Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 839

Search results for: spice extracts

839 Antimicrobial Functions of Some Spice Extracts Such as Sumac, Cumin, Black Pepper and Red Pepper on the Growth of Common Food-Borne Pathogens and Their Biogenic Amine Formation

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Esmeray Kuley Boga, Ferhat Kuley, Yesim Özogul

Abstract:

The impact of diethyl ether extract of spices (sumac, cumin, black pepper and red pepper) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Camplylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia enterocolitica and their biogenic amine production were investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth. Sumac extract generally had the highest activity to inhibit bacterial growth compared to other extracts, although antimicrobial effect of extracts used varied depending on bacterial strains. Sumac extract resulted in 3.34 and 2.54 log reduction for Y. enterocolitica and Camp. jejuni growth, whilst red pepper extract induced 0.65, 0.41 and 0.34 log reduction for growth of Y. enterocolitica, S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus, respectively. Spice extracts significantly inhibited ammonia production by bacteria (P < 0.05). Eleven and nine fold reduction on ammonia production by S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus were observed in the presence of sumac extract. Dopamine, agmatine, tyramine, serotonin and TMA were main amines produced by bacteria. Tyramine production by food-borne-pathogens was more than 10 mg/L, whereas histamine accumulated below 52 mg/L. The effect of spice extracts on biogenic amine production varied depending on amino acid decarboxylase broth, spice type, bacterial strains and specific amine, although cumin extract generally increased biogenic amine production by bacteria.

Keywords: antimicrobials, biogenic amines, food-borne pathogens, spice extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
838 Prospective Visitors' Perception towards Spice Tourism: With Reference to Spice Gardens in Kolonna Divisional Secretariat Division of Ratnapura District in Sri Lanka

Authors: Malkanthi S. H. P., Ishana A. S. F., Sivashankar P.

Abstract:

This research was conducted to study prospective visitors’ expectation and future behavior regarding agro tourism destinations in spice gardens (spice tourism) in Kolonna. A field survey was conducted for the 40 randomly selected local and foreign visitors who have come to visit three famous tourism destinations in Kolonna namely “Maduwanwela Walawwa”, “Wawulpane Limestone cave” and “Panamure Eth gala” during three month of time period from February to April 2014. Descriptive and Chi square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that 98% of visitors were willing to visit the spice tourism destinations. Furthermore, visitors with urban residency, higher education level and employment opportunities revealed an association with having awareness on agro tourism. Moreover, visitors having higher age, higher level of education and higher amount of monthly income revealed an association with the willingness to visit spice tourism destinations. Nevertheless, out of eight demographic factors, three factors; gender, occupation and income had significant effect on willingness to purchase spice products from Kolonna. According to research findings it can be concluded that there are large number of perspective visitors for spice tourism and they are middle aged, educated and having significant monthly income and they are also very much interest to visit spice tourism destinations and buy spice products (high demand). Therefore, it is significantly beneficial to establish spice tourism destinations in spice gardens by successful spice cultivating farmers or owners as an extra income earning activity in Kolonna area.

Keywords: agro tourism, spice gardens, perception, prospective visitors, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
837 Quality Management in Spice Paprika Production as a Synergy of Internal and External Quality Measures

Authors: É. Kónya, E. Szabó, I. Bata-Vidács, T. Deák, M. Ottucsák, N. Adányi, A. Székács

Abstract:

Spice paprika is a major spice commodity in the European Union (EU), produced locally and imported from non-EU countries, reported not only for chemical and microbiological contamination, but also for fraud. The effective interaction between producers’ quality management practices and government and EU activities is described on the example of spice paprika production and control in Hungary, a country of leading spice paprika producer and per capita consumer in Europe. To demonstrate the importance of various contamination factors in the Hungarian production and EU trade of spice paprika, several aspects concerning food safety of this commodity are presented. Alerts in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of the EU between 2005 and 2013, as well as Hungarian state inspection results on spice paprika in 2004 are discussed, and quality non-compliance claims regarding spice paprika among EU member states are summarized in by means of network analysis. Quality assurance measures established along the spice paprika production technology chain at the leading Hungarian spice paprika manufacturer, Kalocsai Fűszerpaprika Zrt. are surveyed with main critical control points identified. The structure and operation of the Hungarian state food safety inspection system is described. Concerted performance of the latter two quality management systems illustrates the effective interaction between internal (manufacturer) and external (state) quality control measures.

