Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: bipolar IC

84 Bipolar Reduction and Lithic Miniaturization: Experimental Results and Archaeological Implications

Authors: Justin Pargeter, Metin Eren

Abstract:

Lithic miniaturization, the systematic production and use of small tools from small cores, was a consequential development in Pleistocene lithic technology. The bipolar reduction is an important, but often overlooked and misidentified, strategy for lithic miniaturization. This experiment addresses the role of axial bipolar reduction in processes of lithic miniaturization. The experiments answer two questions: what benefits does axial bipolar reduction provide, and can we distinguish axial bipolar reduction from freehand reduction? Our experiments demonstrate the numerous advantages of bipolar reduction in contexts of lithic miniaturization. Bipolar reduction produces more cutting edge per gram and is more economical than freehand reduction. Our cutting edge to mass values exceeds even those obtained with pressure blade production on high-quality obsidian. The experimental results show that bipolar reduction produces cutting edge quicker and is more efficient than freehand reduction. We show that bipolar reduction can be distinguished from freehand reduction with a high degree of confidence using the quantitative criteria in these experiments. These observations overturn long-held perceptions about bipolar reduction. We conclude by discussing the role of bipolar reduction in lithic miniaturization and Stone Age economics more broadly.

Keywords: lithic miniaturization, bipolar reduction, late Pleistocene, Southern Africa

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83 The Effect of Dissociation in Bipolar Disorder: An EEG Power Analysis

Authors: Merve Cebi, Turker Tekin Erguzel, Gokben Hizli Sayar

Abstract:

Understanding the biological mechanisms of dissociation in patients with bipolar disorder is important for developing new treatment approaches for the disorder as well as using the appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, we compared EEG power and coherence values for alpha, theta and beta frequency bands between patients having bipolar disorder with dissociation as compared to the bipolar patients without dissociation. Accordingly, we did not find any statistically significant difference in either the absolute or the relative power between the groups. Coherence values were not found to be statistically different, as well. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the existence of dissociation did not influence electrophysiological correlates in bipolar disorder.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, dissociation, absolute power, coherence

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82 Combination of Lamotrigine and Duloxetine: A Potential Approach for the Treatment of Acute Bipolar Depression

Authors: Kedar S. Prabhavalkar, Nimmy Baby Poovanpallil

Abstract:

Lamotrigine is approved for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. However, its role in the treatment of acute bipolar depression is not well clear. Its efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorders including refractory unipolar depression suggested the use of lamotrigine as an augmentation drug for acute bipolar depression. The present study aims to evaluate and perform a comparative analysis of the therapeutic effects of lamotrigine, an epileptic mood stabilizer, when used alone and in combination with duloxetine in treating acute bipolar depression at different doses of lamotrigine. Male swiss albino mice were used. For evaluation of efficacy of combination, immobility period was analyzed 30 min after the treatment from forced swim and tail suspension tests. Further amount of sucrose consumed in sucrose preference test was estimated. The combination of duloxetine and lamotrigine showed potentiation of antidepressant activity in acute models. Decrease in immobility time and increase in the amount of sucrose consumption in stressed mice were higher in combined group compared to lamotrigine monotherapy group. Brain monoamine levels were also attenuated more with combination compared to monotherapy. Results of the present study suggest potential role of lamotrigine and duloxetine combination in the treatment of acute bipolar depression.

Keywords: lamotrigine, duloxetine, acute bipolar depression, augmentation

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81 Failure Localization of Bipolar Integrated Circuits by Implementing Active Voltage Contrast

Authors: Yiqiang Ni, Xuanlong Chen, Enliang Li, Linting Zheng, Shizheng Yang

Abstract:

Bipolar ICs are playing an important role in military applications, mainly used in logic gates, such as inverter and NAND gate. The defect of metal break located on the step is one of the main failure mechanisms of bipolar ICs, resulting in open-circuit or functional failure. In this situation, general failure localization methods like optical beam-induced resistance change (OBIRCH) and photon emission microscopy (PEM) might not be fully effective. However, active voltage contrast (AVC) can be used as a voltage probe, which may pinpoint the incorrect potential and thus locate the failure position. Two case studies will be present in this paper on how to implement AVC for failure localization, and the detailed failure mechanism will be discussed.

Keywords: bipolar IC, failure localization, metal break, open failure, voltage contrast

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80 Cardiopulmonary Disease in Bipolar Disorder Patient with History of SJS: Evidence Based Case Report

Authors: Zuhrotun Ulya, Muchammad Syamsulhadi, Debree Septiawan

Abstract:

Patients with bipolar disorder are three times more likely to suffer cardiovascular disorders than the general population, which will influence their level of morbidity and rate of mortality. Bipolar disorder also affects the pulmonary system. The choice of long term-monotherapy and other combinative therapies have clinical impacts on patients. This study investigates the case of a woman who has been suffering from bipolar disorder for 16 years, and who has a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome. At present she is suffering also from cardiovascular and pulmonary disorder. An analysis of the results of this study suggests that there is a relationship between cardiovascular disorder, drug therapies, Steven Johnson Syndrome and mood stabilizer obtained from the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and ProQuest (publications between 2005 and 2015). Combination therapy with mood stabilizer is recommended for patients who do not have side effect histories from these drugs. The replacement drugs and combinations may be applied, especially for those with bipolar disorders, and the combination between atypical antipsychotic groups and mood stabilizers is often made. Clinicians, however, should be careful with the patients’ physical and metabolic changes, especially those who have experienced long-term therapy and who showed a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome (for which clinicians probably prescribed one type of medicine).

