Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 458

Search results for: food-borne pathogens

458 Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Pig and Cattle Carcass Samples Collected from Korean Slaughterhouses

Authors: Kichan Lee, Kwang-Ho Choi, Mi-Hye Hwang, Young Min Son, Bang-Hun Hyun, Byeong Yeal Jung

Abstract:

Recently, worldwide food safety authorities have been strengthening food hygiene in order to curb foodborne illness outbreaks. The hygiene status of Korean slaughterhouses has been monitored annually by Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency and provincial governments through foodborne pathogens investigation using slaughtered pig and cattle meats. This study presented the prevalence of food-borne pathogens from 2014 to 2016 in Korean slaughterhouses. Sampling, microbiological examinations, and analysis of results were performed in accordance with ‘Processing Standards and Ingredient Specifications for Livestock Products’. In total, swab samples from 337 pig carcasses (100 samples in 2014, 135 samples in 2015, 102 samples in 2016) and 319 cattle carcasses (100 samples in 2014, 119 samples in 2015, 100 samples in 2016) from twenty slaughterhouses were examined for Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, serotypes O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O128 and O145) as foodborne pathogens. The samples were analyzed using cultural and PCR-based methods. Foodborne pathogens were isolated in 78 (23.1%) out of 337 pig samples. In 2014, S. aureus (n=17) was predominant, followed by Y. enterocolitica (n=7), C. perfringens (n=2) and L. monocytogenes (n=2). In 2015, C. coli (n=14) was the most prevalent, followed by L. monocytogenes (n=4), S. aureus (n=3), and C. perfringens (n=2). In 2016, S. aureus (n=16) was the most prevalent, followed by C. coli (n=13), L. monocytogenes (n=2) and C. perfringens (n=1). In case of cattle carcasses, foodborne bacteria were detected in 41 (12.9%) out of 319 samples. In 2014, S. aureus (n=16) was the most prevalent, followed by Y. enterocolitica (n=3), C. perfringens (n=3) and L. monocytogenes (n=2). In 2015, L. monocytogenes was isolated from 4 samples, S. aureus from three, C. perfringens, Y. enterocolitica and Salmonella spp. from one, respectively. In 2016, L. monocytogenes (n=6) was the most prevalent, followed by C. perfringens (n=3) C. jejuni (n=1), respectively. It was found that 10 carcass samples (4 cattle and 6 pigs) were contaminated with two bacterial pathogen tested. Interestingly, foodborne pathogens were more detected from pig carcasses than cattle carcasses. Although S. aureus was predominantly detected in this study, other foodborne pathogens were also isolated in slaughtered meats. Results of this study alerted the risk of foodborne pathogen infection for humans from slaughtered meats. Therefore, the authors insisted that it was important to enhance hygiene level of slaughterhouses according to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point.

Keywords: carcass, cattle, foodborne, Korea, pathogen, pig

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457 The Impact of Low-Concentrated Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Foodborne Pathogens

Authors: Ewa Brychcy, Natalia Ulbin-Figlewicz, Dominika Kulig, Żaneta Król, Andrzej Jarmoluk

Abstract:

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is an alternative with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination. It is produced by membrane electrolysis of a dilute NaCl solution in water ionizers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-concentrated AEW in reducing selected foodborne pathogens and to examine its bactericidal effect on cellular structures of Escherichia coli. E. coli and S. aureus cells were undetectable after 10 minutes of contact with electrolyzed salt solutions. Non-electrolyzed solutions did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. AE water was found to destroy the cellular structures of the E. coli. The use of more concentrated salt solutions and prolonged electrolysis time from 5 to 10 minutes resulted in a greater changes of rods shape as compared to the control and non-electrolyzed NaCl solutions. This research showed that low-concentrated acid electrolyzed water is an effective method to significantly reduce pathogenic microorganisms and indicated its potential application for decontamination of meat.

Keywords: acidic electrolyzed water, foodborne pathogens, meat decontamination, membrane electrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
456 Cocoa Stimulates the Production Bioactive Components of Lactobacillus Casei and Competitively Excludes Foodborne Pathogens

Authors: Mengfei Peng, Serajus Salaheen, Debabrata Biswas

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Lactobacillus casei found in the human intestine and mouth is commonly applied for dairy production. Recently, it was found that some byproducts produced by Lactobacillus exhibited antimicrobial activities against multiple bacteria. Meanwhile, introduction of prebiotic-like foods (e.g. cocoa) or probiotics or both of them as food supplements in human diets as well as in farm animal feeds is believed to be an effective ways in control/reduce the colonization of foodborne bacterial pathogens infection in the gut environment. We hypothesized that cocoa may stimulate the production antimicrobial components of Lactobacillus casei and may potentially inhibit/reduce the colonization and infection of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the gut. Mixed culture of L. casei (LC) with enterohemorrhagic E. coli EDL933 (EHEC), Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (ST), or Listeria monocytogenes LM2 (LM) showed that LC could competitively exclude (100%) them within 72 h. Further, investigation of cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) revealed that the antimicrobial effects of LC came from CFCS. CFCS of LC eliminated (100%) EHEC, ST, and LM within 72 h, and 2 h CFCS treatment increased the hydrophobicity of EHEC (5.10 folds), ST (8.48 folds), and LM (2.03 folds). In addition, LC cells exhibited more inhibitive effects than CFCS on cell adhesive and invasive activities of EHEC (52.14% & 90.45%), ST (66.89% & 93.83%), and LM (61.10% & 83.40%). Two clusters of poly-peptides in CFCS were identified by SDS-PAGE, the molecular weights of which are ≈5 KD and 40-45 KD. LC CFCS with overnight growth in the presence of 3% strengthened all of the antimicrobial activities (growth inhibition, outer membrane disruption, and cell infective ability reduction). Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry analysis detected 5 unique components in class of flavonoids in LC CFCS with overnight 3% cocoa supplement. Furthermore, qPCR results showed that CFCSs up-regulated the expression level of genes responsible for flagellin synthesis and motility, but down-regulated genes for specific binding and invasion-associated proteins synthesis. The stimulatory effects of cocoa in producing bioactive components of probiotics may aid prevention of foodborne illness caused by major foodborne enteric bacterial pathogens.

