Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 127

Search results for: avalanche multiplication

127 Analysis of the Temperature Dependence of Local Avalanche Compact Model for Bipolar Transistors

Authors: Robert Setekera, Ramses van der Toorn

Abstract:

We present an extensive analysis of the temperature dependence of the local avalanche model used in most of the modern compact models for bipolar transistors. This local avalanche model uses the Chynoweth's empirical law for ionization coefficient to define the generation of the avalanche current in terms of the local electric field. We carry out the model analysis using DC-measurements taken on both Si and advanced SiGe bipolar transistors. For the advanced industrial SiGe-HBTs, we consider both high-speed and high-power devices (both NPN and PNP transistors). The limitations of the local avalanche model in modeling the temperature dependence of the avalanche current mostly in the weak avalanche region are demonstrated. In addition, the model avalanche parameters are analyzed to see if they are in agreement with semiconductor device physics.

Keywords: avalanche multiplication, avalanche current, bipolar transistors, compact modeling, electric field, impact ionization, local avalanche

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
126 The Fallacy around Inserting Brackets to Evaluate Expressions Involving Multiplication and Division

Authors: Manduth Ramchander

Abstract:

Evaluating expressions involving multiplication and division can give rise to the fallacy that brackets can be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division. The aim of this article was to draw upon mathematical theory to prove that brackets cannot be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division and in particular in expressions where division precedes multiplication. In doing so, it demonstrates that the notion that two different answers are possible, when evaluating expressions involving multiplication and division, is indeed a false one. Searches conducted in a number of scholarly databases unearthed the rules to be applied when removing brackets from expressions, which revealed that consideration needs to be given to sign changes when brackets are removed. The rule pertaining to expressions involving multiplication and division was then extended upon, in its reverse format, to prove that brackets cannot be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division. The application of the rule demonstrates that an expression involving multiplication and division can have only one correct answer. It is recommended that both the rule and its reverse be included in the curriculum, preferably at the juncture when manipulation with brackets is introduced.

Keywords: brackets, multiplications and division, operations, order

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
125 Low-Complexity Multiplication Using Complement and Signed-Digit Recoding Methods

Authors: Te-Jen Chang, I-Hui Pan, Ping-Sheng Huang, Shan-Jen Cheng

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In this paper, a fast multiplication computing method utilizing the complement representation method and canonical recoding technique is proposed. By performing complements and canonical recoding technique, the number of partial products can be reduced. Based on these techniques, we propose an algorithm that provides an efficient multiplication method. On average, our proposed algorithm is to reduce the number of k-bit additions from (0.25k+logk/k+2.5) to (k/6 +logk/k+2.5), where k is the bit-length of the multiplicand A and multiplier B. We can therefore efficiently speed up the overall performance of the multiplication. Moreover, if we use the new proposes to compute common-multiplicand multiplication, the computational complexity can be reduced from (0.5 k+2 logk/k+5) to (k/3+2 logk/k+5) k-bit additions.

Keywords: algorithm design, complexity analysis, canonical recoding, public key cryptography, common-multiplicand multiplication

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
124 Modified Montgomery for RSA Cryptosystem

Authors: Rupali Verma, Maitreyee Dutta, Renu Vig

Abstract:

Encryption and decryption in RSA are done by modular exponentiation which is achieved by repeated modular multiplication. Hence, efficiency of modular multiplication directly determines the efficiency of RSA cryptosystem. This paper designs a Modified Montgomery Modular multiplication in which addition of operands is computed by 4:2 compressor. The basic logic operations in addition are partitioned over two iterations such that parallel computations are performed. This reduces the critical path delay of proposed Montgomery design. The proposed design and RSA are implemented on Virtex 2 and Virtex 5 FPGAs. The two factors partitioning and parallelism have improved the frequency and throughput of proposed design.

Keywords: RSA, montgomery modular multiplication, 4:2 compressor, FPGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
123 A Note on Decidability of the Theory of Natural Numbers

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

Abstract:

The additive theory or (the multiplication theory) of a set of natural numbers is the first theory of the structure of that set with the addition or (multiplication) operation that set is taken be additive(multiplicative),i.e., closed under addition or (multiplication). In this paper, decidability (i.e.,there exists an algorithm that decides whether a given sentence is derivable from the theory )of the structures of natural numbers study in different languages and introduce ways that it allows quantifier elimination (for the theory ) and review some classical theorems and will give new proofs for old results.