Keywords: spice paprika, quality control, reporting mechanisms, RASFF, vulnerable points, HACCP

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836 The DC Behavioural Electrothermal Model of Silicon Carbide Power MOSFETs under SPICE

Authors: Lakrim Abderrazak, Tahri Driss

Abstract:

This paper presents a new behavioural electrothermal model of power Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET under SPICE. This model is based on the MOS model level 1 of SPICE, in which phenomena such as Drain Leakage Current IDSS, On-State Resistance RDSon, gate Threshold voltage VGSth, the transconductance (gfs), I-V Characteristics Body diode, temperature-dependent and self-heating are included and represented using behavioural blocks ABM (Analog Behavioural Models) of Spice library. This ultimately makes this model flexible and easily can be integrated into the various Spice -based simulation softwares. The internal junction temperature of the component is calculated on the basis of the thermal model through the electric power dissipated inside and its thermal impedance in the form of the localized Foster canonical network. The model parameters are extracted from manufacturers' data (curves data sheets) using polynomial interpolation with the method of simulated annealing (S A) and weighted least squares (WLS). This model takes into account the various important phenomena within transistor. The effectiveness of the presented model has been verified by Spice simulation results and as well as by data measurement for SiC MOS transistor C2M0025120D CREE (1200V, 90A).

Keywords: SiC power MOSFET, DC electro-thermal model, ABM Spice library, SPICE modelling, behavioural model, C2M0025120D CREE.

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835 Food Safety Aspects of Pesticide Residues in Spice Paprika

Authors: Sz. Klátyik, B. Darvas, M. Mörtl, M. Ottucsák, E. Takács, H. Bánáti, L. Simon, G. Gyurcsó, A. Székács

Abstract:

Environmental and health safety of condiments used for spicing food products in food processing or by culinary means receive relatively low attention, even though possible contamination of spices may affect food quality and safety. Contamination surveys mostly focus on microbial contaminants or their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. Chemical contaminants, particularly pesticide residues, however, are clearly substantial factors in the case of given condiments in the Capsicum family including spice paprika and chilli. To assess food safety and support the quality of the Hungaricum product spice paprika, the pesticide residue status of spice paprika and chilli is assessed on the basis of reported pesticide contamination cases and non-compliances in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Union since 1998.

Keywords: spice paprika, Capsicum, pesticide residues, RASFF

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834 Evaluation of the Nutritional Potential of a Developed Spice Formulation for nah poh (An Emulsion-Based Gravy): Physicochemical and Techno-Functional Characterisations

Authors: Djiazet Stève, Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine, Ravi Pullakhandam, Bethala L. A. Prabhavathi Devi, Tchiegang Clergé, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty

Abstract:

The nutritional potential of a developed spice formulation for nah poh was evaluated. It was found that when spices were used for the formulation for nah poh, the concentration of some nutrients is diluted while that of some of them increases. The proportion of unsaturated fats was estimated to be 76.2% of the total fat content while the chemical score varied between 31 to 39%. The contents of some essential minerals of nutritional interest in mg are as follows for 100g of spice: 2372.474 ± 0.007 for potassium, 16.447 ± 0.010 for iron, 4.772 ± 0.005 for zinc, 0.537 ± 0.001 for cupper, 0.138 ± 0.005 for selenium, and 112.954 ± 0.003 for manganese. This study shows that the consumption of these spices in the form of formulation significantly contributes to meet the mineral requirements of the populations whose food habits regularly require these spices.

Keywords: spice formulation, characterisation, nutritional potential, nah poh, techno functional properties

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833 SPICE Modeling for Evaluation of Distribution System Reliability Indices

Authors: G. N. Srinivas, K. Raju

Abstract:

This paper presents Markov processes for determining the reliability indices of distribution system. The continuous Markov modeling is applied to a complex radial distribution system and electrical equivalent circuits are developed for the modeling. In general PSPICE is being used for electrical and electronic circuits and various applications of power system like fault analysis, transient analysis etc. In this paper, the SPICE modeling equivalent circuits which are developed are applied in a novel way to Distribution System reliability analysis. These circuits are simulated using PSPICE software to obtain the state probabilities, the basic and performance indices. Thus the basic indices and the performance indices obtained by this method are compared with those obtained by FMEA technique. The application of the concepts presented in this paper are illustrated and analyzed for IEEE-Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS).