Keywords: foodborne pathogens, probiotics, prebiotics, pathogen exclusion

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455 Same-Day Detection Method of Salmonella Spp., Shigella Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes with Fluorescence-Based Triplex Real-Time PCR

Authors: Ergun Sakalar, Kubra Bilgic

Abstract:

Faster detection and characterization of pathogens are the basis of the evoid from foodborne pathogens. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are common foodborne bacteria that are among the most life-threatining. It is important to rapid and accurate detection of these pathogens to prevent food poisoning and outbreaks or to manage food chains. The present work promise to develop a sensitive, species specific and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For this purpose, three genes were picked out, ompC for Salmonella spp., ipaH for Shigella spp. and hlyA for L. monocytogenes. After short pre-enrichment of milk was passed through a vacuum filter and bacterial DNA was exracted using commercially available kit GIDAGEN®(Turkey, İstanbul). Detection of amplicons was verified by examination of the melting temperature (Tm) that are 72° C, 78° C, 82° C for Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The method specificity was checked against a group of bacteria strains, and also carried out sensitivity test resulting in under 10² CFU mL⁻¹ of milk for each bacteria strain. Our results show that the flourescence based triplex qPCR method can be used routinely to detect Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and L. monocytogenes during the milk processing procedures in order to reduce cost, time of analysis and the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks.

Keywords: evagreen, food-born bacteria, pathogen detection, real-time pcr

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454 Glyco-Conjugated Gold Nanorods Based Biosensor for Optical Detection and Photothermal Ablation of Food Borne Bacteria

Authors: Shimayali Kaushal, Nitesh Priyadarshi, Nitin Kumar Singhal

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Food borne bacterial species have been identified as major pathogens in most of the severe pathogen-related diseases among humans which result in great loss to human health and food industry. Conventional methods like plating and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) are time-consuming, laborious and require specialized instruments. Nanotechnology has emerged as a great field in case of rapid detection of pathogens in recent years. The AuNRs material has good electro-optical properties due to its larger light absorption band and scattering in surface plasmon resonance wavelength regions. By exploiting the sugar-based adhesion properties of microorganism, we can use the glycoconjugates capped gold nanorods as a potential nanobiosensor to detect the foodborne pathogen. In the present study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared and functionalized with different types of carbohydrates and further characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reactivity of above said nano-biosensor was probed by lectin binding assay and also by different strains of foodborne bacteria by using spectrophotometric and microscopic techniques. Due to the specific interaction of probe with foodborne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), our nanoprobe has shown significant and selective ablation of targeted bacteria. Our findings suggest that our nanoprobe can be an ideal candidate for selective optical detection of food pathogens and can reduce loss to the food industry.

Keywords: glyco-conjugates, gold nanorods, nanobiosensor, nanoprobe

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
453 Progress in Replacing Antibiotics in Farm Animal Production

Authors: Debabrata Biswas

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The current trend in the development of antibiotic resistance by multiple bacterial pathogens has resulted in a troubling loss of effective antibiotic options for human. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens has necessitated higher dosages and combinations of multiple antibiotics, further exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. Zoonotic bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC), and Listeria are the most common and predominant foodborne enteric infectious agents. It was observed that these pathogens gained/developed their ability to survive in the presence of antibiotics either in farm animal gut or farm environment and researchers believe that therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antibiotic use in farm animal production might play an important role in it. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial components used in farm animal production in genomic interplay in the gut and farm environment, has not been fully characterized. Even the risk of promoting the exchange of mobile genetic elements between microbes specifically pathogens needs to be evaluated in depth, to ensure sustainable farm animal production, safety of our food and to mitigate/limit the enteric infection with multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. Due to the consumer’s demand and considering the current emerging situation, many countries are in process to withdraw antibiotic use in farm animal production. Before withdrawing use of the sub-therapeutic antibiotic or restricting the use of therapeutic antibiotics in farm animal production, it is essential to find alternative natural antimicrobials for promoting the growth of farm animal and/or treating animal diseases. Further, it is also necessary to consider whether that compound(s) has the potential to trigger the acquisition or loss of genetic materials in zoonotic and any other bacterial pathogens. Development of alternative therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antimicrobials for farm animal production and food processing and preservation and their effective implementation for sustainable strategies for farm animal production as well as the possible risk for horizontal gene transfer in major enteric pathogens will be focus in the study.

Keywords: food safety, natural antimicrobial, sustainable farming, antibiotic resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
452 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Desouky Abd El Haleem, Sahar Zaki

Abstract:

This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
451 Description of Reported Foodborne Diseases in Selected Communities within the Greater Accra Region-Ghana: Epidemiological Review of Surveillance Data

Authors: Benjamin Osei-Tutu, Henrietta Awewole Kolson

Abstract:

Background: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the frequently reported Out-Patient Department (OPD) cases. However, the causative pathogens of these cases are rarely identified at the OPD due to delay in laboratory results or failure to obtain specimens before antibiotics is administered. Method: A retrospective review of surveillance data from the Adentan Municipality, Accra, Ghana that were recorded in the National foodborne disease surveillance system of Ghana, was conducted with the main aim of describing the epidemiology and food practice of cases reported from the Adentan Municipality. The study involved a retrospective review of surveillance data kept on patients who visited health facilities that are involved in foodborne disease surveillance in Ghana, from January 2015 to December 2016. Results: A total of 375 cases were reviewed and these were classified as viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and E), cholera (Vibrio cholerae), dysentery (Shigella sp.), typhoid fever (Salmonella sp.) or gastroenteritis. Cases recorded were all suspected case and the average cases recorded per week was 3. Typhoid fever and dysentery were the two main clinically diagnosed foodborne illnesses. The highest number of cases were observed during the late dry season (Feb to April), which marks the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. Relatively high number of cases was also observed during the late wet seasons (Jul to Oct) when the rainfall is the heaviest. Home-made food and street vended food were the major sources of suspected etiological food, recording 49.01% and 34.87% of the cases respectively. Conclusion: Majority of cases recorded were classified as gastroenteritis due to the absence of laboratory confirmation. Few cases were classified as typhoid fever and dysentery based on clinical symptoms presented. Patients reporting with foodborne diseases were found to consume home meal and street vended foods as their predominant source of food.