Keywords: Decidability, Incompleteness, Number Structure, First Order Logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
122 Efficient Semi-Systolic Finite Field Multiplier Using Redundant Basis

Authors: Hyun-Ho Lee, Kee-Won Kim

Abstract:

The arithmetic operations over GF(2m) have been extensively used in error correcting codes and public-key cryptography schemes. Finite field arithmetic includes addition, multiplication, division and inversion operations. Addition is very simple and can be implemented with an extremely simple circuit. The other operations are much more complex. The multiplication is the most important for cryptosystems, such as the elliptic curve cryptosystem, since computing exponentiation, division, and computing multiplicative inverse can be performed by computing multiplication iteratively. In this paper, we present a parallel computation algorithm that operates Montgomery multiplication over finite field using redundant basis. Also, based on the multiplication algorithm, we present an efficient semi-systolic multiplier over finite field. The multiplier has less space and time complexities compared to related multipliers. As compared to the corresponding existing structures, the multiplier saves at least 5% area, 50% time, and 53% area-time (AT) complexity. Accordingly, it is well suited for VLSI implementation and can be easily applied as a basic component for computing complex operations over finite field, such as inversion and division operation.

Keywords: finite field, Montgomery multiplication, systolic array, cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
121 Integrating Indigenous Students’ Funds of Knowledge to Introduce Multiplication with a Picture Storybook

Authors: Murni Sianturi, Andreas Au Hurit

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The low level of Indigenous Papuan students’ literacy and numeracy in Merauke Regency-Indonesia needs to be considered. The development of a learnable storybook with pictures related to their lives might raise their curiosity to read. This study aimed to design a storybook as a complementary resource for the third graders using Indigenous Malind cultural approaches by employing research and development methods. The product developed was a thematic-integrative picture storybook using funds of knowledge from Indigenous students. All the book contents depicted Indigenous students’ lives and were in line with the national curriculum syllabus, specifically representing one sub-theme−multiplication topic. Multiplication material of grade 3 was modified in the form of a story, and at the end of the reading, students were given several multiplication exercises. Based on the results of the evaluation from the expert team, it was found that the average score was in the excellent category. The students’ and teacher’s responses to the storybook were very positive. Students were thrilled when reading this book and also effortlessly understood the concept of multiplication. Therefore, this book might be used as a companion book to the main book and serve as introductory reading material for students prior to discussing multiplication material.

Keywords: a picture storybook, funds of knowledge, Indigenous elementary students, literacy, numeracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
120 Magnification Factor Based Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Frames with Open Ground Storey

Authors: Subzar Ahmad Bhat, Saraswati Setia, V. K.Sehgal

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During the past earthquakes, open ground storey buildings have performed poorly due to the soft storey defect. Indian Standard IS 1893:2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and study behaviour of the structure after the application of the multiplication factor. For this purpose, study is performed on models considering infill stiffness using SAP 2000 (Version 14) by linear static analysis and response spectrum analysis. Total seven models are analysed and designed for the range of multiplication factor ranging from 1.25 to 2.5. The value of multiplication factor equal to 2.5 has been found on the higher side, resulting in increased dimension and percentage of reinforcement without significant enhancement beyond a certain multiplication factor. When the building with OGS is designed for values of MF higher than 1.25 considering infill stiffness soft storey effect shifts from ground storey to first storey. For the analysis of the OGS structure best way to analysis the structure is to analyse it as the frame with stiffness and strength of the infill taken into account. The provision of infill walls in the upper storeys enhances the performance of the structure in terms of displacement and storey drift controls.