Keywords: cardiopulmonary disease, bipolar disorder, SJS, therapy

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79 Laser Welding Technique Effect for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Chih-Chia Lin, Ching-Ying Huang, Cheng-Hong Liu, Wen-Lin Wang

Abstract:

A complete fuel cell stack comprises several single cells with end plates, bipolar plates, gaskets and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components. Electrons generated from cells are conducted through bipolar plates. The amount of cells' components increases as the stack voltage increases, complicating the fuel cell assembly process and mass production. Stack assembly error influence cell performance. PEM fuel cell stack importing laser welding technique could eliminate transverse deformation between bipolar plates to promote stress uniformity of cell components as bipolar plates and MEA. Simultaneously, bipolar plates were melted together using laser welding to decrease interface resistance. A series of experiments as through-plan and in-plan resistance measurement test was conducted to observe the laser welding effect. The result showed that the through-plane resistance with laser welding was a drop of 97.5-97.6% when the contact pressure was about 1MPa to 3 MPa, and the in-plane resistance was not significantly different for laser welding.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, laser welding, through-plan, in-plan, resistance

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78 Analysis of the Temperature Dependence of Local Avalanche Compact Model for Bipolar Transistors

Authors: Robert Setekera, Ramses van der Toorn

Abstract:

We present an extensive analysis of the temperature dependence of the local avalanche model used in most of the modern compact models for bipolar transistors. This local avalanche model uses the Chynoweth's empirical law for ionization coefficient to define the generation of the avalanche current in terms of the local electric field. We carry out the model analysis using DC-measurements taken on both Si and advanced SiGe bipolar transistors. For the advanced industrial SiGe-HBTs, we consider both high-speed and high-power devices (both NPN and PNP transistors). The limitations of the local avalanche model in modeling the temperature dependence of the avalanche current mostly in the weak avalanche region are demonstrated. In addition, the model avalanche parameters are analyzed to see if they are in agreement with semiconductor device physics.

Keywords: avalanche multiplication, avalanche current, bipolar transistors, compact modeling, electric field, impact ionization, local avalanche

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77 Effects of Bipolar Plate Coating Layer on Performance Degradation of High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Chen-Yu Chen, Ping-Hsueh We, Wei-Mon Yan

Abstract:

Over the past few centuries, human requirements for energy have been met by burning fossil fuels. However, exploiting this resource has led to global warming and innumerable environmental issues. Thus, finding alternative solutions to the growing demands for energy has recently been driving the development of low-carbon and even zero-carbon energy sources. Wind power and solar energy are good options but they have the problem of unstable power output due to unpredictable weather conditions. To overcome this problem, a reliable and efficient energy storage sub-system is required in future distributed-power systems. Among all kinds of energy storage technologies, the fuel cell system with hydrogen storage is a promising option because it is suitable for large-scale and long-term energy storage. The high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) with metallic bipolar plates is a promising fuel cell system because an HT-PEMFC can tolerate a higher CO concentration and the utilization of metallic bipolar plates can reduce the cost of the fuel cell stack. However, the operating life of metallic bipolar plates is a critical issue because of the corrosion phenomenon. As a result, in this work, we try to apply different coating layer on the metal surface and to investigate the protection performance of the coating layers. The tested bipolar plates include uncoated SS304 bipolar plates, titanium nitride (TiN) coated SS304 bipolar plates and chromium nitride (CrN) coated SS304 bipolar plates. The results show that the TiN coated SS304 bipolar plate has the lowest contact resistance and through-plane resistance and has the best cell performance and operating life among all tested bipolar plates. The long-term in-situ fuel cell tests show that the HT-PEMFC with TiN coated SS304 bipolar plates has the lowest performance decay rate. The second lowest is CrN coated SS304 bipolar plate. The uncoated SS304 bipolar plate has the worst performance decay rate. The performance decay rates with TiN coated SS304, CrN coated SS304 and uncoated SS304 bipolar plates are 5.324×10⁻³ % h⁻¹, 4.513×10⁻² % h⁻¹ and 7.870×10⁻² % h⁻¹, respectively. In addition, the EIS results indicate that the uncoated SS304 bipolar plate has the highest growth rate of ohmic resistance. However, the ohmic resistance with the TiN coated SS304 bipolar plates only increases slightly with time. The growth rate of ohmic resistances with TiN coated SS304, CrN coated SS304 and SS304 bipolar plates are 2.85×10⁻³ h⁻¹, 3.56×10⁻³ h⁻¹, and 4.33×10⁻³ h⁻¹, respectively. On the other hand, the charge transfer resistances with these three bipolar plates all increase with time, but the growth rates are all similar. In addition, the effective catalyst surface areas with all bipolar plates do not change significantly with time. Thus, it is inferred that the major reason for the performance degradation is the elevated ohmic resistance with time, which is associated with the corrosion and oxidation phenomena on the surface of the stainless steel bipolar plates.