Keywords: distribution system, Markov Model, reliability indices, spice simulation

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832 α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Some Tunisian Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Hamdi Belfeki, Belgacem Chandoul, Mnasser Hassouna, Mondher Mejri

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Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of eight Tunisian aromatic and medicinal plants (TAMP) were characterized by studying their composition in polyphenols and also their antiradical and antioxidant capacities. In absence and in the presence of the various extracts, α-amylase from Bacillus subtlis activity, was measured in order to detect a potential inhibition. The total contents of polyphenols and flavonoid vary in function of TAMP and the mobile phase used for the extraction (distilled water or ethanol). The ethanolic extracts showed the most significant antiradical and antioxidant activities. Only the extracts from Coriandrum sativum showed a significant inhibiting effect on the α-amylase activity. This inhibiting capacity could be correlated with the chemical profile of the two extracts, due to the fact that they have the greatest amount of total flavonoid. The ethanolic extract has the most important antioxidant and anti-radicalizing activities among the sixteen extracts studied. The inhibition kinetics of the two coriander extracts were evaluated by pre-incubation method, using Lineweaver-Burk’s equation, obtained by linearization of Michaeilis-Menten’s expression. The results showed that both extracts exercised a competitive inhibition mechanism.

Keywords: α-amylase, antioxidant activity, aromatic and medicinal plants, inhibition

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831 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release Stainless Steel 18-8 between Artificial Saliva and Black Tea Leaves Extracts

Authors: Nety Trisnawaty, Mirna Febriani

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The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is black tea leaves extracts. To explain the comparison of chromium ions release for stainlees steel between artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. In this research we used artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts, stainless steel wire and using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometric testing machine. The samples were soaked for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days in the artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. The results showed the difference of chromium ion release soaked in artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statistically, calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed a significant difference. The longer the duration of days, the more ion chromium were released. The conclusion of this study shows that black tea leaves extracts can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts

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830 Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesis Silver Nanoparticles from Moringa Oleifera

Authors: Ali Fadhel Ahmed, Tuqa Abdulkareem Hameed

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera (leaves and seeds) ethanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for antibacterial activity. The effect of plant extracts on three types of bacterial species: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was investigated. Using the agar well diffusion method, ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera demonstrated a significant antibacterial effect on the forty tested bacterial strains. Seed-induced inhibition zones (ethanolic extracts)were ranged from16 to 24 mm in diameter against S. aureus, respectively, whileE. coli and K. pneumonia had no effect. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were not affected by alcoholic and aqueous plant leaf extracts. The purpose of this present study was to look at the cytotoxic effects of M.Oleifera plant (alcoholic extracts).

Keywords: moringa oleifera, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
829 Crude Extracts of Medicinal Plants Can Inhibit Some Bacteria of Clinical Importance in Minced Meat

Authors: Chika C. Ogueke, Ijeoma M. Agunwah

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The antimicrobial activities and preservative potentials of crude extracts of Alstonia boonei stem bark and Euphorbia hirta leaves were studied. Soxhlet extraction and cold ethanol extraction methods were used for the extraction of the dried and ground plant samples. Well in agar diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial screening at different concentrations of 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml and 200mg/ml on E.coli and B.subtilis. The preservative effects of the extracts at 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% singly and in combination were determined in minced meat using E. coli and B. subtilis as test isolates. Phytochemical analysis was also conducted on the extracts using standard analytical methods. E.hirta cold and A.boonei cold extracts gave the highest zone of growth inhibition on E. coli and B.substilis with 20mm zone diameter at 200mg/ml concentration. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. A.boonei at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% produced a log cycle reduction on the growth of E.coli. Mixture of A. boonei and E. hirta extracts (1:1) at 0.1% and 0.2% also produced a log cycle reduction on the growth of E.coli and B. subtilis, however the A. boonei extracts had more significant effect on the isolates. The observed antimicrobial activities are attributed to the phytochemicals identified in the extracts. The results reveal the potentials of plant extracts as natural antimicrobial preservatives in minced meat. Thus the crude extracts can act as inhibitors of bacteria in a food system. Upon further purification better results may be obtained.