Keywords: open ground storey, multiplication factor, IS 1893:2002 provisions, static analysis, response spectrum analysis, infill stiffness, equivalent strut

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
119 Investigations on the Application of Avalanche Simulations: A Survey Conducted among Avalanche Experts

Authors: Korbinian Schmidtner, Rudolf Sailer, Perry Bartelt, Wolfgang Fellin, Jan-Thomas Fischer, Matthias Granig

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This study focuses on the evaluation of snow avalanche simulations, based on a survey that has been carried out among avalanche experts. In the last decades, the application of avalanche simulation tools has gained recognition within the realm of hazard management. Traditionally, avalanche runout models were used to predict extreme avalanche runout and prepare avalanche maps. This has changed rather dramatically with the application of numerical models. For safety regulations such as road safety simulation tools are now being coupled with real-time meteorological measurements to predict frequent avalanche hazard. That places new demands on model accuracy and requires the simulation of physical processes that previously could be ignored. These simulation tools are based on a deterministic description of the avalanche movement allowing to predict certain quantities (e.g. pressure, velocities, flow heights, runout lengths etc.) of the avalanche flow. Because of the highly variable regimes of the flowing snow, no uniform rheological law describing the motion of an avalanche is known. Therefore, analogies to fluid dynamical laws of other materials are stated. To transfer these constitutional laws to snow flows, certain assumptions and adjustments have to be imposed. Besides these limitations, there exist high uncertainties regarding the initial and boundary conditions. Further challenges arise when implementing the underlying flow model equations into an algorithm executable by a computer. This implementation is constrained by the choice of adequate numerical methods and their computational feasibility. Hence, the model development is compelled to introduce further simplifications and the related uncertainties. In the light of these issues many questions arise on avalanche simulations, on their assets and drawbacks, on potentials for improvements as well as their application in practice. To address these questions a survey among experts in the field of avalanche science (e.g. researchers, practitioners, engineers) from various countries has been conducted. In the questionnaire, special attention is drawn on the expert’s opinion regarding the influence of certain variables on the simulation result, their uncertainty and the reliability of the results. Furthermore, it was tested to which degree a simulation result influences the decision making for a hazard assessment. A discrepancy could be found between a large uncertainty of the simulation input parameters as compared to a relatively high reliability of the results. This contradiction can be explained taking into account how the experts employ the simulations. The credibility of the simulations is the result of a rather thoroughly simulation study, where different assumptions are tested, comparing the results of different flow models along with the use of supplemental data such as chronicles, field observation, silent witnesses i.a. which are regarded as essential for the hazard assessment and for sanctioning simulation results. As the importance of avalanche simulations grows within the hazard management along with their further development studies focusing on the modeling fashion could contribute to a better understanding how knowledge of the avalanche process can be gained by running simulations.

Keywords: expert interview, hazard management, modeling, simulation, snow avalanche

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
118 Method of Synthesis of Controlled Generators Balanced a Strictly Avalanche Criteria-Functions

Authors: Ali Khwaldeh, Nimer Adwan

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for constructing a controlled balanced Boolean function satisfying the criterion of a Strictly Avalanche Criteria (SAC) effect is proposed. The proposed method is based on the use of three orthogonal nonlinear components which is unlike the high-order SAC functions. So, the generator synthesized by the proposed method has separate sets of control and information inputs. The proposed method proves its simplicity and the implementation ability. The proposed method allows synthesizing a SAC function generator with fixed control and information inputs. This ensures greater efficiency of the built-in oscillator compared to high-order SAC functions that can be used as a generator. Accordingly, the method is completely formalized and implemented as a software product.

Keywords: boolean function, controlled balanced boolean function, strictly avalanche criteria, orthogonal nonlinear

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
117 Very Large Scale Integration Architecture of Finite Impulse Response Filter Implementation Using Retiming Technique

Authors: S. Jalaja, A. M. Vijaya Prakash

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Recursive combination of an algorithm based on Karatsuba multiplication is exploited to design a generalized transpose and parallel Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filter. Mid-range Karatsuba multiplication and Carry Save adder based on Karatsuba multiplication reduce time complexity for higher order multiplication implemented up to n-bit. As a result, we design modified N-tap Transpose and Parallel Symmetric FIR Filter Structure using Karatsuba algorithm. The mathematical formulation of the FFA Filter is derived. The proposed architecture involves significantly less area delay product (APD) then the existing block implementation. By adopting retiming technique, hardware cost is reduced further. The filter architecture is designed by using 90 nm technology library and is implemented by using cadence EDA Tool. The synthesized result shows better performance for different word length and block size. The design achieves switching activity reduction and low power consumption by applying with and without retiming for different combination of the circuit. The proposed structure achieves more than a half of the power reduction by adopting with and without retiming techniques compared to the earlier design structure. As a proof of the concept for block size 16 and filter length 64 for CKA method, it achieves a 51% as well as 70% less power by applying retiming technique, and for CSA method it achieves a 57% as well as 77% less power by applying retiming technique compared to the previously proposed design.