Keywords: coating layer, high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, metallic bipolar plate, performance degradation

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76 A Study on the Development of Self-Help Therapy for Bipolar Disorder

Authors: Bae Yu been, Choi Sung won, Lee Ju yeon, Yang Dan Bi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a self-help therapy program for bipolar disorder (BD). Psychosocial treatment is adjunct to pharmacotherapy for BD, however, it is limited and they demand high costs. Therefore, the objective of the study is to overcome these limitations by developing the self-treatment for BD. The study was examined the efficacy of the self-treatment program for BD. A randomized controlled trial compared the self-help therapy (ST) intervention with a treatment as usual (TAU) group. ST group has conducted the program for 8 weeks (16 sessions). Mood chart, Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder Questionnaire, Attitudes toward seeking professional help Scale, BIS, CERQ, YMRS, MADRS were used by pre, post, and follow up. The efficacy of the self-help therapy was analyzed by using mixed ANOVAs. There were significant differences in the rate of occurrence of mania or depression between the two groups. ST group reported stable moods on mood chart, and reductions in mood symptoms and improvements in quality of life and treatment adherence. This study was confirmed applicable to BD to the self-help therapy for patients with BD conducted first in Korea.

Keywords: self help therapy, bipolar disorder, self help, self therapy

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75 The Recovery Experience Study of People with Bipolar Disorder

Authors: Sudkhanoung Ritruechai, Somrak Choovanichwong, Kruawon Tiengtom, Peanchanan Leeudomwong

Abstract:

The purposes of this qualitative research were to study the recovery experience of people with bipolar disorder and also to propose a development approach to the Bipolar Friends Club. The participants were eight people with bipolar disorder for six to twenty years (four women and four men). They have been members of the Bipolar Friends Club for two to ten years. They have no mental symptoms in order to provide sufficient information about their recovery experiences and have returned to everyday life with their family, community, and work. The data were collected by doing an in-depth interview. Two interviews were done, each from 45-90 minutes and four to five weeks apart. The researcher sent the results of the preliminary data analysis to the participants two to three days beforehand. Confirmation of the results of the preliminary data analysis from the first interview was done at the second interview. The research study found that the participants had a positive experience of being a Bipolar Club member. The club continued its activities following Recovery Oriented Service: ROS to the participants. As a result, they recovered in eight areas as follows. 1) Intellectual: The wisdom of joining the group has brought knowledge and experiences from an exchange with others in self-care as well as a positive thinking in life. 2) Social: The participants have set up a group to take care of each other and to do activities which have brought warmth. Their social network which was normally little has also been increased. 3) Spiritual: The concept of religion has been used to lead the life of the participants. 4) Occupational: One participant is a student while the others do work. All of them have done well. 5) Environmental: The participants would be able to adapt to the environment and cope with their problems better. 6) Physical: Most female participants have difficulties with losing weight which leads them saying that they are ‘not fully recovered’. 7) Emotional: The participants feel calmer than before entering the club. They have also developed more tolerance to problems. 8) Financial: The participants would be able to control their spending by themselves and with the help of their family members. The people with bipolar disorder have suggested that the services of the club are perfect and should be continued. The results of the study encourage the Bipolar Friends Club, as well as other clubs/associations that support the recovery of patients. Consideration of the recovery has highlighted the need for ongoing and various life-enhancing programs for the caregivers and their loved ones with bipolar disorder. Then, they would be able to choose the program that suits their needs to improve their life.

Keywords: people with bipolar disorder, recovery, club, experience

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74 The Role of ALDH2 Genotypes in Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid with Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Chang, Chih-Chun Huang, Ru-Band Lu

Abstract:

Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 equally carried in Han Chinese. The relationship between dopamine metabolic enzyme and cognitive performance in bipolar II disorder comorbid with anxiety disorder (AD) remains unclear. This study proposed to explore the association between ALDH2 polymorphisms, anxiety comorbidity in bipolar II disorder. One hundred and ninety-seven BPII with or without AD comorbidity were recruited and compared with 130 Health controls (HC). A polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and neuropsychological battery was performed. Two factor analyses with AD comorbidity and ALDH2 showed a significant main effect of ALDH2 on attention and marginally significant interaction between AD and ALDH2 memory performance. The ALDH2 polymorphisms may play a different role in the neuropsychological performance on varied neuropsychological performance in BPII comorbid with and without AD.

