Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3349

Search results for: compact modeling

3349 Analysis of the Temperature Dependence of Local Avalanche Compact Model for Bipolar Transistors

Authors: Robert Setekera, Ramses van der Toorn


We present an extensive analysis of the temperature dependence of the local avalanche model used in most of the modern compact models for bipolar transistors. This local avalanche model uses the Chynoweth's empirical law for ionization coefficient to define the generation of the avalanche current in terms of the local electric field. We carry out the model analysis using DC-measurements taken on both Si and advanced SiGe bipolar transistors. For the advanced industrial SiGe-HBTs, we consider both high-speed and high-power devices (both NPN and PNP transistors). The limitations of the local avalanche model in modeling the temperature dependence of the avalanche current mostly in the weak avalanche region are demonstrated. In addition, the model avalanche parameters are analyzed to see if they are in agreement with semiconductor device physics.

Keywords: avalanche multiplication, avalanche current, bipolar transistors, compact modeling, electric field, impact ionization, local avalanche

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
3348 Compact Finite Difference Schemes for Fourth Order Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Sufyan Muhammad


Recently, in achieving highly efficient but at the same time highly accurate solutions has become the major target of numerical analyst community. The concept is termed as compact schemes and has gained great popularity and consequently, we construct compact schemes for fourth order parabolic differential equations used to study vibrations in structures. For the superiority of newly constructed schemes, we consider range of examples. We have achieved followings i.e. (a) numerical scheme utilizes minimum number of stencil points (which means new scheme is compact); (b) numerical scheme is highly accurate (which means new scheme is reliable) and (c) numerical scheme is highly efficient (which means new scheme is fast).

Keywords: central finite differences, compact schemes, Bernoulli's equations, finite differences

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
3347 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour


This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dual-band E, dual-band L, WLAN, compact radiator

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3346 Impact of Lifestyle and User Expectations on the Demand of Compact Living Spaces in the Home Interiors in Indian Cities

Authors: Velly Kapadia, Reenu Singh


This report identifies the long-term driving forces behind urbanization and the impact of compact living on both society and the home and proposes a concept to create smarter and more sustainable homes. Compact living has been trending across India as a sustainable housing solution, and the reality is that India is currently facing a housing shortage in urban areas of around 10 million units. With the rising demand for housing, urban land prices have been rising and the cost of homes. The paper explores how and why the interior design of the homes can be improved to relieve the housing demand in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine living patterns, area requirements, ecological footprints, energy consumption, purchasing patterns, and various pro-environmental behaviors of people who downsize to compact homes. Quantitative research explores sustainable material choices, durability, functionality, cost, and reusability of furniture. Besides addressing the need for smart and sustainable designed compact homes, a conceptual model is proposed, including options of ideal schematic layouts for homes in urban areas. In the conclusions, suggestions to improve space planning and suitable interior entities have been made to support the fact that compact homes are an eminently practical and sensible solution for the urban citizen.

Keywords: compact living, housing shortage, lifestyle, sustainable interior design

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3345 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN

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3344 Compact Settlement: The Direction of Chinese Future Urban Residential Area Sustainable Development

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu


Residential area construction links many problems such as population resources, ecology, social values, public services and transportation in the city. After Chinese housing reform, a large number of residential area development accompanied by the loss of agricultural and ecological land. To explore the future of Chinese urban residential area, this article concentrates on how the 'Compact Settlement' behaves in improving the living environment and saving the resources. Through the research of residential area in Hangzhou, there are some determines that increasing the development intensity of the area can indeed bring some improvement in the overall environment. In conclusion, possible design alternatives are discussed for leading Chinese urban development towards a more sustainable path.

