Search results for: soil amendment
2760 Effects of Soil Organic Amendment Types and Rates on Growth and Yield of Amaranthus cruentus, Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria
Authors: S. Yussuf Abdulmaliq
Abstract:Experiment was conducted for two years (2013 and 2014) at Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Teaching and Research Farm to study the effects of soil organic amendment types and rates on soil chemical fertility improvement, growth and yield of Amarathus cruentus in the southern guinea savannah, lapai, Niger state, Nigeria. Soil and manure samples were collected and analysed for physical and chemical components. The experiments were laid out in 3 x 4 factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Consisting of three (3) levels of soil amendment types (Poultry manure, goat manure and cowdung) and four (4) levels of amendment rates (0, 6, 12 and 18 t ha-1). Data collected include plant height/plant (cm), number of leaves/plant, leaf area/ plant (cm2) at 2, 4, 6 and 8WAT, fresh vegetable yield/plant, fresh vegetable yield/plot and fresh vegetable yield in tons ha-1. The result obtained showed that, Amaranthus cruentus height, number of leaves and leaf area were not significantly affected by the type of organic amendment and rates at 2WAT in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. However, at 4, 6 and 8 WAT, significant differences were observed among the types of amendment and their rates. Application of poultry manure as soil amendment supported taller, large number of leaves and wider leaf area, and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05) which was closely followed by goat manure in the two (2) cropping seasons. In addition, the application of 18 t ha-1 was superior to 12, 6 and the control by producing tallest amaranthus plants, higher number of leaves, wider leaf area and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05). In conclusion, the use of 18 t ha-1poultry manure is therefore recommended as soil amendment for Amaranthus cruentus in southern guinea savannah of Nigeria.
Keywords: Amaranthus cruentus, cowdung, goat manure, poultry manure, soil amendmentProcedia PDF Downloads 298
2759 The Effects of Some Organic Amendments on Sediment Yield, Splash Loss, and Runoff of Soils of Selected Parent Materials in Southeastern Nigeria
Authors: Leonard Chimaobi Agim, Charles Arinzechukwu Igwe, Emmanuel Uzoma Onweremadu, Gabreil Osuji
Abstract:Soil erosion has been linked to stream sedimentation, ecosystem degradation, and loss of soil nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of some organic amendment on sediment yield, splash loss, and runoff of soils of selected parent materials in southeastern Nigeria. A total of 20 locations, five from each of four parent materials namely: Asu River Group (ARG), Bende Ameki Group (BAG), Coastal Plain Sand (CPS) and Falsebedded Sandstone (FBS) were used for the study. Collected soil samples were analyzed with standard methods for the initial soil properties. Rainfall simulation at an intensity of 190 mm hr-1was conducted for 30 minutes on the soil samples at both the initial stage and after amendment to obtain erosion parameters. The influence of parent material on sediment yield, splash loss and runoff based on rainfall simulation was tested for using one way analyses of variance, while the influence of organic material and their combinations were a factorially fitted in a randomized complete block design. The organic amendments include; goat dropping (GD), poultry dropping (PD), municipal solid waste (MSW) and their combinations (COA) applied at four rates of 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 respectively. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance suitable for a factorial experiment. Significant means were separated using LSD at 5 % probability levels. Result showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) lower values of sediment yield, splash loss and runoff following amendment. For instance, organic amendment reduced sediment yield under wet and dry runs by 12.91 % and 26.16% in Ishiagu, 40.76% and 45.67%, in Bende, 16.17% and 50% in Obinze and 22.80% and 42.35% in Umulolo respectively. Goat dropping and combination of amendment gave the best results in reducing sediment yield.
Keywords: organic amendment, parent material, rainfall simulation, soil erosionProcedia PDF Downloads 284
2758 Photodegradation of Profoxydim Herbicide in Amended Paddy Soil-Water System
Authors: A. Cervantes-Diaz, B. Sevilla-Moran, Manuel Alcami, Al Mokhtar Lamsabhi, J. L. Alonso-Prados, P. Sandin-España
Abstract:Profoxydim is a post-emergence herbicide belonging to the cyclohexanedione oxime family, used to control weeds in rice crops. The use of soil organic amendments has increased significantly in the last decades, and their effects on the behavior of many herbicides are still unknown. Additionally, it is known that photolysis is an important degradation process to be considered when evaluating the persistence of this family of herbicides in the environment. In this work, the photodegradation of profoxydim in an amended paddy soil-water system with alperujo compost was studied. Photodegradation experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using simulated solar light (Suntest equipment) in order to evaluate the reaction kinetics of the active substance. The photochemical behavior of profoxydim was investigated in soil with and without alperujo amendment. Furthermore, due to the rice crop characteristics, profoxydim photodegradation in water in contact with these types of soils was also studied. Determination of profoxydim degradation kinetics was performed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). Furthermore, we followed the evolution of resulting transformation by-products, and their tentative identification was achieved by mass spectrometry. All the experiments allowed us to fit the data of profoxydim photodegradation to a first-order kinetic. Photodegradation of profoxydim was very rapid in all cases. The half-lives in aqueous matrices were in the range of 86±0.3 to 103±0.5 min. The addition of alperujo amendment to the soil produced an increase in the half-life from 62±0.2 min (soil) to 75±0.3 min (amended soil). In addition, a comparison to other organic amendments was also performed. Results showed that the presence of the organic amendment retarded the photodegradation in paddy soil and water. Regarding degradation products, the main process involved was the cleavage of the oxime moiety giving rise to the formation of the corresponding imine compound.
Keywords: by-products, herbicide, organic amendment, photodegradation, profoxydimProcedia PDF Downloads 16
2757 Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment
Authors: C. Chaiyaraksa, T. Khamko
Abstract:This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.