Keywords: antimicrobial preservative, crude extracts, minced meat, test isolates

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828 Phenolic Compounds, Antiradical Activity, and Antioxidant Efficacy of Satureja hortensisl - Extracts in Vegetable Oil Protection

Authors: Abolfazl Kamkar

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Vegetable oils and fats are recognized as important components of our diet. They provide essential fatty acids, which are precursors of important hormones and control many physiological factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol level, and the reproductive system.Vegetable oils with higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are more susceptible to oxidation.Protective effects of Sature jahortensis(SE) extracts in stabilizing soybean oil at different concentrations (200 and 400 ppm) were tested. Results showed that plant extracts could significantly (P< 0.05) lower the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value of oil during storage at 60 oC. The IC50 values for methanol and ethanol extracts were 31.5 ± 0.7 and 37.00 ± 0 µg/ml, respectively. In the β- carotene/linoleic acid system, methanol and ethanol extracts exhibited 87.5 ± 1.41% and 74.0 ±2.25 % inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol and ethanol extracts were (101.58 ± 0. 26m g/ g) and (96.00 ± 0.027 mg/ g), (44.91 ± 0.14 m g/ g) and (14.30 ± 0.12 mg/ g) expressed in Gallic acid and Quercetin equivalents, respectively.These findings suggest that Satureja extracts may have potential application as natural antioxidants in the edible oil and food industry.

Keywords: satureja hortensis, antioxidant activity, oxidative stability, vegetable oil, extract

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827 SiC Merged PiN and Schottky (MPS) Power Diodes Electrothermal Modeling in SPICE

Authors: A. Lakrim, D. Tahri

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This paper sets out a behavioral macro-model of a Merged PiN and Schottky (MPS) diode based on silicon carbide (SiC). This model holds good for both static and dynamic electrothermal simulations for industrial applications. Its parameters have been worked out from datasheets curves by drawing on the optimization method: Simulated Annealing (SA) for the SiC MPS diodes made available in the industry. The model also adopts the Analog Behavioral Model (ABM) of PSPICE in which it has been implemented. The thermal behavior of the devices was also taken into consideration by making use of Foster’ canonical network as figured out from electro-thermal measurement provided by the manufacturer of the device.

Keywords: SiC MPS diode, electro-thermal, SPICE model, behavioral macro-model

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826 Geoclimatic Influences on the Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Fruit of Arbutus unedo L.

Authors: Khadidja Bouzid, Fouzia Benali Toumi, Mohamed Bouzouina

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We made a comparison between the total phenolic content, concentrations of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of four different extracts (butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, water) of Arbutus unedo L. fruit (Ericacea) of El Marsa and Terni area. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 26.57 and 48.23 gallic acid equivalents mg/g of dry weight of extract. The concentrations of flavonoids in plant extracts varied from 17.98 to 56.84 catechin equivalents mg/g. The antioxidant activity was analyzed in vitro using the DPPH reagent; among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction from El Marsa area showed the highest antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Arbutus unedo L., fruit flavonoids, phenols, Western Algeria

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825 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified-Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Resistant Starch, and Glycemic Index

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Mamilisti Susiati, Hendy Indra Permana

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Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The sign of chromium (Cr) deficiency in diabetics is impaired glucose tolerance. Cr fortification was done for increasing Cr content in rice. Naturally-occurring compounds that have been proven to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenol found in cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. This research aimed to evaluate content of resistant starch and glycemic index of Cr - fortified - parboiled rice (Cr-PR) coated with herbal extracts. Variety of unhulled rice and forticant used in the experiment were Ciherang and CrCl3, respectively. Three herbal extracts used were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. Each concentration of herbal extracts in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 9% were added in the coating substance to coat Cr-PR. Resistant starch (RS) content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. Testing of the GI was conducted on 18 non-diabetic volunteers. RS content of Cr-PR coated with herbal extracts ranged between 8.27 – 8.84 % (dry weight). Cr-PR coated with all herbal extracts of 3% concentration had higher RS content than the ones with herbal extracts of 6% and 9% concentration (P <0.05). Value of the rice GI ranged 29 - 40. The lowest GI (29-30) was attained by the rice coated with enrichment of 6-9% cinnamon extract.

