Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1098

Search results for: median filter

1098 Novel Algorithm for Restoration of Retina Images

Authors: P. Subbuthai, S. Muruganand


Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the complicated diseases and it is caused by the changes in the blood vessels of the retina. Extraction of retina image through Fundus camera sometimes produced poor contrast and noises. Because of this noise, detection of blood vessels in the retina is very complicated. So preprocessing is needed, in this paper, a novel algorithm is implemented to remove the noisy pixel in the retina image. The proposed algorithm is Extended Median Filter and it is applied to the green channel of the retina because green channel vessels are brighter than the background. Proposed extended median filter is compared with the existing standard median filter by performance metrics such as PSNR, MSE and RMSE. Experimental results show that the proposed Extended Median Filter algorithm gives a better result than the existing standard median filter in terms of noise suppression and detail preservation.

Keywords: fundus retina image, diabetic retinopathy, median filter, microaneurysms, exudates

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1097 Additive White Gaussian Noise Filtering from ECG by Wiener Filter and Median Filter: A Comparative Study

Authors: Hossein Javidnia, Salehe Taheri


The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the recording of the heart’s electrical potential versus time. ECG signals are often contaminated with noise such as baseline wander and muscle noise. As these signals have been widely used in clinical studies to detect heart diseases, it is essential to filter these noises. In this paper we compare performance of Wiener Filtering and Median Filtering methods to filter Additive White Gaussian (AWG) noise with the determined signal to noise ratio (SNR) ranging from 3 to 5 dB applied to long-term ECG recordings samples. Root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) between the filtered ECG and original ECG was used as the filter performance indicator. Experimental results show that Wiener filter has better noise filtering performance than Median filter.

Keywords: ECG noise filtering, Wiener filtering, median filtering, Gaussian noise, filtering performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
1096 Hybrid Robust Estimation via Median Filter and Wavelet Thresholding with Automatic Boundary Correction

Authors: Alsaidi M. Altaher, Mohd Tahir Ismail


Wavelet thresholding has been a power tool in curve estimation and data analysis. In the presence of outliers this non parametric estimator can not suppress the outliers involved. This study proposes a new two-stage combined method based on the use of the median filter as primary step before applying wavelet thresholding. After suppressing the outliers in a signal through the median filter, the classical wavelet thresholding is then applied for removing the remaining noise. We use automatic boundary corrections; using a low order polynomial model or local polynomial model as a more realistic rule to correct the bias at the boundary region; instead of using the classical assumptions such periodic or symmetric. A simulation experiment has been conducted to evaluate the numerical performance of the proposed method. Results show strong evidences that the proposed method is extremely effective in terms of correcting the boundary bias and eliminating outlier’s sensitivity.

Keywords: boundary correction, median filter, simulation, wavelet thresholding

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1095 Speed up Vector Median Filtering by Quasi Euclidean Norm

Authors: Vinai K. Singh


For reducing impulsive noise without degrading image contours, median filtering is a powerful tool. In multiband images as for example colour images or vector fields obtained by optic flow computation, a vector median filter can be used. Vector median filters are defined on the basis of a suitable distance, the best performing distance being the Euclidean. Euclidean distance is evaluated by using the Euclidean norms which is quite demanding from the point of view of computation given that a square root is required. In this paper an optimal piece-wise linear approximation of the Euclidean norm is presented which is applied to vector median filtering.

Keywords: euclidean norm, quasi euclidean norm, vector median filtering, applied mathematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1094 Image Denoising Using Spatial Adaptive Mask Filter for Medical Images

Authors: R. Sumalatha, M. V. Subramanyam


In medical image processing the quality of the image is degraded in the presence of noise. Especially in ultra sound imaging and Magnetic resonance imaging the data was corrupted by signal dependent noise known as salt and pepper noise. Removal of noise from the medical images is a critical issue for researchers. In this paper, a new type of technique Adaptive Spatial Mask Filter (ASMF) has been proposed. The proposed filter is used to increase the quality of MRI and ultra sound images. Experimental results show that the proposed filter outperforms the implementation of mean, median, adaptive median filters in terms of MSE and PSNR.