Keywords: heavy metals, limestone, sepiolite, soil, soybeanProcedia PDF Downloads 69
2756 Influence of Environment-Friendly Organic Wastes on the Properties of Sandy Soil under Growing Zea mays L. in Arid Regions
Authors: Mohamed Rashad, Mohamed Hafez, Mohamed Emran, Emad Aboukila, Ibrahim Nassar
Abstract:Environment-friendly organic wastes of Brewers' spent grain, a byproduct of the brewing process, have recently used as soil amendment to improve soil fertility and plant production. In this work, treatments of 1% (T1) and 2% (T2) of spent grains, 1% (C1) and 2% (C2) of compost and mix of both sources (C1T1) were used and compared to the control for growing Zea mays L. on sandy soil under arid Mediterranean climate. Soils were previously incubated at 65% saturation capacity for a month. The most relevant soil physical and chemical parameters were analysed. Water holding capacity and soil organic matter (OM) increased significantly along the treatments with the highest values in T2. Soil pH decreased along the treatments and the lowest pH was in C1T1. Bicarbonate decreased by 69% in C1T1 comparing to control. Total nitrogen (TN) and available P varied significantly among all treatments and T2, C1T1 and C2 treatments increased 25, 17 and 11 folds in TN and 1.2, 0.6 and 0.3 folds in P, respectively related to control. Available K showed the highest values in C1T1. Soil micronutrients increased significantly along all treatments with the highest values in T2. After corn germination, significant variation was observed in the velocity of germination coefficients (VGC) among all treatments in the order of C1T1>T2>T1>C2>C1>control. The highest records of final germination and germination index were in C1T1 and T2. The spent grains may compensate deficiencies of macro and micronutrients in newly reclaimed sandy soils without adverse effects to sustain crop production with a rider that excessive or continuous use need to be circumvented.
Keywords: corn and squash germination, environmentally friendly organic wastes, soil carbon sequestration, spent grains as soil amendment, water holding capacityProcedia PDF Downloads 426
2755 Effects of Palm Waste Ash Residues on Acidic Soil in Relation to Physiological Responses of Habanero Chili Pepper (Capsicum chinense jacq.)
Authors: Kalu Samuel Ukanwa, Kumar Patchigolla, Ruben Sakrabani
Abstract:The use of biosolids from thermal conversion of palm waste for soil fertility enhancement was tested in acidic soil of Southern Nigeria for the growing of Habanero chili pepper (Capsicum chinense jacq.). Soil samples from the two sites, showed pH 4.8 and 4.8 for site A and B respectively, below 5.6-6.8 optimum range and other fertility parameters indicating a low threshold for pepper growth. Nursery planting was done at different weeks to determine the optimum planting period. Ash analysis showed that it contains 26% of total K, 20% of total Ca, 0.27% of total P, and pH 11. The two sites were laid for an experiment in randomized complete block design and setup with three replications side by side. Each plot measured 3 x 2 m and a total of 15 plots for each site, four treatments, and one control. Outlined as control, 2, 4, 6 and 8 tonnes/hectare of palm waste ash, the combined average for both sites with correspondent yield after six harvests in one season are; 0, 5.8, 6, 6, 14.5 tonnes/hectare respectively to treatments. Optimum nursery survival rate was high in July; the crop yield was linear to the ash application. Site A had 6% yield higher than site B. Fruit development, weight, and total yield in relation to the control plot showed that palm waste ash is effective for soil amendment, nutrient delivery, and exchange.
Keywords: ash, palm waste, pepper, soil amendmentProcedia PDF Downloads 72
2754 Remediation of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production (O&G E&P) Wastes Using Soil-Poultry Dropping Amendment
Authors: Ofonime U. M. John, Justina I. R. Udotong, Victor O. Nwaugo, Ime R. Udotong
Abstract:Oily wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (O&G E&P) activities were remediated for twelve weeks using Soil-Poultry dropping amendment. Culture-dependent microbiological, chemical and enzymatic techniques were employed to assess the efficacy of remediation process. Microbiological activities of the remediated wastes showed increased hydrocarbonoclastic microbial populations with increased remediation time; 2.7±0.1 x 105cfu/g to 8.3 ± 0.04 x106cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, 1.7 ± 0.2 x103cfu/g to 6.0 ± 0.01 x 104cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing fungi and 2.2 ± 0.1 x 102cfu/g to 6.7 ± 0.1 x 103cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing actinomycetes. Bacteria associated with the remediated wastes after the remediation period included the genera Bacillus, Psuedomonas, Beijerinckia, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes and Serratia. Fungal isolates included species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium, while the Actinomycetes included species of Rhodococcus, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Slight fluctuations in pH values between 6.5± 0.2 and 7.1 ± 0.08 were recorded throughout the process, while total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content decreased from 89, 900 ± 0.03mg/kg to 425 ± 0.1 mg/kg after twelve weeks of remediation. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels decreased with increased remediation time; naphthalene, flourene, pheneanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b)flouranthene showed decreased values < 0.01 after twelve weeks of remediation. Enzyme activities revealed increased dehydrogenase and urease activities with increased remediation time and decreased phenol oxidase activity with increased remediation period. There was a positive linear correlation between densities of hydrocarbonoclastic microbes and dehydrogenase activity. On the contrary, phenol oxidase and urease activities showed negative correlation with microbial population. Results of this study confirmed that remediation of oily wastes using soil-poultry dropping amendment can result in eco-friendly O&G E&P wastes. It also indicates that urease and phenol oxidase activities can be reliable indices/tools to monitor PAH levels and rates of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation.