Keywords: carry save adder Karatsuba multiplication, mid range Karatsuba multiplication, modified FFA and transposed filter, retiming

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
116 Implementation of Integer Sub-Decomposition Method on Elliptic Curves with J-Invariant 1728

Authors: Siti Noor Farwina Anwar, Hailiza Kamarulhaili

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In this paper, we present the idea of implementing the Integer Sub-Decomposition (ISD) method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The ISD method was proposed in 2013 to compute scalar multiplication in elliptic curves, which remains to be the most expensive operation in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). However, the original ISD method only works on integer number field and solve integer scalar multiplication. By extending the method into the complex quadratic field, we are able to solve complex multiplication and implement the ISD method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The curve with j-invariant 1728 has a unique discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field. This unique discriminant of quadratic field yields a unique efficiently computable endomorphism, which later able to speed up the computations on this curve. However, the ISD method needs three endomorphisms to be accomplished. Hence, we choose all three endomorphisms to be from the same imaginary quadratic field as the curve itself, where the first endomorphism is the unique endomorphism yield from the discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field.

Keywords: efficiently computable endomorphism, elliptic scalar multiplication, j-invariant 1728, quadratic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
115 In vitro Clonal Multiplication and Acclimatization of Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)

Authors: Krishna Poudel, Tahar Katuwal, Sujan Karki

Abstract:

A rapid propagation and acclimatization method of large cardamom was optimized in this study. Sprouted rhizome buds were collected. The excised rhizome bud explants were cultured on semi solid culture media. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration and combinations of BAP (6-Benzyl-amino-purine) and IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) for shoot and root induction. Explants cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 gm/l IBA showed the highest rate of shoot multiplication. In vitro shoots were rooted on to the half-strength MS basal media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted shoots were transplanted in the screen house for hardening process. These hardened plants were subsequently shifted into the netted nursery for further multiplication process.

Keywords: concentration, explants, hardening, rhizome

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
114 Performance Analysis of SAC-OCDMA System using Different Detectors

Authors: Somaya A. Abd El Mottaleb, Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Heba A. Fayed, Moustafa H. Aly

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In this paper, we present the performance of spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access using different detectors at different transmission distances using single photodiode detection technique. Modified double weight codes are used as signature codes. Simulation results show that the system using avalanche photo detector can move distance longer than that using positive intrinsic negative photo detector.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, modified double weight, multiple access technique, single photodiode.

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
113 A Molecular Dynamics Study on Intermittent Plasticity and Dislocation Avalanche Emissions in FCC and BCC Crystals

Authors: Javier Varillas, Jorge Alcalá

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We investigate dislocation avalanche phenomena in face-centered cubic (FCC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals using massive, large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The analysis is focused on the intermittent development of dense dislocation arrangements subjected to uniaxial tensile straining under displacement control. We employ a novel computational scheme that allows us to inject an entangled dislocation structure in periodic MD domains. We assess the emission of plastic bursts (or dislocation avalanches) in terms of the sharp stress drops detected in the stress-strain curve. The plastic activity corresponds to the sporadic operation of specific dislocation glide processes exhibiting quiescent periods between successive avalanche events. We find that the plastic intermittences in our simulations do not overlap in time under sufficiently low strain rates as dissipation operates faster than driving, where the dense dislocation networks evolve through the emission of dislocation avalanche events whose carried slip adheres to self-organized power-law distributions. These findings enable the extension of the slip distributions obtained from strict displacement-controlled micropillar compression experiments towards smaller values of slip size. Our results furnish further understanding upon the development of entangled dislocation networks in metal plasticity, including specific mechanisms of dislocation propagation and annihilation, along with the evolution of specific dislocation populations through dislocation density analyses.