Keywords: salt and pepper noise, ASMF, PSNR, MSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1093 Noise Removal Techniques in Medical Images

Authors: Amhimmid Mohammed Saffour, Abdelkader Salama


Filtering is a part of image enhancement techniques, it is used to enhance certain details such as edges in the image that are relevant to the application. Additionally, filtering can even be used to eliminate unwanted components of noise. Medical images typically contain salt and pepper noise and Poisson noise. This noise appears to the presence of minute grey scale variations within the image. In this paper, different filters techniques namely (Median, Wiener, Rank order3, Rank order5, and Average) were applied on CT medical images (Brain and chest). We using all these filters to remove salt and pepper noise from these images. This type of noise consists of random pixels being set to black or white. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error r(MSE) and Histogram were used to evaluated the quality of filtered images. The results, which we have achieved shows that, these filters, are more useful and they prove to be helpful for general medical practitioners to analyze the symptoms of the patients with no difficulty.

Keywords: CT imaging, median filter, adaptive filter and average filter, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1092 Design of a Graphical User Interface for Data Preprocessing and Image Segmentation Process in 2D MRI Images

Authors: Enver Kucukkulahli, Pakize Erdogmus, Kemal Polat


The 2D image segmentation is a significant process in finding a suitable region in medical images such as MRI, PET, CT etc. In this study, we have focused on 2D MRI images for image segmentation process. We have designed a GUI (graphical user interface) written in MATLABTM for 2D MRI images. In this program, there are two different interfaces including data pre-processing and image clustering or segmentation. In the data pre-processing section, there are median filter, average filter, unsharp mask filter, Wiener filter, and custom filter (a filter that is designed by user in MATLAB). As for the image clustering, there are seven different image segmentations for 2D MR images. These image segmentation algorithms are as follows: PSO (particle swarm optimization), GA (genetic algorithm), Lloyds algorithm, k-means, the combination of Lloyds and k-means, mean shift clustering, and finally BBO (Biogeography Based Optimization). To find the suitable cluster number in 2D MRI, we have designed the histogram based cluster estimation method and then applied to these numbers to image segmentation algorithms to cluster an image automatically. Also, we have selected the best hybrid method for each 2D MR images thanks to this GUI software.

Keywords: image segmentation, clustering, GUI, 2D MRI

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1091 Median Versus Ulnar Medial Thenar Motor Recording in Diagnosis Of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba


Aim of the work: This study proposed to assess the role of the median versus ulnar medial thenar motor (MTM) recording in supporting the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Patients and methods: The present study included 130 hands (70 CTS and 60 controls). Clinical examination was done for all patients. The following tests were done (using surface electrodes recording) for patients and control: (1) sensory nerve conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve and median versus ulnar digit four sensory study; (2) motor nerve conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve, median (second lumbrical) versus ulnar (interosseous) (2-LINT) motor study and median versus ulnar (MTM) study. Results: The tests with higher sensitivity in diagnosing CTS were median versus ulnar (2-LINT) motor latency difference (87.1%), median versus ulnar (MTM) motor latency difference (80%) and median versus ulnar digit four sensory latency differences (91.4%). There was no statistically significant difference between median versus ulnar (MTM) motor latency difference with both median versus ulnar (2-LINT) motor latency difference and median versus ulnar digit four sensory latency difference (P > 0.05) as regards the confirmation of CTS. Conclusions: Median versus ulnar (MTM) motor latency difference has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CTS as for both median versus ulnar (2-LINT) motor latency difference and median versus ulnar digit four sensory latency differences. It can be considered a useful neurophysiological test to be used in combination with another median versus ulnar comparative tests for confirming the diagnosis of CTS beside other well-known electrophysiological tests.