Keywords: accra, etiologic food, food poisoning, gastroenteritis, illness, surveillance

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
450 Foodborne Disease Risk Factors Among Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdullah Alsayeqh

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The burden of foodborne diseases in Saudi Arabia is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with these diseases among women in Riyadh. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March to July, 2013 where participants’ responses indicated that they were at risk of these diseases through improper food-holding temperature (45.28%), inadequate cooking (35.47%), cross-contamination (32.23%), and food from unsafe sources (22.39%). The claimed food safety knowledge by 22.04% of participants was not evidenced by their reported behaviors (p > 0.05). This is the first study to identify the gap in food safety knowledge among women in Riyadh which needs to be addressed by the concerned authorities in the country by engaging women more effectively in food safety educational campaigns.

Keywords: foodborne diseases, risk factors, knowledge, women, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
449 NprRX Regulation on Surface Spreading Motility in Bacillus cereus

Authors: Yan-Shiang Chiou, Yi-Huang Hsueh

Abstract:

Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes two types of foodborne illness, the emetic and diarrheal syndromes. B. cereus consistently ranks among the top three among bacterial foodborne outbreaks in the ten years of 2001 to 2010 in Taiwan. Foodborne outbreak caused by B. cereus has been increased, and recently it ranks second foodborne pathogen after Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This pathogen is difficult to control due to its ubiquitousness in the environment, the psychrotrophic nature of many strains, and the heat resistance of their spores. Because complete elimination of biofilms is difficult, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation by B. cereus will help to develop better strategies to control this pathogen. Surface translocation can be an important factor in biofilm formation. In B. cereus, NprR is a quorum sensor, and its apo NprR is a dimer and changes to a tetramer in the presence of NprX. The small peptide NprX may induce conformational change allowing the apo dimer to switch to an active tetramer specifically recognizing target DNA sequences. Our result showed that mutation of nprRX causes surface spreading deficiency. Mutation of flagella, pili and surfactant genes (flgAB, bcpAB, krsABC), did not abolish spreading motility. Under nprRX mutant, mutation of spo0A restored the spreading deficiency. This suggests that spreading motility is not related surfactant, pili and flagella but other unknown mechanism and Spo0A, a sporulation initiation protein, inhibits spreading motility.

Keywords: Bacillus cereus, nprRX, spo0A, spreading motility

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
448 Supplementation of Citrulline with Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects Foodborne Pathogens Adhesion and Improves the Cell Integrity on the Intestinal Epithelial Cell

Authors: Sze Wing Ho, Nagendra P. Shah

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have shown the beneficial effects on human gastrointestinal tract, such as protects diarrhea induced by lactose intolerance or enteric pathogens. Citrulline is a non-protein amino acid and also the precursors of arginine and nitric oxide, it has shown to enhance intestinal barrier function. Citrulline has shown to improve the growth of some strains of LAB, it is important for LAB to have a sufficient cell concentration to contribute the effects. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of combining citrulline with LAB on the anti-adhesion effect against pathogens and the effect on the cell integrity. The effect of citrulline on selected LAB was determined by incubating in 0%, 0.1% or 0.2% citrulline enriched MRS broth for 18 h. The adhesion ability of LAB and the anti-adhesion effect of LAB and citrulline against pathogens were performed on IPEC-J2 cell line. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay was used to measure the tight junction (TJ) integrity. TJ proteins (claudin-1, occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1)) were determined by western blot analysis. It found that the growth of Lactobacillus helveticus ASCC 511 was significantly stimulated by 0.2% citrulline compared with control during 18 h fermentation. The adhesion of L. helveticus ASCC 511 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) ASCC 756 was increased when supplemented with citrulline. Citrulline has shown significant inhibitory effect on the adhesion of Escherichia coli PELI0480 (O157:H7), Shigella sonnei ATCC 25931, Staphyloccocus aureus CMCC26003 and Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544. The anti-adhesion effect of L. helveticus ASCC 511, L. bulgaricus ASCC 756 and Lactobacillus paracasei ASCC 276 against Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 was significantly enhanced with citrulline supplementation. Treatments with citrulline and LAB were able to maintain the TEER of IPEC-J2 cell and shown the positive effect on the TJ proteins. In conclusion, citrulline had stimulating effect on some strains of LAB and determined to improve the adhesion of LAB on intestinal epithelial cell, to enhance the inhibitory effect on enteric pathogens adhesion as well as had beneficial effects on maintaining cell integrity. It implied LAB supplemented with citrulline might have advantageous effects on gastrointestinal tracts.