Keywords: dislocations, intermittent plasticity, molecular dynamics, slip distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
112 Modification Encryption Time and Permutation in Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm

Authors: Dalal N. Hammod, Ekhlas K. Gbashi

Abstract:

Today, cryptography is used in many applications to achieve high security in data transmission and in real-time communications. AES has long gained global acceptance and is used for securing sensitive data in various industries but has suffered from slow processing and take a large time to transfer data. This paper suggests a method to enhance Advance Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm based on time and permutation. The suggested method (MAES) is based on modifying the SubByte and ShiftRrows in the encryption part and modification the InvSubByte and InvShiftRows in the decryption part. After the implementation of the proposal and testing the results, the Modified AES achieved good results in accomplishing the communication with high performance criteria in terms of randomness, encryption time, storage space, and avalanche effects. The proposed method has good randomness to ciphertext because this method passed NIST statistical tests against attacks; also, (MAES) reduced the encryption time by (10 %) than the time of the original AES; therefore, the modified AES is faster than the original AES. Also, the proposed method showed good results in memory utilization where the value is (54.36) for the MAES, but the value for the original AES is (66.23). Also, the avalanche effects used for calculating diffusion property are (52.08%) for the modified AES and (51.82%) percentage for the original AES.

Keywords: modified AES, randomness test, encryption time, avalanche effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
111 Effect of Capillary Forces on Wet Granular Avalanches

Authors: Ahmed Jarray, Vanessa Magnanimo, Stefan Luding

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Granular avalanches are ubiquitous in nature and occur in numerous industrial processes associated with particulate systems. When a small amount of liquid is added to a pile of particles, pendular bridges form and the particles are attracted by capillary forces, creating complex structure and flow behavior. We have performed an extensive series of experiments to investigate the effect of capillary force and particle size on wet granular avalanches, and we established a methodology that ensures the control of the granular flow in a rotating drum. The velocity of the free surface and the angle of repose of the particles in the rotating drum are determined using particle tracking method. The capillary force between the particles is significantly reduced by making the glass beads hydrophobic via chemical silanization. We show that the strength of the capillary forces between two adjacent particles can be deliberately manipulated through surface modification of the glass beads, thus, under the right conditions; we demonstrate that the avalanche dynamics can be controlled. The results show that the avalanche amplitude decreases when increasing the capillary force. We also find that liquid-induced cohesion increases the width of the gliding layer and the dynamic angle of repose, however, it decreases the velocity of the free surface.

Keywords: avalanche dynamics, capillary force, granular material, granular flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
110 Spectral Analysis Approaches for Simultaneous Determination of Binary Mixtures with Overlapping Spectra: An Application on Pseudoephedrine Sulphate and Loratadine

Authors: Sara El-Hanboushy, Hayam Lotfy, Yasmin Fayez, Engy Shokry, Mohammed Abdelkawy

Abstract:

Simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed and validated for simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine sulphate (PSE) and loratadine (LOR) in combined dosage form based on spectral analysis technique. Pseudoephedrine (PSE) in binary mixture could be analyzed either by using its resolved zero order absorption spectrum at its λ max 256.8 nm after subtraction of LOR spectrum or in presence of LOR spectrum by absorption correction method at 256.8 nm, dual wavelength (DWL) method at 254nm and 273nm, induced dual wavelength (IDWL) method at 256nm and 272nm and ratio difference (RD) method at 256nm and 262 nm. Loratadine (LOR) in the mixture could be analyzed directly at 280nm without any interference of PSE spectrum or at 250 nm using its recovered zero order absorption spectrum using constant multiplication(CM).In addition, simultaneous determination for PSE and LOR in their mixture could be applied by induced amplitude modulation method (IAM) coupled with amplitude multiplication (PM).

Keywords: dual wavelength (DW), induced amplitude modulation method (IAM) coupled with amplitude multiplication (PM), loratadine, pseudoephedrine sulphate, ratio difference (RD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
109 Performance of an Optical Readout Gas Chamber for Charged Particle Track

Authors: Jing Hu, Xiaoping Ouyang

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We develop an optical readout gas chamber based on avalanche-induced scintillation for energetic charged particles track. The gas chamber is equipped with a Single Anode Wires (SAW) structure to produce intensive electric field when the measured particles are of low yield or even single. In the presence of an intensive electric field around the single anode, primary electrons, resulting from the incident charged particles when depositing the energy along the track, accelerate to the anode effectively and rapidly. For scintillation gasses, this avalanche of electrons induces multiplying photons comparing with the primary scintillation excited directly from particle energy loss. The electric field distribution for different shape of the SAW structure is analyzed, and finally, an optimal one is used to study the optical readout performance. Using CF4 gas and its mixture with the noble gas, the results indicate that the optical readout characteristics of the chamber are attractive for imaging. Moreover, images of particles track including single particle track from 5.485MeV alpha particles are successfully acquired. The track resolution is quite well for the reason that the electrons undergo less diffusion in the intensive electric field. With the simple and ingenious design, the optical readout gas chamber has a high sensitivity. Since neutrons can be converted to charged particles when scattering, this optical readout gas chamber can be applied to neutron measurement for dark matter, fusion research, and others.