Keywords: anxiety disorder, bipolar II disorder, comorbidity, genetic

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73 Study on the Effect of Bolt Locking Method on the Deformation of Bipolar Plate in PEMFC

Authors: Tao Chen, ShiHua Liu, JiWei Zhang

Abstract:

Assembly of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has a very important influence on its performance and efficiency. The various components of PEMFC stack are usually locked and fixed by bolts. Locking bolt will cause the deformation of the bipolar plate and the other components, which will affect directly the deformation degree of the integral parts of the PEMFC as well as the performance of PEMFC. This paper focuses on the object of three-cell stack of PEMFC. Finite element simulation is used to investigate the deformation of bipolar plate caused by quantity and layout of bolts, bolt locking pressure, and bolt locking sequence, etc. Finally, we made a conclusion that the optimal combination packaging scheme was adopted to assemble the fuel cell stack. The scheme was in use of 3.8 MPa locking pressure imposed on the fuel cell stack, type Ⅱ of four locking bolts and longitudinal locking method. The scheme was obtained by comparatively analyzing the overall displacement contour of PEMFC stack, absolute displacement curve of bipolar plate along the given three paths in the Z direction and the polarization curve of fuel cell. The research results are helpful for the fuel cell stack assembly.

Keywords: bipolar plate, deformation, finite element simulation, fuel cell, locking bolt

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72 Efficacy of Celecoxib Adjunct Treatment on Bipolar Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Daniela V. Bavaresco, Tamy Colonetti, Antonio Jose Grande, Francesc Colom, Joao Quevedo, Samira S. Valvassori, Maria Ines da Rosa

Abstract:

Objective: Performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluated the potential effect of the cyclo-oxygenases (Cox)-2 inhibitor Celecoxib adjunct treatment in Bipolar Disorder (BD), through of randomized controlled trials. Method: A search of the electronic databases was proceeded, on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Biomed Central, Web of Science, IBECS, LILACS, PsycINFO (American Psychological Association), Congress Abstracts, and Grey literature (Google Scholar and the British Library) for studies published from January 1990 to February 2018. A search strategy was developed using the terms: 'Bipolar disorder' or 'Bipolar mania' or 'Bipolar depression' or 'Bipolar mixed' or 'Bipolar euthymic' and 'Celecoxib' or 'Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors' or 'Cox-2 inhibitors' as text words and Medical Subject Headings (i.e., MeSH and EMTREE) and searched. The therapeutic effects of adjunctive treatment with Celecoxib were analyzed, it was possible to carry out a meta-analysis of three studies included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis was performed including the final results of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at the end of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Results: Three primary studies were included in the systematic review, with a total of 121 patients. The meta-analysis had significant effect in the YMRS scores from patients with BD who used Celecoxib adjuvant treatment in comparison to placebo. The weighted mean difference was 5.54 (95%CI=3.26-7.82); p < 0.001; I2 =0%). Conclusion: The systematic review suggests that adjuvant treatment with Celecoxib improves the response of major treatments in patients with BD when compared with adjuvant placebo treatment.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, Cox-2 inhibitors, Celecoxib, systematic review, meta-analysis

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71 Surface Modification of SUS-304 Using Nitriding Treatment for Application of Bipolar Plates of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Wei-Ru Chang, Jenn-Jiang Hwang, Zen-Ting Hsiao, Shu-Feng Lee

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are widely used in electrical systems as an economical, low-polluting energy source. This study investigates the effects of PEMFC gas nitriding treatment on metal bipolar plates. The test material was SUS304 stainless steel. The study explored five different pretreatment processes, varying the corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity conditions. The most effective process was industrial acid washing, followed by heating to 500 °C. Under the condition, the corrosion current density was 8.695 μA, significantly lower than that of the untreated pretreatment sample flakes, which was measured as 38.351 μA.

Keywords: nitriding, bipolar, 304, corrosion, resistance, pretreatment

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70 Dimensionally Stable Anode as a Bipolar Plate for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

Authors: Jaejin Han, Jinsub Choi

Abstract:

Vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a type of redox flow battery which uses vanadium ionic solution as electrolyte. Inside the VRFB, 2.5mm thickness of graphite is generally used as bipolar plate for anti-corrosion of current collector. In this research, thick graphite bipolar plate was substituted by 0.126mm thickness of dimensionally stable anode which was coated with IrO2 on an anodic nanotubular TiO2 substrate. It can provide dimensional advantage over the conventional graphite when the VRFB is used as multi-stack. Ir was coated by using spray coating method in order to enhance electric conductivity. In this study, various electrochemical characterizations were carried out. Cyclic voltammetry data showed activation of Ir in the positive electrode of VRFB. In addition, polarization measurements showed Ir-coated DSA had low overpotential in the positive electrode of VRFB. In cell test results, the DSA-used VRFB showed better efficiency than graphite-used VRFB in voltage and overall efficiency.