Keywords: carpal tunnel syndrome, medial thenar motor, median nerve, ulnar nerve

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1090 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis


In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1089 Detection of Image Blur and Its Restoration for Image Enhancement

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Image restoration in the process of communication is one of the emerging fields in the image processing. The motion analysis processing is the simplest case to detect motion in an image. Applications of motion analysis widely spread in many areas such as surveillance, remote sensing, film industry, navigation of autonomous vehicles, etc. The scene may contain multiple moving objects, by using motion analysis techniques the blur caused by the movement of the objects can be enhanced by filling-in occluded regions and reconstruction of transparent objects, and it also removes the motion blurring. This paper presents the design and comparison of various motion detection and enhancement filters. Median filter, Linear image deconvolution, Inverse filter, Pseudoinverse filter, Wiener filter, Lucy Richardson filter and Blind deconvolution filters are used to remove the blur. In this work, we have considered different types and different amount of blur for the analysis. Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ration (PSNR) are used to evaluate the performance of the filters. The designed system has been implemented in Matlab software and tested for synthetic and real-time images.

Keywords: image enhancement, motion analysis, motion detection, motion estimation

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1088 Operation Parameters of Vacuum Cleaned Filters

Authors: Wilhelm Hoeflinger, Thomas Laminger, Johannes Wolfslehner


For vacuum cleaned dust filters, used e. g. in textile industry, there exist no calculation methods to determine design parameters (e. g. traverse speed of the nozzle, filter area...). In this work a method to calculate the optimum traverse speed of the nozzle of an industrial-size flat dust filter at a given mean pressure drop and filter face velocity was elaborated. Well-known equations for the design of a cleanable multi-chamber bag-house-filter were modified in order to take into account a continuously regeneration of a dust filter by a nozzle. Thereby, the specific filter medium resistance and the specific cake resistance values are needed which can be derived from filter tests under constant operation conditions. A lab-scale filter test rig was used to derive the specific filter media resistance value and the specific cake resistance value for vacuum cleaned filter operation. Three different filter media were tested and the determined parameters were compared to each other.

Keywords: design of dust filter, dust removing, filter regeneration, operation parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1087 Compact Microstrip Ultra-Wideband Bandstop Filter With Quasi-Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Hussein Shaman, Faris Almansour


This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband

Keywords: microstrip filter, bandstop filter, UWB filter, transmission line filter

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1086 Ulnar Nerve Changes Associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Not Affecting Median versus Ulnar Comparative Studies

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Sarah Sayed El-Tawab


The present study was conducted to assess the involvement of ulnar sensory and/or motor nerve fibers in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and whether this affects the accuracy of the median versus ulnar comparative tests. The present study included 145 CTS hands and 71 asymptomatic control hands. Clinical examination was done. The following tests were done: Sensory conduction studies: median, ulnar and dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerves; and median versus ulnar digit (D) four sensory comparative study; and motor conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve and median versus ulnar motor comparative study. It was found that 17 CTS hands (11.7%) had ulnar sensory abnormalities in 17 different patients. The median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative studies were abnormal among all these 17 CTS hands. There were significant negative correlations between median motor latency and both ulnar sensory amplitudes recording D5 and D4. In conclusion, there is ulnar sensory nerve abnormality among CTS patients. This abnormality affects the amplitude of ulnar sensory nerve action potential. This does not affect the median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative tests accuracy for use in CTS.

Keywords: median nerve, motor comparative study, sensory comparative study, ulnar nerve

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1085 A Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Fault Detection

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite observations and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noise-free systems. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, numerical examples are performed for the discretized DC motor system having the multiple sensor faults.

Keywords: residual generation filter, finite memory structure, kalman filter, fast detection

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1084 An Accidental Forecasting Modelling for Various Median Roads

Authors: Pruethipong Xinghatiraj, Rajwanlop Kumpoopong


Considering the current situation of road safety, Thailand has the world’s second-highest road fatality rate. Therefore, decreasing the road accidents in Thailand is a prime policy of the Thai government seeking to accomplish. One of the approaches to reduce the accident rate is to improve road environments to fit with the local behavior of the road users. The Department of Highways ensures that choosing the road median types right to the road characteristics, e.g. roadside characteristics, traffic volume, truck traffic percentage, etc., can decrease the possibility of accident occurrence. Presently, raised median, depressed median, painted median and median barriers are typically used in Thailand Highways. In this study, factors affecting road accident for each median type will be discovered through the analysis of the collecting of accident data, death numbers on sample of 600 Kilometers length across the country together with its roadside characteristics, traffic volume, heavy vehicles percentage, and other key factors. The benefits of this study can assist the Highway designers to select type of road medians that can match local environments and then cause less accident prone.