Keywords: coating, Cr-fortified-parboiled rice, glycemic index, herbal extracts, resistant starch

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824 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Plant Extracts against Clinical Pathogen and Candida Species

Authors: Marwan Khalil Qader, Arshad Mohammad Abdullah

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Antimicrobial resistance is a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality globally. Seven plant extracts (Plantago mediastepposa, Quercusc infectoria, Punic granatum, Thymus lcotschyana, Ginger officeinals, Rhus angustifolia and Cinnamon) were collected from different regions of Kurdistan region of Iraq. These plants’ extracts were dissolved in absolute ethanol and distillate water, after which they were assayed in vitro as an antimicrobial activity against Candida tropicalis, Candida albicanus, Candida dublinensis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata also against 2 Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and 3 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsilla pneumonia). The antimicrobial activity was determined in ethanol extracts and distilled water extracts of these plants. The ethanolic extracts of Q. infectoria showed the maximum activity against all species of Candida fungus. The minimum inhibition zone of the Punic granatum ethanol extracts was 0.2 mg/ml for all microorganisms tested. Klebsilla pneumonia was the most sensitive bacterial strain to Quercusc infectoria and Rhus angustifolia ethanol extracts. Among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested with MIC of 0.2 mg/ml, the minimum inhibition zone of Ginger officeinals D. W. extracts was 0.2 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsilla pneumonia. The most sensitive bacterial strain to Thymus lcotschyana and Plantago mediastepposa D.W. extracts was S. aureus and E. coli.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, pathogenic bacteria, plant extracts, chemical systems engineering

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823 Phytochemical and Antibacterial Activity of Chrysanthellum indicum (Linn) Extracts

Authors: I. L. Ibrahim, A. Mann, B. M. Abdullahi

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Infectious diseases are prevalent in developing countries and plant extracts are known to contained bioactive compounds that can be used in the management of these diseases. The entire plant of Chrysanthellum indicum (Linn) was air-dried and pulverized into fine powder and then percolated to give ethanol and aqueous extracts. These extracts were phytochemically screened for metabolites and evaluated antibacterial activity against some pathogenic organisms Klebsilla, pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar dilution method. It was found that crude extracts of C. indicum revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroidal nucleus, cardiac glycosides, and coumarin while flavonoids and anthraquinones were absent. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the active extract of C. indicum shows that the extract could be a potential source of antibacterial agents.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Chrysanthellum indicum, infectious diseases, phytochemical screening

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822 In vitro Control of Mycosphaerella arachidis Deighton the Early Leaf Spot Disease Pathogen of Groundnut by the Extracts from Six Medicinal Plants

Authors: Matthew Omoniyi Adebola, Jude E Amadi

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Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most popular commercial crops in Nigeria. Its suc-cessful production has been drastically affected by early leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphae-rella arachidis Deighton. In vitro control of the pathogen by six medicinal plants (Entada afri-cana, Vitex doniana, Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica, Acalypha hispida and Nuaclea lati-folia) was assessed in this study. The extracts of the plants were prepared using cold and hot wa-ter and alcohol. The pathogen was isolated from ground nut infected with early leaf spot disease. The results revealed a great significant difference (P<0.05) in yield of extracts between cold water, hot water, and alcohol extracts. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in percentage concentrations of the various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. Flavonoids per-centage concentration was the highest (0.68 - 1.95%) followed by saponnin(0.09-1.53%) in N. latifolia extracts. Steroiods had the least percentage concentrations (0.00- 0.09%)followed by terpenoids(0.02–0.71%) and proanthocyannin (0.05 – 0.86%). N. latifolia extracts produced the highest percentage concentrations (0.07–1.95%) of all the phytochemicals followed by A. indi-ca(0.05–1.64%)and least concentrations were obtained in A. hispidia(0.09 – 0.87%)and V. do-niana (0.00–0.88%). The extracts inhibited spore germination and growth of M. arachidis. The inhibition by alcohol extracts was high and significantly different (P>0.05) from cold and hot water extracts. Alcohol extract of L. inermis gave 100% spore germination inhibition followed by N. latifolia and A.indica with 97.75% and 85.60% inhibition respectively. Therefore, field trials of these six medicinal plants on the control of early leaf spot disease of ground nut are rec-ommended.

Keywords: groundnut, phytochemicals, medicinal plants, extracts, inhibition

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821 Comparative Efficacy of Benomyl and Three Plant Extracts in the Control of Cowpea Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sensu Lato

Authors: M. J. Falade

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Field experiment was conducted to compare the efficacy of hot water extracts of three plants (Ricinus communis, Jatropha gossypifolia and Datura stramonium) with benomyl in the control of cowpea anthracnose disease. Three concentrations of the extracts (65, 50 and 30%) were used in the study. Result from the experiment shows that all the extracts at the tested concentration reduced the incidence and severity of the disease. D. stramonium at 65% concentration compares favourably with that of benomyl fungicide in reducing incidence and severity of infection. At 65% concentration of D. stramonium, incidence of the disease was 22% on pooled mean basis, and this was not significantly different from that of benomyl (21%). Similarly, the percentage of normal seeds recorded at this same concentration of the extract was 85% and was not significantly different from that of benomyl (86%). In terms of disease severity trace infections were observed on the cowpea plants at this concentration of the extract and that of benomyl. However, at lower concentrations of all the extracts, significant variations were observed on incidence of disease and percentage of normal seeds such that values obtained from use of benomyl were higher than those obtained from the use of the extracts. The study, therefore, shows that extracts of these indigenous plants can be used as a substitute for the benomyl fungicide in the management of anthracnose disease.