Keywords: bipolar plate, DSA (dimensionally stable anode), iridium oxide coating, TiO2 nanotubes, VRFB (vanadium redox flow battery)

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69 Control Technique for Single Phase Bipolar H-Bridge Inverter Connected to the Grid

Authors: L. Hassaine, A. Mraoui, M. R. Bengourina

Abstract:

In photovoltaic system, connected to the grid, the main goal is to control the power that the inverter injects into the grid from the energy provided by the photovoltaic generator. This paper proposes a control technique for a photovoltaic system connected to the grid based on the digital pulse-width modulation (DSPWM) which can synchronise a sinusoidal current output with a grid voltage and generate power at unity power factor. This control is based on H-Bridge inverter controlled by bipolar PWM Switching. The electrical scheme of the system is presented. Simulations results of output voltage and current validate the impact of this method to determinate the appropriate control of the system. A digital design of a generator PWM using VHDL is proposed and implemented on a Xilinx FPGA.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic system, H-Bridge inverter, control, bipolar PWM

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68 Spiritual Recovery of People with Bipolar Disorder in Malaysia: A Grounded Theory Study

Authors: Mohamad Shariff Nurasikin, Paul Crawford, Nicola Wright

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People with any mental disorder can get benefit from the spiritual aspects of life for recovery, particularly in searching for the meaning of life and engaging in meaningful activities. However, little is known about such effects in the population of bipolar disorder. The concepts of spirituality are highly contestable, as they are too broad and removed from the original religious understanding. The concepts are more notable as encompassing multi-dimensional aspects of people’s lives such as social, emotional, and psychological. Viewing that Western or secular worldview dominates most of the literature in spirituality, it is time to explore the concept of spirituality from the Eastern and religious worldview, such as the Malaysian view. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide a conceptual understanding of people with bipolar disorder with a religious affiliation in Malaysia. This study employs a Grounded Theory and explores the narratives from the interviews of 25 participants. The narratives strongly suggest the salient resources or can be referred to as various forms of capital, as in the capital theory, namely, religious, social, psychological, and medicinal. More important is how these capitals are the enablers for recovery in mental health and well-being, where the participants in the sample engage in a more meaningful life and positive adaptations. This study also extends the Bourdieusian spiritual capital, in which the salient resources are termed as the capital bundle. More significant is how the capital bundles are working contiguously in building and accumulating the spiritual capital. This process is conducive to recovery within the social life of people with bipolar disorder or perhaps other mental disorders.

Keywords: bipolar, Bourdeau, recovery, spiritual

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67 Bipolar Impulse Noise Removal and Edge Preservation in Color Images and Video Using Improved Kuwahara Filter

Authors: Reji Thankachan, Varsha PS

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Both image capturing devices and human visual systems are nonlinear. Hence nonlinear filtering methods outperforms its linear counterpart in many applications. Linear methods are unable to remove impulsive noise in images by preserving its edges and fine details. In addition, linear algorithms are unable to remove signal dependent or multiplicative noise in images. This paper presents an approach to denoise and smoothen the Bipolar impulse noised images and videos using improved Kuwahara filter. It involves a 2 stage algorithm which includes a noise detection followed by filtering. Numerous simulation demonstrate that proposed method outperforms the existing method by eliminating the painting like flattening effect along the local feature direction while preserving edge with improvement in PSNR and MSE.

Keywords: bipolar impulse noise, Kuwahara, PSNR MSE, PDF

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66 A Low-Voltage Synchronous Command for JFET Rectifiers

Authors: P. Monginaud, J. C. Baudey

Abstract:

The synchronous, low-voltage command for JFET Rectifiers has many applications: indeed, replacing the traditional diodes by these components allows enhanced performances in gain, linearity and phase shift. We introduce here a new bridge, including JFET associated with pull-down, bipolar command systems, and double-purpose logic gates.

Keywords: synchronous, rectifier, MOSFET, JFET, bipolar command system, push-pull circuits, double-purpose logic gates

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65 Design and Modelling of Ge/GaAs Hetero-structure Bipolar Transistor

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal N. Asthana

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The presented heterostructure n-p-n bipolar transistor is comprised of Ge/GaAs heterojunctions consisting of 0.15µm thick emitter and 0.65µm collector junctions. High diffusivity of carriers in GaAs base was major motivation of current design. We avoided grading of the base which is common in heterojunction bipolar transistors, in order to keep the electron diffusivity as high as possible. The electrons injected into the 0.25µm thick p-type GaAs base with not very high doping (1017cm-3). The designed HBT enables cut off frequency on the order of 150GHz. The Ge/GaAs heterojunctions presented in our paper have proved to work better than comparable HBTs having GaAs bases and emitter/collector junctions made, for example, of AlGaAs/GaAs or other III-V compound semiconductors. The difference in lattice constants between Ge and GaAs is less than 2%. Therefore, there is no need of transition layers between Ge emitter and GaAs base. Significant difference in energy gap of these two materials presents new scope for improving performance of the emitter. With the complete structure being modelled and simulated using TCAD SILVACO, the collector/ emitter offset voltage of the device has been limited to a reasonable value of 63 millivolts by the dint of low energy band gap value associated with Ge emitter. The efficiency of the emitter in our HBT is 86%. Use of Germanium in the emitter and collector regions presents new opportunities for integration of this vertical device structure into silicon substrate.