Keywords: citrulline, lactic acid bacteria, amino acid, anti-adhesion effect, cell integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
447 Foodborne Outbreak Calendar: Application of Time Series Analysis

Authors: Ryan B. Simpson, Margaret A. Waskow, Aishwarya Venkat, Elena N. Naumova

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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 31 known foodborne pathogens cause 9.4 million cases of these illnesses annually in US. Over 90% of these illnesses are associated with exposure to Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga-Toxin Producing E.Coli (STEC), Vibrio, and Yersinia. Contaminated products contain parasites typically causing an intestinal illness manifested by diarrhea, stomach cramping, nausea, weight loss, fatigue and may result in deaths in fragile populations. Since 1998, the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) has allowed for routine collection of suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases of food poisoning. While retrospective analyses have revealed common pathogen-specific seasonal patterns, little is known concerning the stability of those patterns over time and whether they can be used for preventative forecasting. The objective of this study is to construct a calendar of foodborne outbreaks of nine infections based on the peak timing of outbreak incidence in the US from 1996 to 2017. Reported cases were abstracted from FoodNet for Salmonella (135115), Campylobacter (121099), Shigella (48520), Cryptosporidium (21701), STEC (18022), Yersinia (3602), Vibrio (3000), Listeria (2543), and Cyclospora (758). Monthly counts were compiled for each agent, seasonal peak timing and peak intensity were estimated, and the stability of seasonal peaks and synchronization of infections was examined. Negative Binomial harmonic regression models with the delta-method were applied to derive confidence intervals for the peak timing for each year and overall study period estimates. Preliminary results indicate that five infections continue to lead as major causes of outbreaks, exhibiting steady upward trends with annual increases in cases ranging from 2.71% (95%CI: [2.38, 3.05]) in Campylobacter, 4.78% (95%CI: [4.14, 5.41]) in Salmonella, 7.09% (95%CI: [6.38, 7.82]) in E.Coli, 7.71% (95%CI: [6.94, 8.49]) in Cryptosporidium, and 8.67% (95%CI: [7.55, 9.80]) in Vibrio. Strong synchronization of summer outbreaks were observed, caused by Campylobacter, Vibrio, E.Coli and Salmonella, peaking at 7.57 ± 0.33, 7.84 ± 0.47, 7.85 ± 0.37, and 7.82 ± 0.14 calendar months, respectively, with the serial cross-correlation ranging 0.81-0.88 (p < 0.001). Over 21 years, Listeria and Cryptosporidium peaks (8.43 ± 0.77 and 8.52 ± 0.45 months, respectively) have a tendency to arrive 1-2 weeks earlier, while Vibrio peaks (7.8 ± 0.47) delay by 2-3 weeks. These findings will be incorporated in the forecast models to predict common paths of the spread, long-term trends, and the synchronization of outbreaks across etiological agents. The predictive modeling of foodborne outbreaks should consider long-term changes in seasonal timing, spatiotemporal trends, and sources of contamination.

Keywords: foodborne outbreak, national outbreak reporting system, predictive modeling, seasonality

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446 Antimicrobial Activity of the Cyanobacteria spp. against Fish Pathogens in Aquaculture

Authors: I. Tulay Cagatay

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Blue-green microalgae cyanobacteria, which are important photosynthetic organisms of aquatic ecosystems, are the primary sources of many bioactive compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and enzymes that can be used as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Some of these organisms are nowadays used directly in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, or in aquaculture and biotechnological approaches like biofuel or drug therapy. Finding the effective, environmental friendly chemotropic and antimicrobial agents to control fish pathogens are crucial in a country like Turkey which has a production capacity of about 240 thousand tons of cultured fish and has 2377 production farms and which is the second biggest producer in Europe. In our study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of cyanobacterium spp. against some fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri that are important pathogens for rainbow trout farms. Agar disk diffusion test method was used for studying antimicrobial activity on pathogens. Both tested microorganisms have shown antimicrobial activity positively as the inhibition zones were 0.45 mm and 0.40 mm respectively.

Keywords: fish pathogen, cyanobacteria, antimicrobial activity, trout

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
445 Food Consumer Protection in Moroccan Legal System: A Systematic Review

Authors: Bouchaib Gazzaz, Mounir Mehdi

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In order to ensure consumer food protection, the food industry has a legal obligation to provide food products that comply with the requirements of the legislation in force. National regulations in this area occupy an important place in the food control system in terms of consumer protection. This article discusses the legal and regulatory framework of food safety and consumer protection in Moroccan law. We used the doctrinal research approach by analyzing the judicial normative and bibliographic legal research. As a result, we were able to present the basic principles of consumer food protection by showing to what extent the food safety law provides effective consumer protection in Morocco. We have concluded that there is an impact -in terms of consumer legal protection- of food law reform on the concept of food safety.

Keywords: food safety, Morocco, consumer protection, framework, food law

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444 Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica Extracts against Oral Cavity Bacteria

Authors: Sulaiman A. Alrumman, Abd El-Latif Hesham

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Despite medical progress worldwide, dental caries are still widespread. Miswak is derived from the plant arak (Salvadora persica). It is used by Muslim people as a natural product for the cleansing of teeth, to ensure oral and dental hygiene. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of ethanol, methanol, and ethanol/methanol extracts of miswak against three bacterial pathogens of the oral cavity. The pathogens were isolated from the oral cavity of volunteers/patients and were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification data. Sequence comparisons were made with 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the GenBank database. The results of sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis identified the three pathogens as being Staphylococcus aureus strain KKU-020, Enterococcus faecalis strain KKU-021 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain KKU-022. All miswak extracts showed powerful antimicrobial activity against the three pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition (40.67±0.88 mm) was observed against E. faecalis with ethanolic extracts whilst methanolic extracts showed the minimum zone of inhibition (10.33±0.88 mm) against K. pneumonia KKU-022. Based on the significant effects of the miswak extracts against the oral cavity pathogens in our study, we recommend that miswak is to be used as a dental hygiene method to prevent tooth caries.