Keywords: highways, road safety, road median, forecasting model

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
1083 Study on Filter for Semiconductor of Minimizing Damage by X-Ray Laminography

Authors: Chan Jong Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Ki Hyun Park, Koan Sik Joo


This research used the MCNPX simulation program to evaluate the utility of a filter that was developed to minimize the damage to a semiconductor device during defect testing with X-ray. The X-ray generator was designed using the MCNPX code, and the X-ray absorption spectrum of the semiconductor device was obtained based on the designed X-ray generator code. To evaluate the utility of the filter, the X-ray absorption rates of the semiconductor device were calculated and compared for Ag, Rh, Mo and V filters with thicknesses of 25μm, 50μm, and 75μm. The results showed that the X-ray absorption rate varied with the type and thickness of the filter, ranging from 8.74% to 49.28%. The Rh filter showed the highest X-ray absorption rates of 29.8%, 15.18% and 8.74% for the above-mentioned filter thicknesses. As shown above, the characteristics of the X-ray absorption with respect to the type and thickness of the filter were identified using MCNPX simulation. With these results, both time and expense could be saved in the production of the desired filter. In the future, this filter will be produced, and its performance will be evaluated.

Keywords: X-ray, MCNPX, filter, semiconductor, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1082 A Packet Loss Probability Estimation Filter Using Most Recent Finite Traffic Measurements

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


A packet loss probability (PLP) estimation filter with finite memory structure is proposed to estimate the packet rate mean and variance of the input traffic process in real-time while removing undesired system and measurement noises. The proposed PLP estimation filter is developed under a weighted least square criterion using only the finite traffic measurements on the most recent window. The proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to have several inherent properties such as unbiasedness, deadbeat, robustness. A guideline for choosing appropriate window length is described since it can affect significantly the estimation performance. Using computer simulations, the proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to be superior to the Kalman filter for the temporarily uncertain system. One possible explanation for this is that the proposed PLP estimation filter can have greater convergence time of a filtered estimate as the window length M decreases.

Keywords: packet loss probability estimation, finite memory filter, infinite memory filter, Kalman filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
1081 The Effect of Compensating Filter on Image Quality in Lateral Projection of Thoracolumbar Radiography

Authors: Noor Arda Adrina Daud, Mohd Hanafi Ali


The compensating filter is placed between the patient and X-ray tube to compensate various density and thickness of human body. The main purpose of this project is to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoracolumbar radiography. The study was performed by an X-ray unit where different thicknesses of aluminum were used as compensating filter. Specifically the relationship between thickness of aluminum, density and noise were evaluated. Results show different thickness of aluminum compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoracolumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The aluminum wedge compensating filter was designed resulting in an acceptable image quality.

Keywords: compensating filter, aluminum, image quality, lateral, thoracolumbar

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1080 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani


Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.

Keywords: empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property

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1079 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen


Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: frequency transformation, bilinear z-transformation, pre-warping frequency, digital filters, analog filters, pascal’s triangle

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
1078 Design of Wide-Range Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Digital Filters

Authors: Jong-Jy Shyu, Soo-Chang Pei, Yun-Da Huang


In this paper, design of wide-range variable fractional-delay (WR-VFD) finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters is proposed. With respect to the conventional VFD filter which is designed such that its delay is adjustable within one unit, the proposed VFD FIR filter is designed such that its delay can be tunable within a wider range. By the traces of coefficients of the fractional-delay FIR filter, it is found that the conventional method of polynomial substitution for filter coefficients no longer satisfies the design demand, and the circuits perform the sinc function (sinc converter) are added to overcome this problem. In this paper, least-squares method is adopted to design WR-VFD FIR filter. Throughout this paper, several examples will be proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented methods.