Keywords: optical readout, gas chamber, charged particle track, avalanche-induced scintillation, neutron measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
108 The Students' Mathematical Competency and Attitude towards Mathematics Using the Trachtenberg Speed Math System

Authors: Marlone D. Severo

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A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used to test the intervention of Trachtenberg Speed Math on the mathematical competency of sixty (60) matched-paired students with a poor performing grade in Mathematics from one of the biggest public national high school at the South of Metro Manila. Both control and experimental group were administered with the Attitude Towards Mathematics Inventory (ATMI) before the pretest were given and both group showed high dislike for Mathematics. Pretest showed a 53 percent accuracy for the control group and 51 percent for the experimental group using a 15-item long multiplication test without any aid of a computing device. The experimental group were taught how to use the Trachtenberg number-keys and techniques in multiplication between October 2014 to March 2015. Post-test showed an improvement in the experimental group with 96 percent accuracy for the control group and a dismal 57 percent for the control group in long-multiplication. Post-test ATMI were administered. The control group showed a great dislike towards Mathematics, while the experimental group showed a positive attitude towards the subject.

Keywords: attitude towards mathematics, mathematical competency, number-keys, trachtenberg speed math

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
107 Modeling a Feedback Concept in a Spherical Thundercloud Cell

Authors: Zemlianskaya Daria, Egor Stadnichuk, Ekaterina Svechnikova

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Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are generally accepted as a source of thunderstorms gamma-ray radiation. Avalanches' dynamics in the electric fields can lead to their multiplication via gamma-rays and positrons, which is called relativistic feedback. This report shows that a non-uniform electric field geometry leads to the new RREAs multiplication mechanism - “geometric feedback”, which occurs due to the exchange of high-energy particles between different accelerating regions within a thundercloud. This report will present the results of the simulation in GEANT4 of feedback in a spherical cell. Necessary conditions for the occurrence of geometric feedback were obtained from it.

Keywords: electric field, GEANT4, gamma-rays, relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs), relativistic feedback, the thundercloud

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
106 The Theory of Number "0"

Authors: Iryna Shevchenko

Abstract:

The science of mathematics was originated at the order of count of objects and subsequently for the measurement of size and quality of objects using the logical or abstract means. The laws of mathematics are based on the study of absolute values. The number 0 or "nothing" is the purely logical (as the opposite to absolute) value as the "nothing" should always assume the space for the something that had existed there; otherwise the "something" would never come to existence. In this work we are going to prove that the number "0" is the abstract (logical) and not an absolute number and it has the absolute value of “∞” (infinity). Therefore, the number "0" might not stand in the row of numbers that symbolically represents the absolute values, as it would be the mathematically incorrect. The symbolical value of number "0" in the row of numbers could be represented with symbol "∞" (infinity). As a result, we have the mathematical row of numbers: epsilon, ...4, 3, 2, 1, ∞. As the conclusions of the theory of number “0” we presented the statements: multiplication and division by fractions of numbers is illegal operation and the mathematical division by number “0” is allowed.

Keywords: illegal operation of division and multiplication by fractions of number, infinity, mathematical row of numbers, theory of number “0”

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
105 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano

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A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: high voltage, IGBT, solid state switch, bipolar transistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
104 Influence of Cyperus Rotundus Active Principles Inhibit Viral Multiplication and Stimulate Immune System in Indian White Shrimp Fenneropenaeus Indicus against White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

Authors: Thavasimuthu Citarasu, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Vikram Vakharia