Keywords: dehydrogenase activity, oily wastes, remediation, soil-poultry dropping amendmentProcedia PDF Downloads 258
2753 Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation: Feasible Alternative to Soil Chemical Fumigants
Authors: P. Serrano-Pérez, M. C. Rodríguez-Molina, C. Palo, E. Palo, A. Lacasa
Abstract:Phytophthora nicotianae is the principal causal agent of root and crown rot disease of red pepper plants in Extremadura (Western Spain). There is a need to develop a biologically-based method of soil disinfestation that facilitates profitable and sustainable production without the use of chemical fumigants. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD), as well know as biodisinfestation, has been shown to control a wide range of soil-borne pathogens and nematodes in numerous crop production systems. This method implies soil wetting, incorporation of a easily decomposable carbon-rich organic amendment and covering with plastic film for several weeks. ASD with rapeseed cake (var. Tocatta, a glucosinolates-free variety) used as C-source was assayed in spring 2014, before the pepper crop establishment. The field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Centre Finca La Orden (Southwestern Spain) and the treatments were: rapeseed cake (RCP); rapeseed cake without plastic cover (RC); control non-amendment (CP) and control non-amendment without plastic cover (C). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replicates and a plot size of 5 x 5 m. On 26 March, rapeseed cake (1 kg·m-2) was incorporated into the soil with a rotovator. Biological probes with the inoculum were buried at 15 and 30-cm depth (biological probes were previously prepared with 100 g of disinfected soil inoculated with chlamydospores (chlam) of P. nicotianae P13 isolate [100 chlam·g-1 of soil] and wrapped in agryl cloth). Sprinkler irrigation was run until field capacity and the corresponding plots were covered with transparent plastic (PE 0.05 mm). On 6 May plastics were removed, the biological probes were dug out and a bioassay was established. One pepper seedling at the 2 to 4 true-leaves stage was transplanted in the soil from each biological probe. Plants were grown in a climatic chamber and disease symptoms were recorded every week during 2 months. Fragments of roots and crown of symptomatic plants were analyzed on NARPH media and soil from rizospheres was analyzed using carnation petals as baits. Results of “survival” were expressed as the percentage of soil samples where P. nicotianae was detected and results of “infectivity” were expressed as the percentage of diseased plants. No differences were detected in deep effect. Infectivity of P. nicotianae chlamydospores was successfully reduced in RCP treatment (4.2% of infectivity) compared with the controls (41.7% of infectivity). The pattern of survival was similar to infectivity observed by the bioassay: 21% of survival in RCP; 79% in CP; 83% in C and 87% in RC. Although ASD may be an effective alternative to chemical fumigants to pest management, more research is necessary to show their impact on the microbial community and chemistry of the soil.
Keywords: biodisinfestation, BSD, soil fumigant alternatives, organic amendmentsProcedia PDF Downloads 156
2752 Biochar Assisted Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Recycling
Authors: A. Pokharel, A. Farooque, B. Acharya
Abstract:Pyrolysis can be used for energy production from waste biomass of agriculture and forestry. Biochar is the solid byproduct of pyrolysis and its cascading use can offset the cost of the process. A wide variety of research on biochar has highlighted its ability to absorb nutrients, metal and complex compounds; filter suspended solids; enhance microorganisms’ growth; retain water and nutrients as well as to increase carbon content of soil. In addition, sustainable biochar systems are an attractive approach for carbon sequestration and total waste management cycle. Commercially available biochar from Sigma Aldrich was studied for adsorption of nitrogen from effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. Adsorption isotherm and breakthrough curve were determined for the biochar. Similarly, biochar’s effects in aerobic as well as anaerobic bioreactors were also studied. In both cases, the biomass was increased in presence of biochar. The amount of gas produced for anaerobic digestion of fruit mix (apple and banana) was similar but the rate of production was significantly faster in biochar fed reactors. The cumulative goal of the study is to use biochar in various wastewater treatment units like aeration tank, secondary clarifier and tertiary nutrient recovery system as well as in anaerobic digestion of the sludge to optimize utilization and add value before being used as a soil amendment.
Keywords: biochar, nutrient recyling, wastewater treatment, soil amendmentProcedia PDF Downloads 76
2751 Effect of Poultry Manure and Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (15:15:15) Soil Amendment on Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota)
Authors: Benjamin Osae Agyei, Hypolite Bayor
Abstract:This present experiment was carried out during the 2012 cropping season, at the Farming for the Future Experimental Field of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala Campus in the Northern Region of Ghana. The objective of the experiment was to determine the carrot growth and yield responses to poultry manure and N.P.K (15:15:15). Six treatments (Control (no amendment), 20 t/ha poultry manure (PM), 40 t/ha PM, 70 t/ha PM, 35 t/ha PM + 0.11t/ha N.P.K and 0.23 t/ha N.P.K) with three replications for each were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves per plant, canopy spread, root diameter, root weight, and root length. Microsoft Excel and Genstat Statistical Package (9th edition) were used for the data analysis. The treatment means were compared by using Least Significant Difference at 10%. Generally, the results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.1) among the treatments with respect to number of leaves per plant, root diameter, root weight, and root length. However, significant differences occurred among plant heights and canopy spreads. Plant height treated with 40 t/ha PM at the fourth week after planting and canopy spread at eight weeks after planting and ten weeks after planting by 70 t/ha PM and 20 t/ha PM respectively showed significant difference (P<0.1). The study recommended that any of the amended treatments can be applied at their recommended rates to plots for carrot production, since there were no significant differences among the treatments.
Keywords: poultry manure, N.P.K., soil amendment, growth, yield, carrotProcedia PDF Downloads 403
2750 Effects of Application of Rice Husk Charcoal-Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Growth, Yield, and Properties of Lowland Rice
Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, B. F. A. Basnayake, W.A.J.M. De Costa
Abstract:Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. The application of inorganic fertilizer has become a burden to the country. The excessive application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can potentially lead to deterioration of the quality of water. In mixing both urea and rice husk charcoal and rice straw compost in soils causes a slow release of nitrogen fertilizer, thus reducing the cost of importations of nitrogen based fertilizers per unit area of cultivation. Objective of this study was to evaluate rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer and compare the total N,P, K, organic matter in soil and yield of rice production. Five treatments were used for twenty pots (pot size 30 cm diameter and 45 cm height) each replicated four times as: inorganic fertilizer only (Urea, TSP and MOP) (Treatment 1); rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP (Treatment 2); inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP and MOP) with rice straw compost only (Treatment 3); rice husk charcoal urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost (Treatment 4); and no fertilizer as the control (Treatment 5). Rice grain yield was significantly higher in treatment 4 where rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost. The lowest yield was observed in control (treatment 5). The lower the value of the nitrogen to phosphorous ratio in soil, it indicates higher uptake of phosphorous. Charcoal can be used as a soil amendment and organic fertilizer, but adjustment of pH was required at high application rates. K content of soil of treatment 3 and 4 were the highest with compared to the treatment 1. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer.
