skidding distance is crucial for accident reconstruction and roadside safety engineers. Despite this, formal tools to study heavy vehicle skidding distance before stopping completely are totally limited, and most researchers have only considered braking distance in their studies. As a possible new tool, this work presents the iterative use of vehicle dynamic simulations to study heavy vehicle-roadway interaction in order to predict wheel lock up effects on skidding distance and safety. This research addresses the influence of the vehicle and road conditions on skidding distance after wheel lock up and presents a precise analysis of skidding phenomenon. The vehicle speed, vehicle loading condition and road friction parameters were all varied in a simulation-based analysis. In order to simulate the wheel lock up situation, a heavy vehicle model was constructed and simulated using multibody vehicle dynamics simulation software, and careful analysis was made on the conditions which caused the skidding distance to increase or decrease through a method using to predict skidding distance as part of braking distance. By applying many simulations, the results were quite revealing relation between the heavy vehicles loading condition, various sets of speed and road coefficient of friction and their interaction effect on the skidding distance. A number of results are presented which illustrate how the heavy vehicle overloading can seriously affect the skidding distance. Moreover, the results of simulation give the skid mark length, which is a necessary input data during accident reconstruction involving emergency braking.

Keywords: accident reconstruction, Braking, heavy vehicle, skidding distance, skid mark, wheel lock up

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629 Effects of Egg Yolk Peptide on the Retardation of Bone Growth Induced by Low-Calcium Diets

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim


Eggs have long been an important contributor to the nutritional quality of the human, and recognized as a very valuable source of proteins for human nutrition. Egg yolk is composed of various important chemical substances for human health. Growth means not only the increase of body weight but also the elongation of height and the enlargement of each organ's anatomical and morphological size. A calcium shortage causes the growth retardation on the body growth. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of egg yolk peptide (EYP) on the retardation of the longitudinal bone growth induced by low-calcium diet (0.05%) in adolescent rats. Low calcium diets were administrated for 15 days. During the last five days, calcium and/or vitamin D and/or EYP were administrated. The body weights, longitudinal bone growth rates, the heights of growth plates, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expressions were measured using histochemical analysis. Low calcium diets caused the significant reduction in body weight gains and the longitudinal bone growth. The heights of growth plates and the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 showed the impairment of body growth as well. Calcium and/or vitamin D administration could not significantly increase the longitudinal bone growth. However, calcium, vitamin D, and EYP administration significantly increased the bone growth, the growth plate height, and BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions. These results suggest that EYP enhances the longitudinal bone growth in the calcium and/or vitamin D deficiency and it could be a promising agent for the treatment of children suffering from malnutrition.

Keywords: egg yolk peptide, low-calcium diet, longitudinal bone growth, morphogenetic protein-2, insulin-like growth factor-1, vitamin D

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