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The rhizome of Java grass, Cyperus rotundus was extracted different organic polar and non-polar solvents and performed the in vitro antiviral and immunostimulant activities against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively. Based on the initial screening the ethyl acetate extract of C. rotundus was strong activities and further it was purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions were screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. Among the different fractions screened against the WSSV and V. harveyi, the fractions, F-III to FV had strong activities. In order to study the in vivo influence of C. rotundus, the fractions (F-III to FV) were pooled and delivered to the F. indicus through artificial feed for 30 days. After the feeding trail the experimental and control diet fed F. indicus were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the survival, molecular diagnosis, biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. Surprisingly, the pooled fractions (F-III to FV) incorporated diets helped to significantly (P < 0.01) suppressed viral multiplication, showed significant (P < 0.01) differences in protein and glucose levels, improved total haemocyte count (THC), coagulase activity, significantly increased (P < =0.001) prophenol oxidase and intracellular superoxide anion production compared to the control shrimps. Based on the results, C. rotundus extracts effectively suppressed WSSV multiplication and improve the immune system in F. indicus against WSSV infection and this knowledge will helps to develop novel drugs from C. rotundus against WSSV.

Keywords: antiviral drugs, cyperus rotundus, fenneropenaeus indicus, WSSV

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
103 Designing Teaching Aids for Dyslexia Students in Mathematics Multiplication

Authors: Mohini Mohamed, Nurul Huda Mas’od

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This study was aimed at designing and developing an assistive mathematical teaching aid (courseware) in helping dyslexic students in learning multiplication. Computers and multimedia interactive courseware has benefits students in terms of increase learner’s motivation and engage them to stay on task in classroom. Most disability student has short attention span thus with the advantage offered by multimedia interactive courseware allows them to retain the learning process for longer period as compared to traditional chalk and talk method. This study was conducted in a public school at a primary level with the help of three special education teachers and six dyslexic students as participants. Qualitative methodology using interview with special education teachers and observations in classes were conducted. The development of the multimedia interactive courseware in this study was divided to three processes which were analysis and design, development and evaluation. The courseware was evaluated by using User Acceptance Survey Form and interview. Feedbacks from teachers were used to alter, correct and develop the application for a better multimedia interactive courseware.

Keywords: disability students, dyslexia, mathematics teaching aid, multimedia interactive courseware

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
102 Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition

Authors: Chiou-Yng Lee, Wen-Yo Lee, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Cheng-Chen Yang

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Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit-level and digit-level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.

Keywords: digit-serial systolic multiplier, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), Karatsuba algorithm (KA), shifted polynomial basis (SPB), pairing computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
101 Mixed Number Algebra and Its Application

Authors: Md. Shah Alam

Abstract:

Mushfiq Ahmad has defined a Mixed Number, which is the sum of a scalar and a Cartesian vector. He has also defined the elementary group operations of Mixed numbers i.e. the norm of Mixed numbers, the product of two Mixed numbers, the identity element and the inverse. It has been observed that Mixed Number is consistent with Pauli matrix algebra and a handy tool to work with Dirac electron theory. Its use as a mathematical method in Physics has been studied. (1) We have applied Mixed number in Quantum Mechanics: Mixed Number version of Displacement operator, Vector differential operator, and Angular momentum operator has been developed. Mixed Number method has also been applied to Klein-Gordon equation. (2) We have applied Mixed number in Electrodynamics: Mixed Number version of Maxwell’s equation, the Electric and Magnetic field quantities and Lorentz Force has been found. (3) An associative transformation of Mixed Number numbers fulfilling Lorentz invariance requirement is developed. (4) We have applied Mixed number algebra as an extension of Complex number. Mixed numbers and the Quaternions have isomorphic correspondence, but they are different in algebraic details. The multiplication of unit Mixed number and the multiplication of unit Quaternions are different. Since Mixed Number has properties similar to those of Pauli matrix algebra, Mixed Number algebra is a more convenient tool to deal with Dirac equation.

Keywords: mixed number, special relativity, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, pauli matrix

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100 Effet of Humic Substance on Ex-Vitro Propagation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.)