Keywords: antibacterial, miswak, Salvadora persica, oral cavity pathogens

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443 Evaluation of Microbiological Quality and Safety of Two Types of Salads Prepared at Libyan Airline Catering Center in Tripoli

Authors: Elham A. Kwildi, Yahia S. Abugnah, Nuri S. Madi

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This study was designed to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of two types of salads prepared at a catering center affiliated with Libyan Airlines in Tripoli, Libya. Two hundred and twenty-one (221) samples (132 economy-class and 89 first- class) were used in this project which lasted for ten months. Biweekly, microbiological tests were performed which included total plate count (TPC) and total coliforms (TCF), in addition to enumeration and/or detection of some pathogenic bacteria mainly Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella sp, Listeria sp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus parahaemolyticus, By using conventional as well as compact dry methods. Results indicated that TPC of type 1 salad ranged between (<10 – 62 x 103 cfu/gm) and (<10 to 36 x103 cfu/g), while TCF were (<10 – 41 x 103 cfu/gm) and (< 10 to 66 x102 cfu/g) using both methods of detection respectively. On the other hand, TPC of type 2 salad were: (1 × 10 – 52 x 103) and (<10 – 55 x 103 cfu/gm) and in the range of (1 x10 to 45x103 cfu/g), and the (TCF) counts were between (< 10 to 55x103 cfu/g) and (< 10 to 34 x103 cfu/g) using the 1st and the 2nd methods of detection respectively. Also, the pathogens mentioned above were detected in both types of salads, but their levels varied according to the type of salad and the method of detection. The level of Staphylococcus aureus, for instance, was 17.4% using conventional method versus 14.4% using the compact dry method. Similarly, E. coli was 7.6% and 9.8%, while Salmonella sp. recorded the least percentage i.e. 3% and 3.8% with the two mentioned methods respectively. First class salads were also found to contain the same pathogens, but the level of E. coli was relatively higher in this case (14.6% and 16.9%) using conventional and compact dry methods respectively. The second rank came Staphylococcus aureus (13.5%) and (11.2%), followed by Salmonella (6.74%) and 6.70%). The least percentage was for Vibrio parahaemolyticus (4.9%) which was detected in the first class salads only. The other two pathogens Bacillus cereus and Listeria sp. were not detected in either one of the salads. Finally, it is worth mentioning that there was a significant decline in TPC and TCF counts in addition to the disappearance of pathogenic bacteria after the 6-7th month of the study which coincided with the first trial of the HACCP system at the center. The ups and downs in the counts along the early stages of the study reveal that there is a need for some important correction measures including more emphasis on training of the personnel in applying the HACCP system effectively.

Keywords: air travel, vegetable salads, foodborne outbreaks, Libya

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
442 Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, A. Pera, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

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The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: biological sludge, Ca(OH)2, copper, pathogens, sanitation, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
441 Rapid Detection System of Airborne Pathogens

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Kei Takenaka

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We developed new processes which can collect and detect rapidly airborne pathogens such as the avian flu virus for the pandemic prevention. The fluorescence antibody technique is known as one of high-sensitive detection methods for viruses, but this needs up to a few hours to bind sufficient fluorescence dyes to viruses for detection. In this paper, we developed a mist-labeling can detect substitution viruses in a short time to improve the binding rate of fluorescent dyes and substitution viruses by the micro reaction process. Moreover, we developed the rapid detection system with the above 'mist labeling'. The detection system set with a sampling bag collecting patient’s breath and a cartridge can detect automatically pathogens within 10 minutes.

Keywords: viruses, sampler, mist, detection, fluorescent dyes, microreaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
440 Health Outcomes from Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Andrea Parisi, Samantha Vilkins, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, John A. Crump, Benjamin P. Howden, Darren Gray, Kathryn Glass, Martyn Kirk

Abstract:

Objectives: Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne enterocolitis worldwide. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections that are Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) (non-susceptible to ≥1 agent in ≥3 antimicrobial categories) may result in more severe outcomes, although these effects have not been systematically examined. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine impacts of MDR NTS on health in high-income settings. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from scientific databases, including PubMed, Scopus and grey literature sources, using PRISMA guidelines. We searched for data from case-control studies, cohorts, outbreaks, reports and theses, imposing no language restriction. We included only publications from January 1990 to September 2016 from high income countries as classified by World Bank. We extracted data from papers on duration of illness, hospitalisation rates, morbidity and mortality for MDR and non-MDR NTS strains. Results: After removing duplicates, the initial search revealed 4258 articles. After further screening, we identified 16 eligible studies for the systematic review, and 9 of these were included in meta-analysis. NTS serotypes differed among the reported studies but serotype Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport and Heidelberg were among the most often reported as MDR pathogens. Salmonella infections that were MDR were associated with excess bloodstream infections (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.18-2.26), excess hospitalisations (OR 2.77; 95%CI 1.47-5.21) and higher mortality (OR 3.54; 95%CI 1.10-11.40). Conclusions: MDR NTS infections are a serious public health concern. With the emergence of MDR Salmonella strains in the high-income countries, it is crucial to restrict the use of antimicrobials both in animals and humans, and intervene to prevent foodborne infections.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Bloodstream Infection, Health Outcomes, Hospitalisation, Invasive Disease, Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR), Mortality, Nontyphoidal Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
439 Assessment of Bio-Control Quality of Ethanolic Extracts of Some Tropical Plants on Fruit Rot Pathogens of Pineapple Fruits in Ado Ekiti

Authors: J. Y. Ijato, A. Adewumi, H. O Yakubu, O. O. Olajide, B. O. Ojo, B. A. Adanikin

Abstract:

Post-harvest fruit rot pathogens are one of the major factors that are responsible for food security challenges in developing countries like Nigeria. These pathogens also cause fruit food poisoning. Biocidal effects of ethanolic extracts of Khaya grandifoliola, Hyptis suaveolens, Zingiber officinale, Calophyllum inophyllum, Datura stramonium on the mycelia growth of fungal rot pathogens of pineapple fruit was investigated, the ethanolic extracts of these test plants exhibited high significant inhibitory effects on the rot pathogens, the highest ethanolic extract inhibition of Zingiber officinale was on Aspergillus flavus (38.40%) at 1.0g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was on Aspergillus fumigatus (23.10%) at 1.0g/ml, the highest ethanol extract inhibition of Datura stramonium was on Aspergillus tubingensis (24.00%) at 1.0g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was 10.00% on Colletotrichum fruticola at 1.0g/ml, the highest ethanol extract inhibition of Calophyllum inophyllum was on Trichoderma harzianum (18.50%) at 1.0g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was on Aspergillus flavus (15.00%) at 1.0g/ml, the highest ethanol extract inhibition of Hyptis suaveolens was on Aspergillus fumigatus (35.00%) at 1.0g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was on Aspergillus niger (20.00%) at 1.0g/ml, the highest ethanol extract inhibition of Khaya grandifoliola was on Aspergillus flavus (35.00%) at 1.00g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was on Aspergillus fumigates (22.00%) at 1.0g/ml, the antifungal capacity of these test plant extracts on rot causing fungi on pineapple fruit reveals the possibility of their use by farmers and fruit traders as alternative to chemical fungicide that portends great threat to human and environmental health.

Keywords: fruit rot, pathogens, plant extracts, pineapple, food poisoning

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438 Bioactivity of Local Isolated Probiotic to Inhibiting Important Bacterial Pathogens in Aquaculture

Authors: Abhichet Nobhiwong, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Udomluk Sompong

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Six probiotic strains isolated from Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai province, Thailand; CR1-2, CM3-4, CM5-2, CR7-8, CM10-5 and CM10-8 were used to study their morphology and inhibition activity on three pathogenic bacteria; Aeromonas sp., Streptococcus sp. and Flavobacterium sp. that isolated from infected Nile tilapia. The agar well diffusion technique was applied for 24 and 48 hours incubation. Interestingly, some probiotics showed good inhibition activity both 24 and 48 hours on each 3 bacterial pathogens. The capable inhibiting Aeromonas sp. were CR1-2 and CR5-2 with inhibition diameters of 13.0 mm and 11.2 mm, respectively. For Streptococcus sp., effective probiotics were CR10-2 with inhibition diameters of 10.7 mm. Whereas for Flavobacterium sp., effective probiotics were CR5-2 with inhibition diameter of 9.7 mm. It can be concluded that these probiotics have potentiality to develop as the pathogens biocontrol products. These will be support for safety and organic aquaculture that which the most worthy for people health.

Keywords: probiotics, Aeromanas sp., Streptococcus sp., Flavobacterium sp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
437 Molecular Implication of Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Phylloplane of Tomato

Authors: Shilpi, Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Susmita Goswami, Prabir K. Paul

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Cultivation and consumption of organically grown fruits and vegetables have increased by several folds. However, the presence of Human Enteric Pathogens on the surface of organically grown vegetables causing Gastro-intestinal diseases, are most likely due to contaminated water and fecal matter of farm animals. Human Enteric Pathogens are adapted to colonize the human gut, and also colonize plant surface. Microbes on plant surface communicate with each other to establish quorum sensing. The cross talk study is important because the enteric pathogens on phylloplane have been reported to mask the beneficial resident bacteria of plant. In the present study, HEPs and bacterial colonizers were identified using 16s rRNA sequencing. Microbial colonization patterns after interaction between Human Enteric Pathogens and natural bacterial residents on tomato phylloplane was studied. Tomato plants raised under aseptic conditions were inoculated with a mixture of Serratia fonticola and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The molecules involved in cross-talk between Human Enteric Pathogens and regular bacterial colonizers were isolated and identified using molecular techniques and HPLC. The colonization pattern was studied by leaf imprint method after 48 hours of incubation. The associated protein-protein interaction in the host cytoplasm was studied by use of crosslinkers. From treated leaves the crosstalk molecules and interaction proteins were separated on 1D SDS-PAGE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. The study is critical in understanding the molecular aspects of HEP’s adaption to phylloplane. The study revealed human enteric pathogens aggressively interact among themselves and resident bacteria. HEPs induced establishment of a signaling cascade through protein-protein interaction in the host cytoplasm. The study revealed that the adaptation of Human Enteric Pathogens on phylloplane of Solanum lycopersicum involves the establishment of complex molecular interaction between the microbe and the host including microbe-microbe interaction leading to an establishment of quorum sensing. The outcome will help in minimizing the HEP load on fresh farm produce, thereby curtailing incidences of food-borne diseases.

Keywords: crosslinkers, human enteric pathogens (HEPs), phylloplane, quorum sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
436 Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-To-Eat Food Sold in Johannesburg, South Africa

Authors: Hattie Hope Makumbe, Bhekisisa Dlamini, Frederick Tabit

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Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food. This study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in 80 RTE food sold in the formal (dairy and processed meat) and informal markets (vegetable salads, beef stew, and rice) of Johannesburg, South Africa. High Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, and E. coli counts were obtained, which ranged from 1.9-7.5 log CFU/g. Listeria monocytogenes microbial counts in the food samples ranged from 3.5-6.0 log colony forming unit per gram except in cooked rice. The Listeria monocytogenes isolates were identified using biochemical tests and confirmed with the Biolog identification system and PCR analyses. The percentage incidence for Listeria monocytogenes in ready to eat food was 12.5%. When Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations were under consideration, all disinfectants were effective against Listeria monocytogenes strains. For antimicrobial work, rates of resistance amongst the antibiotics ranged from 17-100%. Therefore, more effective preventive control strategies for Listeria monocytogenes are needed to reduce the prevalence of the pathogen in RTE food that is sold in Johannesburg.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species, ready to eat food, sanitiser efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
435 Analysis of Pathogen Populations Occurring in Oilseed Rape Using DNA Sequencing Techniques

Authors: Elizabeth Starzycka-Korbas, Michal Starzycki, Wojciech Rybinski, Mirosława Dabert