Keywords: digital filter, FIR filter, variable fractional-delay (VFD) filter, least-squares approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
1077 Adaptive Motion Compensated Spatial Temporal Filter of Colonoscopy Video

Authors: Nidhal Azawi


Colonoscopy procedure is widely used in the world to detect an abnormality. Early diagnosis can help to heal many patients. Because of the unavoidable artifacts that exist in colon images, doctors cannot detect a colon surface precisely. The purpose of this work is to improve the visual quality of colonoscopy videos to provide better information for physicians by removing some artifacts. This work complements a series of work consisting of three previously published papers. In this paper, Optic flow is used for motion compensation, and then consecutive images are aligned/registered to integrate some information to create a new image that has or reveals more information than the original one. Colon images have been classified into informative and noninformative images by using a deep neural network. Then, two different strategies were used to treat informative and noninformative images. Informative images were treated by using Lucas Kanade (LK) with an adaptive temporal mean/median filter, whereas noninformative images are treated by using Lucas Kanade with a derivative of Gaussian (LKDOG) with adaptive temporal median images. A comparison result showed that this work achieved better results than that results in the state- of- the- art strategies for the same degraded colon images data set, which consists of 1000 images. The new proposed algorithm reduced the error alignment by about a factor of 0.3 with a 100% successfully image alignment ratio. In conclusion, this algorithm achieved better results than the state-of-the-art approaches in case of enhancing the informative images as shown in the results section; also, it succeeded to convert the non-informative images that have very few details/no details because of the blurriness/out of focus or because of the specular highlight dominate significant amount of an image to informative images.

Keywords: optic flow, colonoscopy, artifacts, spatial temporal filter

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1076 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder


The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

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1075 Binarized-Weight Bilateral Filter for Low Computational Cost Image Smoothing

Authors: Yu Zhang, Kohei Inoue, Kiichi Urahama


We propose a simplified bilateral filter with binarized coefficients for accelerating it. Its computational cost is further decreased by sampling pixels. This computationally low cost filter is useful for smoothing or denoising images by using mobile devices with limited computational power.

Keywords: bilateral filter, binarized-weight bilateral filter, image smoothing, image denoising, pixel sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1074 Effect of Filter Paper Technique in Measuring Hydraulic Capacity of Unsaturated Expansive Soil

Authors: Kenechi Kurtis Onochie


This paper shows the use of filter paper technique in the measurement of matric suction of unsaturated expansive soil around the Haspolat region of Lefkosa, North Cyprus in other to establish the soil water characteristics curve (SWCC) or soil water retention curve (SWRC). The dry filter paper approach which is standardized by ASTM, 2003, D 5298-03 in which the filter paper is initially dry was adopted. The whatman No. 42 filter paper was used in the matric suction measurement. The maximum dry density of the soil was obtained as 2.66kg/cm³ and the optimum moisture content as 21%. The soil was discovered to have high air entry value of 1847.46KPa indicating finer particles and 25% hydraulic capacity using filter paper technique. The filter paper technique proved to be very useful for measuring the hydraulic capacity of unsaturated expansive soil.

Keywords: SWCC, matric suction, filter paper, expansive soil

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1073 FPGA Based IIR Filter Design Using MAC Algorithm

Authors: Rajesh Mehra, Bharti Thakur


In this paper, an IIR filter has been designed and simulated on an FPGA. The implementation is based on MAC algorithm which uses multiply-and-accumulate operations IIR filter design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the look up table of the FPGA device. The designed filter has been synthesized on DSP slice based FPGA to perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful to enhance the speed performance. The developed IIR filter is designed and simulated with Matlab and synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool (XST), and implemented on Virtex 5 and Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA devices. The IIR filter implemented on Virtex 5 FPGA can operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5 MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA. The Virtex 5 based implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.

Keywords: Butterworth filter, DSP, IIR, MAC, FPGA

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1072 Linear MIMO Model Identification Using an Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Matthew C. Best


Linear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic models can be identified, with no a priori knowledge of model structure or order, using a new Generalised Identifying Filter (GIF). Based on an Extended Kalman Filter, the new filter identifies the model iteratively, in a continuous modal canonical form, using only input and output time histories. The filter’s self-propagating state error covariance matrix allows easy determination of convergence and conditioning, and by progressively increasing model order, the best fitting reduced-order model can be identified. The method is shown to be resistant to noise and can easily be extended to identification of smoothly nonlinear systems.