Keywords: charcoal, rice husk, nitrogen to phosphorous ratio, soil amendmentProcedia PDF Downloads 235
2749 The Road to Abolition of Death Penalty in China: With the Perspective of the Ninth Amendment
Authors: Huang Gui
Abstract:This paper supplies some possible approaches of the death penalty reform in China basic on the analyzing the reformation conducted by the Ninth Amendment. There now are 46 crimes punishable by death, and this penalty still plays a significant role in the criminal punishment structure. In order to abolish entirely the death penalty in Penal Code, the legislature of China should gradually abolish the death penalty for the nonviolent crimes and then for the nonlethal violent crimes and finally for the lethal violent crimes. In the case where the death penalty has not yet been abolished completely, increasing the applicable conditions of suspension of execution of death penalty and reducing the scope of applicable objects (elderly defendant and other kinds of special objects) of death penalty would be an effective road to control and limit the use of death penalty in judicial practice.
Keywords: death penalty, the eighth amendment, the ninth amendment, suspension of execution of death, immediate execution of death, ChinaProcedia PDF Downloads 388
2748 Physical and Chemical Properties during Home Composting of Municipal Organic Solid Waste in Jordan and Production of Organic Fertilizer
Authors: Munir Rusan
Abstract:Municipal waste management (MWM) represents a cornerstone in the effort to preserve the environment, which guarantees a healthy living environment for communities. MWM is directly affected by population growth and population density, urbanization, and tourism. In Jordan, MWM is currently managed by transferring and dumping waste into landfills. Landfills are mostly saturated and cannot receive any more waste. Besides, the organic waste, which accounts for 50% of municipal waste, will be naturally fermented in the landfills creating an unpleasant odor and emits greenhouse gases as well as generate organic leachates that are harmful to the environment. Organic waste can be aerobically composted and generate organic fertilizer called compost. Compost is very beneficial to soil and plant growth and, in general, to the ecosystem. Home composting is very common in most developed countries, but unfortunately, in developing countries such as Jordan, such an approach is not practiced and is not even socially well acceptable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of home composting materials and to produce compost for further use as a soil amendment. The effect of compost soil application on the soil-plant system was evaluated. The soil application of the compost resulted in enhancing soil organic matter and soil N, P, and K content. The plant growth was also improved quantitatively and qualitatively. It was concluded that composting of municipal organic solid waste and soil application of the compost has a significant positive impact on the environment and soil-plant productivity.
Keywords: composting, organic solid waste, soil, plantProcedia PDF Downloads 10
2747 The Problems with the Amendment of a Living Trust in South Africa
Authors: Rika van Zyl
Abstract:It was ruled that an inter vivos trust must be amended according to the rules of the stipulatio alteri, or ‘contract in favour of a third party’, that South African adopted from its Roman-Dutch common law. The application of the principles of the stipulatio alteri on the inter vivos trust has developed in case law to imply that once the beneficiary has accepted benefits, he becomes a party to the contract. This consequently means that he must consent to any amendments that the trustees want to make. This poses practical difficulties such as finding all the beneficiaries that have accepted to sign the amendment that the trustees would want to circumvent in administering the trust. One of the questions relating to this issue is, however, whether the principles of the stipulatio alteri are correctly interpreted and consequently applied to the inter vivos trust to mean that the beneficiaries who accepted must consent to any amendment. The subsequent question relates to the rights the beneficiary receives upon acceptance. There seems to be a different view of what a vested right or a contingent right of the beneficiary means in relation to the inter vivos trust. These rights also have an impact on the amendment of a trust deed. Such an investigation and refining of the interpretation of the stipulatio alteri’s application on the inter vivos trust may result in solutions to circumvent the adverse effects of getting the beneficiary’s consent for amendments.
Keywords: inter vivos trust, stipulatio alteri, amendment, beneficiary rightsProcedia PDF Downloads 95
2746 The Preliminary Exposition of Soil Biological Activity, Microbial Diversity and Morpho-Physiological Indexes of Cucumber under Interactive Effect of Allelopathic Garlic Stalk: A Short-Term Dynamic Response in Replanted Alkaline Soil
Authors: Ahmad Ali, Muhammad Imran Ghani, Haiyan Ding, Zhihui Cheng, Muhammad Iqbal
Abstract:Background and Aims: In recent years, protected cultivation trend, especially in the northern parts of China, spread dynamically where production area, structure, and crops diversity have expanded gradually under plastic greenhouse vegetable cropping (PGVC) system. Under this growing system, continuous monoculture with excessive synthetic fertilizers inputs are common cultivation practices frequently adopted by commercial producers. Such long-term cumulative wild exercise year after year sponsor the continuous cropping obstacles in PGVC soil, which have greatly threatened the regional soil eco-sustainability and further impose the continuous assault on soil ecological diversity leading to the exhaustion of agriculture productivity. The aim of this study was to develop new allelopathic insights by exploiting available biological resources in the favor of sustainable PGVC to illuminate the continuous obstacle factors in plastic greenhouse. Method: A greenhouse study was executed under plastic tunnel located at the Horticulture Experimental Station of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, one of the prominent regions for intensive commercial PGVC in China. Post-harvest garlic residues (stalk, leaves) mechanically smashed, homogenized into powder size and incorporated at the ratio of 1:100; 3:100; 5:100 as a soil amendment in a replanted soil that have been used for continuous cucumber monoculture for 7 years (annually double cropping system in a greenhouse). Results: Incorporated C-rich garlic stalk significantly influenced the soil condition through various ways; organic matter decomposition and mineralization, moderately adjusted the soil pH, enhanced the soil nutrient availability, increased enzymatic activities, and promoted 20% more cucumber yield in short-time. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rDNA genes, the current study revealed that addition of garlic stalk/residue could also improve the microbial abundance and community composition in extensively exploited soil, and contributed in soil functionality, caused prosper changes in soil characteristics, reinforced to good crop yield. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that addition of garlic stalk as soil fertility amendment is a feasible, cost-effective and efficient resource utilization way for renovation of degraded soil health, ameliorate soil quality components and improve ecological environment in short duration. Our study may provide a better scientific understanding for efficient crop residue management typically from allelopathic source.