Authors: Abdelghani Tahiri, Youssef Karra, Naima Ait Aabd, Abdelaziz Mimouni

Abstract:

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), the most expensive spice in the world derived from the stigmas, is an autumn-flowering and sterile triploid (2n=3x=24) geophyte species that belong to the Iridaceae family. This plant species is mainly propagated vegetatively through the formation of daughter corms from the mother one. Low multiplication rates of daughter corms under natural conditions, along with fungal contamination, significantly reduce the productivity and quality of saffron corms. The development of efficient and sustainable strategies for rapid and large-scale production of selected cultivars of saffron will be desired. For this, the main objective of this work is to improve the vegetative propagation of saffron under ex-vitro conditions. Preliminary results of the influence of increasing doses of humic substances (HS) on the growth and multiplication of corms under greenhouse conditions are evaluated. The obtained data shows that the effect of HS depends on the concentration used and the mode of application. Indeed, the application through irrigation has increased the number of shoots and corms, but it has reduced other parameters. On the other hand, the temporary treatment has improved all observed parameters except for the number of shoots and corms. Results obtained in this work suggest that it is possible to improve the propagation of saffron corms under greenhouse conditions.

Keywords: saffron, Crocus sativus L., corm, humic substances

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99 Performance Evaluation of Wideband Code Division Multiplication Network

Authors: Osama Abdallah Mohammed Enan, Amin Babiker A/Nabi Mustafa

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate and analyze different parameters of WCDMA (wideband code division multiplication). Moreover, this study also incorporates brief yet throughout analysis of WCDMA’s components as well as its internal architecture. This study also examines different power controls. These power controls may include open loop power control, closed or inner group loop power control and outer loop power control. Different handover techniques or methods of WCDMA are also illustrated in this study. These handovers may include hard handover, inter system handover and soft and softer handover. Different duplexing techniques are also described in the paper. This study has also presented an idea about different parameters of WCDMA that leads the system towards QoS issues. This may help the operator in designing and developing adequate network configuration. In addition to this, the study has also investigated various parameters including Bit Energy per Noise Spectral Density (Eb/No), Noise rise, and Bit Error Rate (BER). After simulating these parameters, using MATLAB environment, it was investigated that, for a given Eb/No value the system capacity increase by increasing the reuse factor. Besides that, it was also analyzed that, noise rise is decreasing for lower data rates and for lower interference levels. Finally, it was examined that, BER increase by using one type of modulation technique than using other type of modulation technique.

Keywords: duplexing, handover, loop power control, WCDMA

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98 Embedded Semantic Segmentation Network Optimized for Matrix Multiplication Accelerator

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee

Abstract:

Autonomous driving systems require high reliability to provide people with a safe and comfortable driving experience. However, despite the development of a number of vehicle sensors, it is difficult to always provide high perceived performance in driving environments that vary from time to season. The image segmentation method using deep learning, which has recently evolved rapidly, provides high recognition performance in various road environments stably. However, since the system controls a vehicle in real time, a highly complex deep learning network cannot be used due to time and memory constraints. Moreover, efficient networks are optimized for GPU environments, which degrade performance in embedded processor environments equipped simple hardware accelerators. In this paper, a semantic segmentation network, matrix multiplication accelerator network (MMANet), optimized for matrix multiplication accelerator (MMA) on Texas instrument digital signal processors (TI DSP) is proposed to improve the recognition performance of autonomous driving system. The proposed method is designed to maximize the number of layers that can be performed in a limited time to provide reliable driving environment information in real time. First, the number of channels in the activation map is fixed to fit the structure of MMA. By increasing the number of parallel branches, the lack of information caused by fixing the number of channels is resolved. Second, an efficient convolution is selected depending on the size of the activation. Since MMA is a fixed, it may be more efficient for normal convolution than depthwise separable convolution depending on memory access overhead. Thus, a convolution type is decided according to output stride to increase network depth. In addition, memory access time is minimized by processing operations only in L3 cache. Lastly, reliable contexts are extracted using the extended atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP). The suggested method gets stable features from an extended path by increasing the kernel size and accessing consecutive data. In addition, it consists of two ASPPs to obtain high quality contexts using the restored shape without global average pooling paths since the layer uses MMA as a simple adder. To verify the proposed method, an experiment is conducted using perfsim, a timing simulator, and the Cityscapes validation sets. The proposed network can process an image with 640 x 480 resolution for 6.67 ms, so six cameras can be used to identify the surroundings of the vehicle as 20 frame per second (FPS). In addition, it achieves 73.1% mean intersection over union (mIoU) which is the highest recognition rate among embedded networks on the Cityscapes validation set.

Keywords: edge network, embedded network, MMA, matrix multiplication accelerator, semantic segmentation network

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