Keywords: benomyl, C. lindemuthianum, disease incidence, disease severity

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820 β-Lactamase Inhibitory Effects of Anchusa azurea Extracts

Authors: Naoual Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Iman Krache, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani

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Resistance to antibiotics has emerged following their widespread use; the important mechanism of beta-lactam resistance in bacteria is the production of beta-lactamase. In order to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated the inhibition effect of the extracts of Anchusa azurea (AA) on a beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus. The extracts exerted inhibitory effects on beta-lactamase in a dose-dependent manner, the results showed that the crude extract (BrE) and the ethyl acetate extract (AcE) of Anchusa azurea showed a very high inhibitory activity at a concentration of 10 mg, the percentage of inhibition was between 58% and 68%. Not all extracts were as potent as the original inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, the isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents in these extracts will provide useful means in the development of beta -lactamase inhibitors.

Keywords: Anchusa azurea, natural product, resistance, antibiotics, beta-lactamase, inhibitors

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819 Antımıcrobıal Actıvıty of Gırardınıa Heterophılla

Authors: P. S. BEDI* , Neavty Thakur, Balvınder Sıngh

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In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3, NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria eg. Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacteria eg. E. coli, K. pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that all the crude extracts of the plant posseses antibacterial activity. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 3 against K. pneumonia. The growth of fungus A. niger was also inhibited by all the crude extracts. Maximum inhibition was shown by NGSS 2 followed by NGSS 1.

Keywords: Girardinia heterophylla, leaves and stem extracts, Antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.

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818 Control of Fungal Growth in Sweet Orange and Mango Juices by Justica flava and Afromomum melegueta Extracts

Authors: Adferotimi Banso

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A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the effect of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta on the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium species in sweet orange and mango juices. Aqueous extract (3%v/v) of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta reduced the growth of the fungi, a combination of 2% (v/v) each of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta extracts reduced the growth better. Partial purification of aqueous extracts of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta showed that ethyl acetate fraction of the extracts exhibited the highest level of inhibition of growth of the test fungi compared with diethyl ether and n-hexane fractions. The results suggest that extracts of Justica flava and Aframonium melegueta may be important substitutes for conventional chemical preservatives in the processing of fruit juices.

Keywords: aqueous, fraction, mango, orange, purification, sweet

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817 Hair Regrowth Effect of Herbal Formula on Androgenic Alopecia Rat Model

Authors: Jian-You Wang, Feng Yi Hsu, Chieh-Hsi Wu

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Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is an androgen-dependent disorder caused by excess testosterone in blood capillaries or excess enzyme activity of 5α- reductase in hair follicles. Plants, alone or in combination, have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times in Asia. In this study, the efficacy of a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Shen-Ying-Yang-Zhen-Dan (SYYZD) with different kinds of extract solvents, facilitating hair regrowth in testosterone-induced hair loss have been determined. The study was performed by treating with either 95 % ethanol aqueous extracts, 50% ethanol aqueous extracts or deionized water extracts orally in four-week-old male S.D. rats that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. The 50% ethanol aqueous extracts group showed better hair regrowth promotion activities than either 95% ethanol aqueous extracts or deionized water extracts groups in 14 days treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that 50% ethanol aqueous SYYZD extracts have hair growth promoting potential and may be beneficial as an alternative medicine for androgenetic alopecia treatment.