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For a few years, the populations of pathogenic fungi occurring in winter oilseed rape in Malyszyn were analyzed. Brassica napus L. in Poland and in the world is a source of energy for both the men (oil), and animals, as post-extraction middling, as well as a motor fuel (oil, biofuel) therefore studies of this type are very important. The species composition of pathogenic fungi can be an indicator of seed yield. The occurrence of oilseed rape pathogens during several years were analyzed using the sequencing method DNA ITS. The results were compared in the gene bank using the program NCBI / BLAST. In field conditions before harvest of oilseed rape presence of pathogens infesting B. napus has been assessed. For example, in 2015, 150 samples have been isolated and applied to PDA medium for the identification of belonging species. From all population has been selected mycelium of 83 isolates which were sequenced. Others (67 isolates) were pathogenic fungi of the genus Alternaria which are easily to recognize. The population of pathogenic species on oilseed rape have been identified after analyzing the DNA ITS and include: Leptosphaeria sp. 38 (L. maculans 25, L. biglobosa 13), Alternaria sp. 29, Fusarium sp. 3, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 7, heterogeneous 6, total of 83 isolates. The genus Alternaria sp. fungi wear the largest share of B. napus pathogens in particular years. Another dangerous species for oilseed rape was Leptosphaeria sp. Populations of pathogens in each year were different. The number of pathogens occurring in the field and their composition is very important for breeders and farmers because of the possible selection of the most resistant genotypes for sowing in the next growing season.

Keywords: B. napus, DNA ITS Sequencing, pathogenic fungi, population

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
434 A Sui Generis Technique to Detect Pathogens in Post-Partum Breast Milk Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Yogesh Karunakar, Praveen Kandaswamy

Abstract:

Mother’s milk provides the most superior source of nutrition to a child. There is no other substitute to the mother’s milk. Postpartum secretions like breast milk can be analyzed on the go for testing the presence of any harmful pathogen before a mother can feed the child or donate the milk for the milk bank. Since breast feeding is one of the main causes for transmission of diseases to the newborn, it is mandatory to test the secretions. In this paper, we describe the detection of pathogens like E-coli, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika and Ebola virus through an innovative method, in which we are developing a unique chip for testing the mother’s milk sample. The chip will contain an antibody specific to the target pathogen that will show a color change if there are enough pathogens present in the fluid that will be considered dangerous. A smart-phone camera will then be acquiring the image of the strip and using various image processing techniques we will detect the color development due to antigen antibody interaction within 5 minutes, thereby not adding to any delay, before the newborn is fed or prior to the collection of the milk for the milk bank. If the target pathogen comes positive through this method, then the health care provider can provide adequate treatment to bring down the number of pathogens. This will reduce the postpartum related mortality and morbidity which arises due to feeding infectious breast milk to own child.

Keywords: postpartum, fluids, camera, HIV, HCV, CMV, Zika, Ebola, smart-phones, breast milk, pathogens, image processing techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
433 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strain against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance

Authors: Asif Jamal, Asad Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali

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The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis, and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as a bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: biological control, Bacillus spp, fungal pathogens, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
432 Effectiveness of Essential Oils as Inhibitors of Quorum Sensing Activity Using Biomonitor Strain Chromobacterium Violaceum

Authors: Ivana Cabarkapa, Zorica Tomicic, Olivera Duragic

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Antimicrobial resistance represents one of the major challenges facing humanity in the last decades. Increasing antibiotic-resistant pathogens indicates the need for the development of alternative antibacterial drugs and new treatment strategies. One of the innovative emerging treatments in overcoming multidrug-resistant pathogens certainly represents the inhibition anti-quorum sensing system. For most of the food-borne pathogens, the expression of the virulence depends on their capability communication with other members of the population by means of quorum sensing (QS). QS represents a specific way of bacterial intercellular communication, which enabled owing to their ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation. QS mechanisms are responsible for controls the pathogenesis, virulence luminescence, motility, sporulation and biofilm formation of many organisms by regulating gene expression. Therefore, research in this field is being an attractive target for the development of new natural antibacterial agents. Anti-QS compounds are known to have the ability to prohibit bacterial pathogenicity. Considering the importance of quorum sensing during bacterial pathogenesis, this research has been focused on evaluation anti - QS properties of four essential oils (EOs) Origanum heracleoticum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgare, and Thymus serpyllum, using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Tests conducted on Luria Bertani agar supplemented with N hexanol DL homoserine lacton (HHL) 10µl/50ml of agar. The anti-QS potential of the EOs was assayed in a range of concentrations of 200 – 0.39 µl/ml using the disc diffusion method. EOs of Th. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were exhibited anti-QS activity indicated by a non- pigmented ring with a dilution-dependent manner. The lowest dilution of EOs T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum in which they exhibited visually detectable inhibition of violacein synthesis was 6.25 µl/ml for both tested EOs. EOs of O. heracleoticum and O. vulgare were displayed different active principles, i.e., antimicrobial activity indicated by the inner clear ring and anti-QS activity indicated by the outer non-pigmented ring, in a concentration-dependent manner. The lowest dilution of EOs of O. heracleoticum and O. vulgare in which exhibited visually detectable inhibition of violacein synthesis was 1.56 and 3.25 µl/ml, respectively. Considering that, the main constituents of the tested EOs represented by monoterpenes (carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene), anti - QS properties of tested EOs can be mainly attributed to their activity. In particular, from the scientific literature, carvacrol and thymol show a sub-inhibitory effect against foodborne pathogens. Previous studies indicated that sub-lethal concentrations of carvacrol reduced the mobility of bacteria due to the ability of interference using QS mechanism between the bacterial cells, and thereby reducing the ability of biofilm formation The precise mechanism by which carvacrol inhibits biofilm formation is still not fully understood. Our results indicated that EOs displayed different active principles, i.e., antimicrobial activity indicated by the inner clear ring and anti-QS activity indicated by an outer non- pigmented ring with visually detectable inhibition of violacein. Preliminary results suggest that EOs represent a promising alternative for effective control of the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens.