Keywords: Germanium, Gallium Arsenide, heterojunction bipolar transistor, high cut-off frequency

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64 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano

Abstract:

A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: high voltage, IGBT, solid state switch, bipolar transistor

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63 AC Electro-Kinetics, Bipolar Current and Concentration-Polarization in a Microchannel-Nafion Membrane System

Authors: Sinwook Park, Gilad Yossifon

Abstract:

The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration-polarization (CP) across a microchannel-membrane device, produces not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) vortex and but also a bipolar current resulting from faradaic reactions. It has been shown that there exists an optimal SiO2 layer thickness of ~50nm which is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents (at least up to 5V applied voltage) but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting its I-V response. This effect is pronounced beyond the limiting current where the existence of the depletion layer results in increased local electric field due to decreased solution conductivity. This comprehensive study of the interaction of embedded electrodes with the induced CP in microchannel-perm selective medium systems, allows one to choose the thickness of the thin dielectric coating to either enhance the mixing as a means to control the diffuse layer, or suppress it, for example, in the case where electrodes are intended for local measurements of the solution conductivity with minimal invasion. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the CP length. In addition, the use of embedded heaters within the depletion layer generates electro-thermal vortices that in turn also control the CP length.

Keywords: AC electrokinetics, microchannel, concentration-polarization, bipolar current

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62 Numerical Study for Improving Performance of Air Cooled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell on the Cathode Channel

Authors: Mohamed Hassan Gundu, Jaeseung Lee, Muhammad Faizan Chinannai, Hyunchul Ju

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In this study, we present the effects of bipolar plate design to control the temperature of the cell and ensure effective water management under an excessive amount of air flow and low humidification conditions in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model developed and applied to consider a three type of bipolar plate that is defined by ratio of inlet channel width to outlet channel width. Simulation results show that the design which has narrow gas inlet channel and wide gas outlet channel width (wide coolant inlet channel and narrow coolant outlet channel width) make the relative humidity and water concentration increase in the channel and the catalyst layer. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates that the dehydration phenomenon can be decreased by using design of bipolar plate with narrow gas inlet channel and wide gas outlet channel width (wide coolant inlet channel and narrow coolant outlet channel width).

Keywords: PEMFC, air-cooling, relative humidity, water management, water concentration, oxygen concentration

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61 Nutrition Role in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders

Authors: Abeer Mohammed, Nevein Mustafa Elashery, Mona Hassan Abdel Aal, Ereny Wilson Nagib

Abstract:

The Aim of the current study is to investigate nutrition role in the management of psychiatric disorders. Research Design: A quasi- experimental research design was utilized for this study. Setting The study was conducted at outpatient clinic at Institute of Psychiatry affiliated to Ain Shams University hospitals, using a convenient sample of 50 psychiatric patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. Tools: data were collected through; first, an interview questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, second, nutrition assessment tools Third, nutrition risk assessment. Fourth, nutrition management program Results showed that there were highly statistically significant improvements in modified nutritional supplements for patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders' patients after conducting the nutrition management program. Regarding psychiatric patients’ knowledge about healthy food, healthy nutritional habits, and patients’ awareness & readiness for change, there were highly statistically significant improvements. Concerning signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there were highly statistically significant improvements for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive-compulsive patients after conducting the management program. In conclusion, the nutrition management program was effective in improving symptoms associated with, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. The study recommended that nurses should have more contribution in counseling psychiatric patients, and their families about healthy diet and healthy habits. Further research should recommend studying the effectiveness of herbs on enhancing mental health for psychiatric patients.

Keywords: nutrition, role, management, psychiatric disorders

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60 EEG-Based Classification of Psychiatric Disorders: Bipolar Mood Disorder vs. Schizophrenia

Authors: Han-Jeong Hwang, Jae-Hyun Jo, Fatemeh Alimardani

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An accurate diagnosis of psychiatric diseases is a challenging issue, in particular when distinct symptoms for different diseases are overlapped, such as delusions appeared in bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and schizophrenia (SCH). In the present study, we propose a useful way to discriminate BMD and SCH using electroencephalography (EEG). A total of thirty BMD and SCH patients (15 vs. 15) took part in our experiment. EEG signals were measured with nineteen electrodes attached on the scalp using the international 10-20 system, while they were exposed to a visual stimulus flickering at 16 Hz for 95 s. The flickering visual stimulus induces a certain brain signal, known as steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), which is differently observed in patients with BMD and SCH, respectively, in terms of SSVEP amplitude because they process the same visual information in own unique way. For classifying BDM and SCH patients, machine learning technique was employed in which leave-one-out-cross validation was performed. The SSVEPs induced at the fundamental (16 Hz) and second harmonic (32 Hz) stimulation frequencies were extracted using fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and they were used as features. The most discriminative feature was selected using the Fisher score, and support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier. From the analysis, we could obtain a classification accuracy of 83.33 %, showing the feasibility of discriminating patients with BMD and SCH using EEG. We expect that our approach can be utilized for psychiatrists to more accurately diagnose the psychiatric disorders, BMD and SCH.