Keywords: garlic stalk, microbial community dynamics, plant growth, soil amendment, soil-plant systemProcedia PDF Downloads 68
2745 Biochar-induced Metals Immobilization in the Soil as Affected by Citric Acid
Authors: Md. Shoffikul Islam, Hongqing Hu
Abstract:Reducing trace elements' mobility and bioavailability through amendment addition, especially biochar (BC), is a cost-effective and efficient method to address their toxicity in the soil environment. However, the low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in the rhizosphere could affect BC's efficiency to stabilize trace metals as the LMWOAs could either mobilize or fix metals in the soils. Therefore, understanding the BC's and LMWOAs' interaction mechanisms on metals stabilization in the rhizosphere is crucial. The present study explored the impact of BC derived from rice husk and citric acid (CA) and the combination of BC and CA on the redistribution of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) among their geochemical forms through incubation experiment. The changes of zeta potential and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of BC and BC-amended soils to investigate the probable mechanisms of trace elements' immobilization by BC under the CA attack were also examined. The rice husk BC at 5% (w/w) was mixed with the air-dry soil (an Anthrosols) contaminated with Cd, Pb, and Zn in the plastic pot. The 2, 5, 10, and 20 mM kg-1 (w/v) of CA were added separately into the pot. All the ingredients were mixed thoroughly with the soil. A control (CK) treatment was also prepared without BC and CA addition. After 7, 15, and 60 days of incubation with 60% (w/v) moisture level at 25 °C, the incubated soils were determined for pH and EC and were sequentially extracted to assess the metals' transformation in soil. The electronegative charges and XRD peaks of BC and BC-amended soils were also measured. Compared to CK, the application of BC, low level of CA (2 mM kg-1 soil) (CA2), and BC plus the low concentration of CA (BC-CA2) considerably declined the acid-soluble Cd, Pb, and Zn in which BC-CA2 was found to be the most effective treatment. The reversed trends were observed concerning the high levels of CA (>5-20 mM kg-1 soil) and the BC plus high concentrations of CA treatments. BC-CA2 changed the highest amounts of acid-soluble and reducible metals to the oxidizable and residual forms with time. The most increased electronegative charges of BC-CA2 indicate its (BC-CA2) highest Cd, Pb, and Zn immobilizing efficiency, probably through metals adsorption and fixation with the negative charge sites. The XRD study revealed the presence of P, O, CO32-, and Cl1- in BC, which might be responsible for the precipitation of CdCO3, pyromorphite, and hopeite in the case of Cd, Pb, and Zn immobilization, respectively. The findings depicted that the low concentration of CA increased metals' stabilization, whereas the high levels of CA enhanced their mobilization. The BC-CA2 emerged as the best amendment among treatments for metals stabilization in contaminated soils.
Keywords: Biochar, citric acid, immobilization, trace elements contaminated soilProcedia PDF Downloads 24
2744 Application of Recycled Paper Mill Sludge on the Growth of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Effect on Soil Properties, Nutrients and Heavy Metals
Authors: A. Rosazlin Abdullah, I. Che Fauziah, K. Wan Rasidah, A. B. Rosenani
Abstract:The paper industry performs an essential role in the global economy of the world. A study was conducted on the paper mill sludge that is applied on the Khaya senegalensis for 1 year planning period at University Agriculture Park, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia to determine the growth of Khaya senegalensis, soil properties, nutrients concentrations and effects on the status of heavy metals. Paper Mill Sludge (PMS) and composted Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) were used with different rates of nitrogen (0, 150, 300 and 600 kg ha-1) at the ratio of 1:1 (Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) : Empty Fruit Brunch (EFB). The growth parameters were measured twice a month for 1 year. Plant nutrients and heavy metal uptake were determined. The paper mill sludge has the potential to be a supplementary N fertilizer as well as a soil amendment. The application of RPMS with N, significantly contributed to the improvement in plant growth parameters such as plant height (4.24 m), basal diameter (10.30 cm), total plant biomass and improved soil physical and chemical properties. The pH, EC, available P and total C in soil were varied among the treatments during the planting period. The treatments with raw and RPM compost had higher pH values than those applied with inorganic fertilizer and control. Nevertheless, there was no salinity problem recorded during the planting period and available P in soil treated with raw and RPMS compost was higher than the control plots that reflects the mineralization of organic P from the decomposition of pulp sludge. The weight of the free and occluded light fractions of carbon concentration was significantly higher in the soils treated with raw and RPMS compost. The application of raw and composted RPMS gave significantly higher concentration of the heavy metals, but the total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were below the critical values. Hence, the paper mill sludge can be successfully used as soil amendment in acidic soil without any serious threat. The use of paper mill sludge for the soil fertility, shows improvement in land application signifies a unique opportunity to recycle sludge back to the land to alleviate the potential waste management problem.
Keywords: growth, heavy metals, nutrients uptake, production, waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 315
2743 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil
Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu
Abstract:A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.
Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilizationProcedia PDF Downloads 297
2742 Effect of PGPB Inoculation, Addition of Biochar and Mineral N Fertilization on Mycorrhizal Colonization
Authors: Irina Mikajlo, Jaroslav Záhora, Helena Dvořáčková, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jakub Elbl
Abstract:Strong anthropogenic impact has uncontrolled consequences on the nature of the soil. Hence, up-to-date sustainable methods of soil state improvement are essential. Investigators provide the evidence that biochar can positively effects physical, chemical and biological soil properties and the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi which are in the focus of this study. The main aim of the present investigation is to demonstrate the effect of two types of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculums along with the beech wood biochar and mineral N additives on mycorrhizal colonization. Experiment has been set up in laboratory conditions with containers filled with arable soil from the protection zone of the main water source ‘Brezova nad Svitavou’. Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been selected as a model plant. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that mycorrhizal colonization increased as the result of combined influence of biochar and PGPB inoculums amendment. In addition, correlation analyses showed that the numbers of main groups of cultivated bacteria were dependent on the degree of mycorrhizal colonization.
Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza, biochar, PGPB inoculum, soil microorganismsProcedia PDF Downloads 173
2741 Combinated Effect of Cadmium and Municipal Solid Waste Compost Addition on Physicochemical and Biochemical Proprieties of Soil and Lolium Perenne Production
Authors: Sonia Mbarki Marian Brestic, Artemio Cerda Naceur Jedidi, Jose Antonnio Pascual Chedly Abdelly
Abstract:Monitoring the effect addition bio-amendment as compost to an agricultural soil for growing plant lolium perenne irrigated with a CdCl2 solution at 50 µM on physicochemical soils characteristics and plant production in laboratory condition. Even microbial activity indexes (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, urease, and dehydrogenase) was determined. Basal respiration was the most affected index, while enzymatic activities and microbial biomass showed a decrease due to the cadmium treatments. We noticed that this clay soil with higher pH showed inhibition of basal respiration. Our results provide evidence for the importance of ameliorating effect compost on plant growth even when soil was added with cadmium solution at 50 µmoml.l-1. Soil heavy metal concentrations depended on heavy metals types, increased substantially with cadmium increase and with compost addition, but the recorded values were below the toxicity limits in soils and plants except for cadmium.
Keywords: compost, enzymatic activity, lolium perenne, bioremediationProcedia PDF Downloads 306
2740 Combating Illegal Logging in Malaysia: Policies and Strategies under National Forestry Act (NFA) 1984
Authors: Muhammad Nur Haniff Mohd Noor, Rokiah Kadir, Suriyani Muhamad
Abstract:The National Forestry Act (NFA) 1984 is the primary forest law that regulates forest-related activities in Peninsular Malaysia. In the 1990s, abundance of illegal logging cases have called for legislative reform of the NFA 1984. As a result, NFA 1984 was amended in 1993 with the principal goal of controlling illegal forest encroachment in the forms of illegal logging, unauthorized harvesting, unlicensed forest settlement and other forms of unlawful activities. At a conceptual level, this paper discusses the policies and strategies implemented under the NFA 1984 (Amendment 1993) that are dedicated to overcome illegal logging. Then, the policies and strategies employed are reviewed and evaluated. Next, this paper conceptually discusses the loopholes of NFA 1984 (Amendment 1993) in relation to aspects where the regulation is considered insufficient to curb illegal logging. In the final section, vital actions and suggested improvements to improve the overall effectiveness of NFA 1984 (Amendment 1993) are examined.
Keywords: forest law and regulation, illegal logging, National Forestry Act 1984, NFA 1984, Amendment 1993, Peninsular MalaysiaProcedia PDF Downloads 198
2739 The Interactions between Phosphorus Leaching and Lime Application in Undisturbed Soil Columns with Different Soil Textures
Authors: Faezeh Eslamian, Zhiming Qi, Michael J. Tate
Abstract:Phosphorus losses from agricultural fields through leaching is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of lakes in Quebec as well as North America. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the application of high calcium hydrated lime as a soil amendment in reducing the subsurface transport of phosphorus to water bodies by studying the interactions between phosphorus leaching and lime application in three common agricultural soil textures (sandy loam, loam and clay loam) in Quebec. For this purpose, 6 intact soil columns of 10 cm diameter and 20 cm deep were taken from each of the three different soil textured agricultural fields. Lime (high calcium hydrated lime) was applied to the top 5 cm of half of the intact soil columns while the rest were left as controls. The columns were leached with artificial rainwater in-consecutively at a rate of 3 mm h-1 over a 90-day period. The total amount of water added was equal to the average total rainfall of the region in fall. The leachate samples were collected daily and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. The results showed that lime was able to significantly reduce dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations in the leachates by 70 and 40 percent in sandy loam and loam soil columns, respectively, while phosphorus concentration in the clay loam soil leachates were increased by 40 percent. The calcium in lime has P-binding capabilities. Soil chemical properties in sandy and loamy soils can affect phosphorus leaching, whereas, transport mechanisms in clay soils with macropores dominate phosphorus leaching behaviors. The presence of preferential pathways and cracks in the clay soil columns has led to a quick transport of phosphorus through the soil and the less contact time with the soil matrix, therefore, causing less opportunity for P sorption and larger P release. Application of lime to agricultural fields can be considered as a promising measure in mitigating phosphorus loss from sandy loam and loam soils.