Keywords: Shen-Ying-Yang-Zhen-Dan, androgenic alopecia, hair loss, hair growth promotion, hair regrowth effect

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816 Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Screening of Stem Bark Extracts of Lovoa trichiliodes (Harm) and Trichilia heudelotii Planc (Harm)

Authors: Benjamin O. Opawale, Anthony K. Onifade, Ayodele O. Ogundare

Abstract:

The phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of stem bark extracts (cold water, ethanol and acetone) of Lovoa trichiliodes and Trichilia heudelotii were investigated using standard methods. The percentage yield of the extracts ranged from 3.90 to 6.53% and 9.63 to 10.20% respectively for the plant materials. Phytochemical screening of the plant materials revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatanins, phenols, anthraquinones and glycosides. Terpenes, cardenolides and flavonoids were absent in the two plants. All the extracts remarkably inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhii, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The mean diameter of the zone of inhibition exhibited by the extracts was between 8.00 and 22.33mm while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was between 2.5 and 200mg/ml. However, the cold water extracts of L. trichiliodes stem bark exhibited no inhibitory activity against the organisms. The results of this investigation confirmed the folkloric uses of these plants for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

Keywords: antimicrobial, infectious diseases, phytochemical, T. heudelotii

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815 Anti-Allergic Activities of Smilax Glabra Rhizome Extracts and Its Isolated Compounds

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Kamonmas Srikwan, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Pakakrong Thongdeeying

Abstract:

Background: The rhizomes of Smilax glabra (SG) has long been used in Traditional Chinese and Thai herbal medicine to treat a variety of infectious diseases and immunological disorders. Objective: To investigate the in vitro anti-allergic activities of crude extracts and pure isolated flavonoid compounds from SG by determination of inhibitory effects on antigen-induced release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells. Methods: The in vitro inhibitory effects of crude aqueous and organic extracts on beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells were evaluated as an in vitro indication of possible anti-allergic activity in vivo. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts was used to isolate flavonoid compounds from the ethanolic extracts. Results: The 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of SG showed remarkably high anti-allergic activity, with IC50 values of 5.74 ± 2.44 and 23.54 ± 4.75 μg/ml, much higher activity than that for Ketotifen (IC50 58.90 μM). The water extract had negligible activity (IC50 > 100 μg/ml). The two isolated flavonols, Engeletin and Astilbin, showed weak anti-allergic activity, IC50 values 97.46 ± 2.04 and > 100 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: The 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of SG showed strong anti-allergic activity but two flavonol constituents did not show any significant anti-allergic activity. These findings suggest that a combination of effects of various phytochemicals in crude extracts used in traditional medicine are responsible for the purported anti-allergic activity of SG herbal preparations. The plethora of constituents in crude extracts, as yet unidentified, are likely to be acting synergistically to account for the strong observed anti-allergic in vitro activity.

Keywords: Smilax glabra, anti-allergic activity, RBL-2H3 cells, flavonoid compounds

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814 Human Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Effect, in vivo Antioxidant Activity of Globularia alypum L. Extracts

Authors: N. Boussoualim, H. Trabsa, I. Krache, S. Aouachria, S. Boumerfeg, L. Arrar, A. Baghiani

Abstract:

The aim of this study consisted in evaluating the antioxidant in vivo properties, anti-hemolytic and XOR inhibitory effect of Globularia alypum L. (GA) extracts. GA was submitted to extraction and fractionation to give crude (CrE), chloroformique (ChE), ethyle acetate (EAE) and aqueos (AqE) extracts. Total polyphenols contents of GA extracts were determined; EAE is the most rich in polyphenols (157,74±5,27 mg GAE/mg of extract). GA Extracts inhibited XO in a concentration-dependent manner, the EAE showed the highest inhibitory properties on the XOR activity (IC50=0,083±0,001 mg/ml), followed by CrE and ChE. The antioxidant activities of the CrE, EAE, and AqE were tested by an in vivo assay in mice, the plasma ability to inhibit DPPH radical was measured, The CrE was found to exhibit the greatest scavenger activity with 48.41±2.763%, followed by AqE and EAE (40.54±7.51% and 41.79±1.654%, respectively). Total antioxidant capacity of red blood cells was measured, from the kinetics of hemolysis obtained. The calculated HT50 reveal an extension of time for half hemolysis in all treated groups compared with the control group. CrE increase significantly HT50 (112,8±2,427). The hemolysis is lagged, indicating that endogenous antioxidants in the erythrocytes can trap radicals to protect them against free-radical-induced hemolysis. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined by the disc diffusion method. Test microorganisms were; 4 Gram positive, 7 gram negative bacteria, most active extracts were EAE and CrE. We deduce a great relationship between the effect on the extracts antibacterial effect and their contents in flavonoid.