Keywords: bipolar mood disorder, electroencephalography, schizophrenia, machine learning

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59 Cognitive Dysfunctioning and the Fronto-Limbic Network in Bipolar Disorder Patients: A Fmri Meta-Analysis

Authors: Rahele Mesbah, Nic Van Der Wee, Manja Koenders, Erik Giltay, Albert Van Hemert, Max De Leeuw

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Introduction: Patients with bipolar disorder (BD), characterized by depressive and manic episodes, often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. An up-to-date meta-analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies examining cognitive function in BD is lacking. Objective: The aim of the current fMRI meta-analysis is to investigate brain functioning of bipolar patients compared with healthy subjects within three domains of emotion processing, reward processing, and working memory. Method: Differences in brain regions activation were tested within whole-brain analysis using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method. Separate analyses were performed for each cognitive domain. Results: A total of 50 fMRI studies were included: 20 studies used an emotion processing (316 BD and 369 HC) task, 9 studies a reward processing task (215 BD and 213 HC), and 21 studies used a working memory task (503 BD and 445 HC). During emotion processing, BD patients hyperactivated parts of the left amygdala and hippocampus as compared to HC’s, but showed hypoactivation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Regarding reward processing, BD patients showed hyperactivation in part of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). During working memory, BD patients showed increased activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conclusions: This meta-analysis revealed evidence for activity disturbances in several brain areas involved in the cognitive functioning of BD patients. Furthermore, most of the found regions are part of the so-called fronto-limbic network which is hypothesized to be affected as a result of BD candidate genes' expression.

Keywords: cognitive functioning, fMRI analysis, bipolar disorder, fronto-limbic network

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58 The Efficacy of Lithium vs. Valporate on Bipolar Patients and Their Sexual Side Effect: A Meta-Analysis of 4159 Patients

Authors: Yasmeen Jamal Alabdallat, Almutazballlah Bassam Qablan, Obada Ahmad Al Jayyousi, Ihdaa Mahmoud Bani Khalaf, Eman E. Alshial

Abstract:

Background: Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic depression, is a mental health status that leads to extreme mood swings that include emotional lows (depression) and highs (mania or hypomania). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of lithium versus valproate among bipolar patients. Methods: A computer literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted from inception until June 2022. Studies comparing lithium versus valproate among bipolar patients were selected for the analysis, and all relevant outcomes were pooled in the meta-analysis using Review Manager Software. Results: 11 Randomized Clinical Trials were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 4159 patients. Our meta showed that lithium was superior to valproate in terms of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (MD = 0.00 with 95% CI, (-0.55 – 0.55; I2 = 0%), P = 1.00). The results of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) showed that the overall effect favored the valproate treated group (MD = 1.41 with 95% CI, (-0.15 – 2.67; I2 = 0%), P = 0.03). Concerning the results of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the results showed that the lithium was superior to valproate (MD = 0.03 with 95% CI, (-0.80 to 0.87; I2 = 40%), P = 0.94). In terms of the sexual side effect, we found that the valproate was superior to lithium (RR 1.19 with 95% CI, (0.74 to 1.91; I2 = 0%), P = 0.47). The lithium-treated group was superior in comparison to valproate treated group in terms of Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) (MD = -0.03 with 95% CI (-0.38 to 0.32; I2 = 0%), P = 0.87). The lithium was more favorable in terms of Simpson-Agnes scale (MD = -0.40 with 95% CI, (-0.86 to 0.06; I2 = 0%), P = 0.09). The results of the Barnes akathisia scale showed that the overall effect of the valproate was more favorable in comparison to lithium (MD = 0.05 with 95% CI, (-0.12 to 0.22; I2 = 0%), P = 0.57). Conclusion: Our study revealed that on the scales of efficacy Lithium treated group surpassed Valproate treated group in terms of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and Simpson-Agnes scale, but valproate surpassed it in Barnes Akathisia scale. Furthermore, on the scales of depression Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) showed that the overall effect favored Valproate treated group, but Lithium surpassed valproate in terms of Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Valproate surpassed Lithium in terms of sexual side effects.