Keywords: leaching, lime, phosphorus, soil textureProcedia PDF Downloads 88
2738 Acid Soil Amelioration Using Coal Bio-Briquette Ash and Waste Concrete in China
Abstract:The decrease in agricultural production due to soil deterioration has been an urgent task. Soil acidification is a potentially serious land degradation issue and it will have a major impact on agricultural productivity and sustainable farming systems. In China, acid soil is mainly distributed in the southern part, the decrease in agricultural production and heavy metal contamination are serious problems. In addition, not only environmental and health problems due to the exhaust gas such as mainly sulfur dioxide (SO₂) but also the generation of a huge amount of construction and demolition wastes with the accelerating urbanization has emerged as a social problem in China. Therefore, the need for the recycling and reuse of both desulfurization waste and waste concrete is very urgent and necessary. So we have investigated the effectiveness as acid soil amendments of both coal bio-briquette ash and waste concrete. In this paper, acid soil (AS1) in Nanjing (pH=6.0, EC=1.6dSm-1) and acid soil (AS2) in Guangzhou (pH=4.1, EC=0.2dSm-1) were investigated in soil amelioration test. Soil amendments were three coal bio-briquette ashes (BBA1, BBA2 and BBA3), the waste cement fine powders (CFP) ( < 200µm (particle diameter)), waste concrete particles (WCP) ( < 4.75mm ( < 0.6mm, 0.6-1.0mm, 1.0-2.0mm, 2.0-4.75mm)), and six mixtures with two coal bio-briquette ashes (BBA2 and BBA3), CFP, WCP( < 0.6mm) and WCP(2.0-4.75mm). In acid soil amelioration test, the three BBAs, CFP and various WCPs based on exchangeable calcium concentration were added to two acid soils. The application rates were from 0 wt% to 3.5 wt% in AS1 test and from 0 wt% to 6.0 wt% in AS2 test, respectively. Soil chemical properties (pH, EC, exchangeable and soluble ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K)) before and after mixing with soil amendments were measured. In addition, Al toxicity and the balance of salts (CaO, K₂O, MgO) in soil after amelioration was evaluated. The order of pH and exchangeable Ca concentration that is effective for acid soil amelioration was WCP(0.6mm) > CFP > WCP(2.0-4.25mm) > BB1 > BB2 > BB3. In all AS 1 and AS 2 amelioration tests using three BBAs, the pH and EC increased slightly with the increase of application rate and reached to the appropriate value range of both pH and EC in BBA1 only. Because BBA1 was higher value in pH and exchangeable Ca. After that, soil pH and EC with the increase in the application rate of BBA2, BBA3 and by using CFP, WC( < 0.6mm), WC(2.0-4.75mm) as soil amendment reached to each appropriate value range, respectively. In addition, the mixture amendments with BBA2, BBA3 CFP, WC( < 0.6mm), and WC(2.0-4.75mm) could ameliorate at a smaller amount of application rate in case of BBA only. And the exchangeable Al concentration decreased drastically with the increase in pH due to soil amelioration and was under the standard value. Lastly, the heavy metal (Cd, As, Se, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mo, B, Cu, Zn) contents in new soil amendments were under control standard values for agricultural use in China. Thus we could propose a new acid soil amelioration method using coal bio-briquette ash and waste concrete in China.
Keywords: acid soil, coal bio-briquette ash, soil amelioration, waste concreteProcedia PDF Downloads 125
2737 Poultry Manure and Its Derived Biochar as a Soil Amendment for Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils under Arid and Semi-Arid Conditions
Authors: W. S. Mohamed, A. A. Hammam
Abstract:Sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are characterized by poor physical and biochemical properties such as low water retention, rapid organic matter decomposition, low nutrients use efficiency, and limited crop productivity. Addition of organic amendments is crucial to develop soil properties and consequently enhance nutrients use efficiency and lessen organic carbon decomposition. Two years field experiments were developed to investigate the feasibility of using poultry manure and its derived biochar integrated with different levels of N fertilizer as a soil amendment for newly reclaimed sandy soils in Western Desert of El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Results of this research revealed that poultry manure and its derived biochar addition induced pronounced effects on soil moisture content at saturation point, field capacity (FC) and consequently available water. Data showed that application of poultry manure (PM) or PM-derived biochar (PMB) in combination with inorganic N levels had caused significant changes on a range of the investigated sandy soil biochemical properties including pH, EC, mineral N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic N (DON) and quotient DOC/DON. Overall, the impact of PMB on soil physical properties was detected to be superior than the impact of PM, regardless the inorganic N levels. In addition, the obtained results showed that PM and PM application had the capacity to stimulate vigorous growth, nutritional status, production levels of wheat and sorghum, and to increase soil organic matter content and N uptake and recovery compared to control. By contrast, comparing between PM and PMB at different levels of inorganic N, the obtained results showed higher relative increases in both grain and straw yields of wheat in plots treated with PM than in those treated with PMB. The interesting feature of this research is that the biochar derived from PM increased treated sandy soil organic carbon (SOC) 1.75 times more than soil treated with PM itself at the end of cropping seasons albeit double-applied amount of PM. This was attributed to the higher carbon stability of biochar treated sandy soils increasing soil persistence for carbon decomposition in comparison with PM labile carbon. It could be concluded that organic manures applied to sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are subjected to high decomposition and mineralization rates through crop seasons. Biochar derived from organic wastes considers as a source of stable carbon and could be very hopeful choice for substituting easily decomposable organic manures under arid conditions. Therefore, sustainable agriculture and productivity in newly reclaimed sandy soils desire one high rate addition of biochar derived from organic manures instead of frequent addition of such organic amendments.
Keywords: biochar, dissolved organic carbon, N-uptake, poultry, sandy soilProcedia PDF Downloads 88
2736 Effects of Organic Amendments on Primary Nutrients (N, P and K) in a Sandy Soil
Authors: Nejib Turki, Karima Kouki Khalfallah
Abstract:The effect of six treatments of organic amendments were evaluated on a sandy soil in the region of Soukra in Tunisia. T1: cattle manure 55 t.ha-1, T2: commercial compost from Germany to 1 t.ha-1, T3: a mixture of 27.5 t.ha-1 of T1 with 0.5 t. ha-1 of T2, T4: commercial compost from France 2 t.ha-1, T5: a Tunisian commercial compost to 10 t.ha-1 and T0: control without treatment. The nitrogen in the soil increase to 0.029 g.kg-1 of soil treatment for the T1 and 0.021 g. kg-1 of soil treatment for the T3. The highest content of P2O5 has been registered by the T3 treatment that 0.44 g kg-1 soil with respect to the control (T0), which shows a content of 0.36 g.kg-1 soil. The soil was initially characterized by a potassium content of 0.8 g kg-1 soil, K2O exchangeable rate varied between 0.63 g.Kg-1 and 0.71 g.kg-1 soil respectively T2 and T1.
Keywords: compost, organic amendement, Ntot, P2O5, K2OProcedia PDF Downloads 549
2735 A Review of Soil Stabilization Techniques
Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman
Abstract:Soil stabilization is a crucial issue that helps to remove of risks associated with the soil failure. As soil has applications in different industries such as construction, pavement and railways, the means of stabilizing soil are varied. This paper will focus on the techniques of stabilizing soils. It will do so by gathering useful information on the state of the art in the field of soil stabilization, investigating both traditional and advanced methods. To inquire into the current knowledge, the existing literature will be divided into categories addressing the different techniques.