Keywords: anti-quorum sensing activity, Chromobacterium violaceum, essential oils, violacein

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
431 Antibacterial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Potential Multidrug - Resistant Pathogens Isolated from Rabbit

Authors: Checkfaith I. Aizebeoje, Temitope O. Lawal, Bolanle A. Adeniyi

Abstract:

The overuse and abuse of antibiotics in treating zoonotic infections in humans and opportunistic infections in rabbit has contributed to the increase in antimicrobial drug resistance, therefore, an alternative to antibiotics is needed in treating these infections. The study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from rabbit’s faeces against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens isolated from the same rabbit. Twelve faecal samples and twelve swabs from fur samples were randomly collected aseptically from apparently healthy rabbits from Ajibode, Ibadan and University of Ibadan research farm in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Lactic acid bacteria and multidrug-resistant pathogens were isolated using appropriate agar media and identified by partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria and LAB were determined by the agar diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of the LAB against the test pathogens was determined using the agar overlay and agar diffusion methods. The pathogens Myroides gitamensis, Citrobacter rodentium, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter oryzendophyticus and Serratia marcescens as well as twenty-eight (28) species of LAB belonging to Acetobacter and Lactobacillus genera were identified and characterized. Lactobacillus plantarum had the highest (60.71%) occurrence of the LAB. Viable cells and cell free supernatant (CFS) of isolated LAB inhibited the growth of the test organisms with the largest zone of inhibition (40 mm) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum against Citrobacter rodentium. This study showed that LAB from rabbit possess considerable antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria from the same environment.

Keywords: antibacterial activities, cell-free supernatant, lactic acid bacteria; multidrug-resistant pathogens, rabbits’ faeces

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
430 Development and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash Including Methanolic Extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliqua

Authors: Reenu Yadav, S. K. Yadav

Abstract:

Herbal therapy has been used for daily oral health care to prevent, treat or cure oral conditions from halitosis to periodontal diseases. The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. In the present study, leaves and seeds of Cordia obliqua and barks and twigs of Beautea monosperma, which is used traditionally for oral diseases was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity tests indicated that the methanolic extract exhibited stronger activities against the commonly encountered oral bacterial and fungal pathogens. The mouthwash formulation prepared and it is compared with marketed formulation HiOra. The results indicated that the herbal mouthwash could inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and may prevent plaque and other periodontal diseases caused by dental pathogens.

Keywords: herbal mouthwash, bio medicine, life sciences, herbal extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
429 Ultra-Rapid and Efficient Immunomagnetic Separation of Listeria Monocytogenes from Complex Samples in High-Gradient Magnetic Field Using Disposable Magnetic Microfluidic Device

Authors: L. Malic, X. Zhang, D. Brassard, L. Clime, J. Daoud, C. Luebbert, V. Barrere, A. Boutin, S. Bidawid, N. Corneau, J. Farber, T. Veres

Abstract:

The incidence of infections caused by foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) poses a great potential threat to public health and safety. These issues are further exacerbated by legal repercussions due to “zero tolerance” food safety standards adopted in developed countries. Unfortunately, a large number of related disease outbreaks are caused by pathogens present in extremely low counts currently undetectable by available techniques. The development of highly sensitive and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens is therefore crucial, and requires robust and efficient pre-analytical sample preparation. Immunomagnetic separation is a popular approach to sample preparation. Microfluidic chips combined with external magnets have emerged as viable high throughput methods. However, external magnets alone are not suitable for the capture of nanoparticles, as very strong magnetic fields are required. Devices that incorporate externally applied magnetic field and microstructures of a soft magnetic material have thus been used for local field amplification. Unfortunately, very complex and costly fabrication processes used for integration of soft magnetic materials in the reported proof-of-concept devices would prohibit their use as disposable tools for food and water safety or diagnostic applications. We present a sample preparation magnetic microfluidic device implemented in low-cost thermoplastic polymers using fabrication techniques suitable for mass-production. The developed magnetic capture chip (M-chip) was employed for rapid capture and release of L. monocytogenes conjugated to immunomagnetic nanoparticles (IMNs) in buffer and beef filtrate. The M-chip relies on a dense array of Nickel-coated high-aspect ratio pillars for capture with controlled magnetic field distribution and a microfluidic channel network for sample delivery, waste, wash and recovery. The developed Nickel-coating process and passivation allows generation of switchable local perturbations within the uniform magnetic field generated with a pair of permanent magnets placed at the opposite edges of the chip. This leads to strong and reversible trapping force, wherein high local magnetic field gradients allow efficient capture of IMNs conjugated to L. monocytogenes flowing through the microfluidic chamber. The experimental optimization of the M-chip was performed using commercially available magnetic microparticles and fabricated silica-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were optimized to achieve the desired magnetic moment and surface functionalization was tailored to allow efficient capture antibody immobilization. The integration, validation and further optimization of the capture and release protocol is demonstrated using both, dead and live L. monocytogenes through fluorescence microscopy and plate- culture method. The capture efficiency of the chip was found to vary as function of listeria to nanoparticle concentration ratio. The maximum capture efficiency of 30% was obtained and the 24-hour plate-culture method allowed the detection of initial sample concentration of only 16 cfu/ml. The device was also very efficient in concentrating the sample from a 10 ml initial volume. Specifically, 280% concentration efficiency was achieved in 17 minutes only, demonstrating the suitability of the system for food safety applications. In addition, flexible design and low-cost fabrication process will allow rapid sample preparation for applications beyond food and water safety, including point-of-care diagnosis.

Keywords: array of pillars, bacteria isolation, immunomagnetic sample preparation, polymer microfluidic device

Procedia PDF Downloads 211