Keywords: bipolar, mania, bipolar-depression, sexual dysfunction, sexual side effects, treatment

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57 In-Vitro Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability of PEDOT:PSS Coated Microelectrodes for Chronic Recording and Electrical Stimulation

Authors: A. Schander, T. Tessmann, H. Stemmann, S. Strokov, A. Kreiter, W. Lang

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For the chronic application of neural prostheses and other brain-computer interfaces, long-term stable microelectrodes for electrical stimulation are essential. In recent years many developments were done to investigate different appropriate materials for these electrodes. One of these materials is the electrical conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which has lower impedance and higher charge injection capacity compared to noble metals like gold and platinum. However the long-term stability of this polymer is still unclear. Thus this paper reports on the in-vitro evaluation of the long-term stability of PEDOT coated gold microelectrodes. For this purpose a highly flexible electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode array, based on the polymer polyimide, is used. This array consists of circular gold electrodes with a diameter of 560 µm (0.25 mm2). In total 25 electrodes of this array were coated simultaneously with the polymer PEDOT:PSS in a cleanroom environment using a galvanostatic electropolymerization process. After the coating the array is additionally sterilized using a steam sterilization process (121°C, 1 bar, 20.5 min) to simulate autoclaving prior to the implantation of such an electrode array. The long-term measurements were performed in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS, pH 7.4) at the constant body temperature of 37°C. For the in-vitro electrical stimulation a one channel bipolar current stimulator is used. The stimulation protocol consists of a bipolar current amplitude of 5 mA (cathodal phase first), a pulse duration of 100 µs per phase, a pulse pause of 50 µs and a frequency of 1 kHz. A PEDOT:PSS coated gold electrode with an area of 1 cm2 serves as the counter electrode. The electrical stimulation is performed continuously with a total amount of 86.4 million bipolar current pulses per day. The condition of the PEDOT coated electrodes is monitored in between with electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results of this study demonstrate that the PEDOT coated electrodes are stable for more than 3.6 billion bipolar current pulses. Also the unstimulated electrodes show currently no degradation after the time period of 5 months. These results indicate an appropriate long-term stability of this electrode coating for chronic recording and electrical stimulation. The long-term measurements are still continuing to investigate the life limit of this electrode coating.

Keywords: chronic recording, electrical stimulation, long-term stability, microelectrodes, PEDOT

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56 Modeling of Bipolar Charge Transport through Nanocomposite Films for Energy Storage

Authors: Meng H. Lean, Wei-Ping L. Chu

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The effects of ferroelectric nanofiller size, shape, loading, and polarization, on bipolar charge injection, transport, and recombination through amorphous and semicrystalline polymers are studied. A 3D particle-in-cell model extends the classical electrical double layer representation to treat ferroelectric nanoparticles. Metal-polymer charge injection assumes Schottky emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, migration through field-dependent Poole-Frenkel mobility, and recombination with Monte Carlo selection based on collision probability. A boundary integral equation method is used for solution of the Poisson equation coupled with a second-order predictor-corrector scheme for robust time integration of the equations of motion. The stability criterion of the explicit algorithm conforms to the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy limit. Trajectories for charge that make it through the film are curvilinear paths that meander through the interspaces. Results indicate that charge transport behavior depends on nanoparticle polarization with anti-parallel orientation showing the highest leakage conduction and lowest level of charge trapping in the interaction zone. Simulation prediction of a size range of 80 to 100 nm to minimize attachment and maximize conduction is validated by theory. Attached charge fractions go from 2.2% to 97% as nanofiller size is decreased from 150 nm to 60 nm. Computed conductivity of 0.4 x 1014 S/cm is in agreement with published data for plastics. Charge attachment is increased with spheroids due to the increase in surface area, and especially so for oblate spheroids showing the influence of larger cross-sections. Charge attachment to nanofillers and nanocrystallites increase with vol.% loading or degree of crystallinity, and saturate at about 40 vol.%.

Keywords: nanocomposites, nanofillers, electrical double layer, bipolar charge transport

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55 Designing a Patient Monitoring System Using Cloud and Semantic Web Technologies

Authors: Chryssa Thermolia, Ekaterini S. Bei, Stelios Sotiriadis, Kostas Stravoskoufos, Euripides G. M. Petrakis

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Moving into a new era of healthcare, new tools and devices are developed to extend and improve health services, such as remote patient monitoring and risk prevention. In this concept, Internet of Things (IoT) and Cloud Computing present great advantages by providing remote and efficient services, as well as cooperation between patients, clinicians, researchers and other health professionals. This paper focuses on patients suffering from bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that belongs to a group of conditions called effective disorders, which is characterized by great mood swings.We exploit the advantages of Semantic Web and Cloud Technologies to develop a patient monitoring system to support clinicians. Based on intelligently filtering of evidence-knowledge and individual-specific information we aim to provide treatment notifications and recommended function tests at appropriate times or concluding into alerts for serious mood changes and patient’s non-response to treatment. We propose an architecture, as the back-end part of a cloud platform for IoT, intertwining intelligence devices with patients’ daily routine and clinicians’ support.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, intelligent systems patient monitoring, semantic web technologies, healthcare

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