Keywords: system identification, Kalman filter, linear model, MIMO, model order reduction

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1071 Bird-Adapted Filter for Avian Species and Individual Identification Systems Improvement

Authors: Ladislav Ptacek, Jan Vanek, Jan Eisner, Alexandra Pruchova, Pavel Linhart, Ludek Muller, Dana Jirotkova


One of the essential steps of avian song processing is signal filtering. Currently, the standard methods of filtering are the Mel Bank Filter or linear filter distribution. In this article, a new type of bank filter called the Bird-Adapted Filter is introduced; whereby the signal filtering is modifiable, based upon a new mathematical description of audiograms for particular bird species or order, which was named the Avian Audiogram Unified Equation. According to the method, filters may be deliberately distributed by frequency. The filters are more concentrated in bands of higher sensitivity where there is expected to be more information transmitted and vice versa. Further, it is demonstrated a comparison of various filters for automatic individual recognition of chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). The average Equal Error Rate (EER) value for Linear bank filter was 16.23%, for Mel Bank Filter 18.71%, the Bird-Adapted Filter gave 14.29%, and Bird-Adapted Filter with 1/3 modification was 12.95%. This approach would be useful for practical use in automatic systems for avian species and individual identification. Since the Bird-Adapted Filter filtration is based on the measured audiograms of particular species or orders, selecting the distribution according to the avian vocalization provides the most precise filter distribution to date.

Keywords: avian audiogram, bird individual identification, bird song processing, bird species recognition, filter bank

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1070 Fast Accurate Detection of Frequency Jumps Using Kalman Filter with Non Linear Improvements

Authors: Mahmoud E. Mohamed, Ahmed F. Shalash, Hanan A. Kamal


In communication systems, frequency jump is a serious problem caused by the oscillators used. Kalman filters are used to detect that jump, Despite the tradeoff between the noise level and the speed of the detection. In this paper, An improvement is introduced in the Kalman filter, Through a nonlinear change in the bandwidth of the filter. Simulation results show a considerable improvement in the filter speed with a very low noise level. Additionally, The effect on the response to false alarms is also presented and false alarm rate show improvement.

Keywords: Kalman filter, innovation, false detection, improvement

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1069 Ulnar Nerve Changes Associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Effect on Median Ersus Ulnar Comparative Studies

Authors: Emmanuel K. Aziz Saba, Sarah S. El-Tawab


Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was found to be associated with high pressure within the Guyon’s canal. The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of sensory and/or motor ulnar nerve fibers in patients with CTS and whether this affects the accuracy of the median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative tests. Patients and methods: The present study included 145 CTS hands and 71 asymptomatic control hands. Clinical examination was done for all patients. The following tests were done for the patients and control: (1) Sensory conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve, dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve and median versus ulnar digit (D) four sensory comparative study; (2) Motor conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve and median versus ulnar motor comparative study. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between patients and control group as regards parameters of ulnar motor study and dorsal ulnar cutaneous sensory conduction study. It was found that 17 CTS hands (11.7%) had ulnar sensory abnormalities in 17 different patients. The median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative studies were abnormal among all these 17 CTS hands. There were statistically significant negative correlations between median motor latency and both ulnar sensory amplitudes recording D5 and D4. There were statistically significant positive correlations between median sensory conduction velocity and both ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitude recording D5 and D4. Conclusions: There is ulnar sensory nerve abnormality among CTS patients. This abnormality affects the amplitude of ulnar sensory nerve action potential. The presence of abnormalities in ulnar nerve occurs in moderate and severe degrees of CTS. This does not affect the median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative tests accuracy and validity for use in electrophysiological diagnosis of CTS.

Keywords: carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar nerve, median nerve, median versus ulnar comparative study, dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve

Procedia PDF Downloads 477