Keywords: review, soil, stabilization, techniquesProcedia PDF Downloads 443
2734 Biochar - A Multi-Beneficial and Cost-Effective Amendment to Clay Soil for Stormwater Runoff Treatment
Authors: Mohammad Khalid, Mariya Munir, Jacelyn Rice Boyaue
Abstract:Highways are considered a major source of pollution to storm-water, and its runoff can introduce various contaminants, including nutrients, Indicator bacteria, heavy metals, chloride, and phosphorus compounds, which can have negative impacts on receiving waters. This study assessed the ability of biochar for contaminants removal and to improve the water holding capacity of soil biochar mixture. For this, ten commercially available biochar has been strategically selected. Lab scale batch testing was done at 3% and 6% by the weight of the soil to find the preliminary estimate of contaminants removal along with hydraulic conductivity and water retention capacity. Furthermore, from the above-conducted studies, six best performing candidate and an application rate of 6% has been selected for the column studies. Soil biochar mixture was filled in 7.62 cm assembled columns up to a fixed height of 76.2 cm based on hydraulic conductivity. A total of eight column experiments have been conducted for nutrient, heavy metal, and indicator bacteria analysis over a period of one year, which includes a drying as well as a deicing period. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was greatly improved, which is attributed to the high porosity of the biochar soil mixture. Initial data from the column testing shows that biochar may have the ability to significantly remove nutrients, indicator bacteria, and heavy metals. The overall study demonstrates that biochar could be efficiently applied with clay soil to improve the soil's hydraulic characteristics as well as remove the pollutants from the stormwater runoff.
Keywords: biochar, nutrients, indicator bacteria, storm-water treatment, sustainabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 57
2733 Impact of Long Term Application of Municipal Solid Waste on Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters and Heavy Metal Distribution in Soils in Accordance to Its Agricultural Uses
Authors: Rinku Dhanker, Suman Chaudhary, Tanvi Bhatia, Sneh Goyal
Abstract:Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), being a rich source of organic materials, can be used for agricultural applications as an important source of nutrients for soil and plants. This is also an alternative beneficial management practice for MSW generated in developing countries. In the present study, MSW treated soil samples from last four to six years at farmer’s field in Rohtak and Gurgaon states (Haryana, India) were collected. The samples were analyzed for all-important agricultural parameters and compared with the control untreated soil samples. The treated soil at farmer’s field showed increase in total N by 48 to 68%, P by 45.7 to 51.3%, and K by 60 to 67% compared to untreated soil samples. Application of sewage sludge at different sites led to increase in microbial biomass C by 60 to 68% compared to untreated soil. There was significant increase in total Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn in all sewage sludge amended soil samples; however, concentration of all the metals were still below the current permitted (EU) limits. To study the adverse effect of heavy metals accumulation on various soil microbial activities, the sewage sludge samples (from wastewater treatment plant at Gurgaon) were artificially contaminated with heavy metal concentration above the EU limits. They were then applied to soil samples with different rates (0.5 to 4.0%) and incubated for 90 days under laboratory conditions. The samples were drawn at different intervals and analyzed for various parameters like pH, EC, total N, P, K, microbial biomass C, carbon mineralization, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) exactable heavy metals. The results were compared to the uncontaminated sewage sludge. The increasing level of sewage sludge from 0.5 to 4% led to build of organic C and total N, P and K content at the early stages of incubation. But, organic C was decreased after 90 days because of decomposition of organic matter. Biomass production was significantly increased in both contaminated and uncontaminated sewage soil samples, but also led to slight increases in metal accumulation and their bioavailability in soil. The maximum metal concentrations were found in treatment with 4% of contaminated sewage sludge amendment.
Keywords: heavy metal, municipal sewage sludge, sustainable agriculture, soil fertility and qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 183
2732 Effects of an Added Foaming Agent on Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Soil
Authors: Moez Selmi, Mariem Kacem, Mehrez Jamei, Philippe Dubujet
Abstract:Earth pressure balance (EPB) tunnel boring machines are designed for digging in different types of soil, especially clay soils. This operation requires the treatment of soil by lubricants to facilitate the procedure of excavation. A possible use of this soil is limited by the effect of treatment on the hydro-mechanical properties of the soil. This work aims to study the effect of a foaming agent on the hydro-mechanical properties of clay soil. The injection of the foam agent in the soil leads to create a soil matrix in which they are incorporated gas bubbles. The state of the foam in the soil is scalable thanks to the degradation of the gas bubbles in the soil.
Keywords: EPB, clay soils, foam agent, hydro-mechanical properties, degradationProcedia PDF Downloads 286
2731 Sludge and Compost Amendments in Tropical Soils: Impact on Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Nutrient Content
Authors: M. López-Moreno, L. Lugo Avilés, F. Román, J. Lugo Rosas, J. Hernández-Viezcas Jr., Peralta-Videa, J. Gardea-Torresdey
Abstract:Degradation of agricultural soils has increased rapidly during the last 20 years due to the indiscriminate use of pesticides and other anthropogenic activities. Currently, there is an urgent need of soil restoration to increase agricultural production. Utilization of sewage sludge or municipal solid waste is an important way to recycle nutrient elements and improve soil quality. With these amendments, nutrient availability in the aqueous phase might be increased and production of healthier crops can be accomplished. This research project aimed to achieve sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils, specifically in Puerto Rico, through the amendment of water treatment plant sludge’s. This practice avoids landfill disposal of sewage sludge and at the same time results cost-effective practice for recycling solid waste residues. Coriander sativum was cultivated in a compost-soil-sludge mixture at different proportions. Results showed that Coriander grown in a mixture of 25% compost+50% Voladora soi+25% sludge had the best growth and development. High chlorophyll content (33.01 ± 0.8) was observed in Coriander plants cultivated in 25% compost+62.5% Coloso soil+ 12.5% sludge compared to plants grown with no sludge (32.59 ± 0.7). ICP-OES analysis showed variations in mineral element contents (macro and micronutrients) in coriander plant grown I soil amended with sludge and compost.
Keywords: compost, Coriandrum sativum, nutrients, waste sludgeProcedia PDF Downloads 336