Keywords: Globularia alypum, Xanthine oxidoreductase, in vivo-antioxidant activity, hemolysis, polyphenol

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813 Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Chewing Gum Delivery of Some Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Reenu Yadav, Vidhi Guha, Udit N. Soni, Jay Ram Patel

Abstract:

Chewing gums are mobile novel drug delivery systems, with a potential for administering drugs either for local action or for systemic absorption via the buccal route. An antimicrobial chewing gum delivery system of the methanolic extracts of Beatea monosperma (barks and twigs), Cordia obliqua (leaves and seeds) and Cuminun cyminum (seeds) against periodontal diseases caused by some oral pathogens, was designed and characterized on various parameters.The results of the study support the traditional application of the plants and suggest, plant extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as potential antimicrobial agents and gums can be a good carrier of herbal extracts. Developed formulation will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases. Further development and evaluations chewing gums including the isolated compounds on the commercial scale and their clinical and toxicological studies are the future challenges.

Keywords: periodontal diseases, herbal chewing gum, herbal extracts, novel drug delivery systems

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812 Comparative Efficacy of Pomegranate Juice, Peel and Seed Extract in the Stabilization of Corn Oil under Accelerated Conditions

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

Antioxidant-rich extracts were prepared from pomegranate peels, seeds and juice using methanol and ethanol and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Both analytical methods indicated a higher antioxidant activity in extracts prepared from peels, which was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was correlated to the phenolic and flavonoid content of the various extracts. The antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts was also assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate. More specifically, preheated corn oil samples stabilized with extracts at a concentration of 250 ppm, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm were subjected to accelerated aging (100 oC, 10 days) and the extent of oxidative alteration was followed by the measurement of the peroxide, conjugated dienes and trienes, as well as p-aniside value. BHT at its legal limit (200 ppm) served as standard besides the control sample. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with each other suggesting that pomegranate extracts can stabilize corn oil effectively under accelerated conditions, at all concentrations tested. However, the magnitude of oil stabilization depended strongly on the amount of extract added and this was positively correlated with their phenolic content. Pomegranate peel extracts, which exhibited the highest not only phenolic and flavonoid content but also antioxidant activity, were more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Both methanolic and ethanolic peel extracts at a concentration of 500 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of BHT, while at a concentration of 1000 ppm they exhibited higher stabilization efficiency in comparison to BHT. Finally, heating oil samples resulted in a time dependent decrease in their antioxidant capacity. Samples containing peel extracts appeared to retain their antioxidant capacity for a longer period, indicating that these extracts contained active compounds that offered superior antioxidant protection to corn oil.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, corn oil, oxidative deterioration, pomegranate

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811 The Effect of Some Macrofungi Extracts on Cytoplasmic Membrane of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria by Flow Cytometry

Authors: Yener Tekeli, Hayri Baba

Abstract:

The natural active compounds found in medicinal plants are belong to various chemical structures including polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, essential oils, and vitamins and some of these compounds have anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity. However, these compounds have been little known about mechanisms to confer antibacterial drug resistance. In this study; some macrofungi extracts (Pholiota lucifera, Gnaoderma applanatum and Pleurotus ostreatus) were investigated for their abilities to enhance bacterial permeability by flow cytometry. This experiments exhibited enhancement of these extracts to disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane of living bacterial (Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli) cells. These experiments were designed to detect uptake of PI&SYT by enhancing with a ranged concentration of herb extracts.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, flow cytometry, macrofungi, multidrug resistant

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810 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Alimentary and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Akrpoum Souad, Lalaoui Korrichi

Abstract:

Vicia faba L.,Vaccinium macrocarpon, Punica granatum, Lavandula officinalis, Artemisia absinthium, Linum capitatum and Camellia sinensis were frequently used in our alimentation. In this study, we have tested the antimicrobial activity of their ethanolic and methanolic extracts on some pathogen bacteria, then their ability to in vivo inhibit the growth of Strepcoccus pneumonia. The phytochemical screening has given the composition of the most active extracts. According to the obtained results, the ethanolic extract of Lavendula. officinalis and A absinthium has shown an inhibition of all the tested strains of becteria3. The ethanolic extract of L. officinalis has given the highest activity against S. pneumoniae, followed by the methanolic extract of C. sinensis 1, 2 and P. granatum. The phytochemical screening showed that the most active extracts contained mainly naturels compounds.

Keywords: plants, extracts, antimicrobial activity, streptococcus pneumoniae, phytochemical screening

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