Keywords: compact city development, environmental sustainability, residential area, Hangzhou

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3343 Proposing a Failure Criterion for Cohesionless Media Considering Cyclic Fabric Anisotropy

Authors: Ali Noorzad, Ehsan Badakhshan, Shima Zameni


The present paper is focused on a generalized failure criterion for geomaterials with cross-anisotropy. The cyclic behavior of granular material primarily depends on the nature and arrangement of constituent particles, particle size, and shape that affect fabric anisotropy. To account for the influence of loading directions on strength variations, an anisotropic variable in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor and fabric into the failure criterion is proposed. In an extension to original CANAsand constitutive model two concepts namely critical state and compact state play paramount roles as all of the moduli and coefficients are related to these states. The applicability of the present model is evaluated through comparisons between the predicted and the measured results. All simulations have demonstrated that the proposed constitutive model is capable of modeling the cyclic behavior of sand with inherent anisotropy.

Keywords: fabric, cohesionless media, cyclic loading, critical state, compact state, CANAsand constitutive model

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3342 A Novel Design of Inset Feed Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application

Authors: Priyanka Aggarwal, Priyanka Mangla


This work has focused on the aspect of UWB antenna design, which is very suitable for portable UWB applications. The design of new UWB antenna faces some challenges. The antenna should be compact, preferably conformal, and low cost for manufacture, and have good electrical performance, such as good matching, directional radiation performance over a wide band, good time response, etc. Keeping these goals in mind a compact and directional compact open-slot antenna was built. The antenna radiating structure is in the form of two exponentially tapered arms that lie on the opposite sides of the substrate. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 2.95 GHz to more than 12.1 GHz. It exhibits a directive radiation performance with a peak gain which is between 5.4 dBi and 8.3 dBi in the specified band. The antenna has linear phase response over the entire UWB frequency range and hence constant group delay which is vital for transmission and reception of sub-nanosecond pulses. Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: inset feed patch antenna, ultra wide band, radiation performance, geometry, antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3341 Voltage Controlled Ring Oscillator for RF Applications in 0.18 µm CMOS Technology

Authors: Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan, Zainal Abidin Nordin, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz


A compact and power efficient high performance Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is a must in analog and digital circuits especially in the communication system, but the best trade-off among the performance parameters is a challenge for researchers. In this paper, a design of a compact 3-stage differential voltage controlled ring oscillator (VCRO) with low phase noise, low power and higher tuning bandwidth is proposed in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The VCRO is designed with symmetric load and positive feedback techniques to achieve higher gain and minimum delay. The proposed VCRO can operate at tuning range of 3.9-5.0 GHz at 1.6 V supply voltage. The circuit consumes only 1.0757 mW of power and produces -129 dbc/Hz. The total active area of the proposed VCRO is only 11.74 x 37.73 µm2. Such a VCO can be the best choice for compact and low-power RF applications.

Keywords: CMOS, VCO, VCRO, oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
3340 Salinity Effects on Germination of Malaysian Rice Varieties and Weedy Rice Biotypes

Authors: M. Kamal Uddin, H. Mohd Dandan, Ame H. Alidin


Germination and seedling growth of plant species are reduced in saline due to an external osmotic potential. An experiment was conducted at the laboratory, Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, to compare the salt effect on seed germination and growth of weedy rice and cultivated rice. Seeds (10 in each) were placed in petri dishes. Five salinity levels 0 (distilled water), 4, 8, 12 and 16 dSm-1 (NaCl) were applied. The number of germinated seeds was recorded daily. The final germination percentage, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index (SVI) mean germination time (MGT), shoot and root dry weight were estimated. At highest salinity (16 dSm-1) germination percentage was higher (100%) in weedy rice awn and weedy rice compact. Lowest germination percentage was in MR219 and TQR-8 (50-60%). Mean germination time (MGT) was found higher in all weedy rice biotypes compared to cultivated rice. At highest salinity (16dSm-1) weedy rice open produced the highest MGT (9.92) followed by weedy rice compact (9.73) while lowest MGT was in MR219 (9.48). At highest salinity (16dSm-1) germination index was higher in weedy rice awn (11.71) and compact type (9.62). Lowest germination index was in MR219 (5.90) and TQR-8 (8.94). At the highest salinity (16 dSm−1), seedling vigor index was highest in weedy rice awn (6.06) followed by weedy rice compact (5.26); while lowest was in MR219 (2.11) followed by MR269 (3.82).On the basis of Germination index, seedling vigor index and growth related results it could be concluded that weedy rice awn, compact and open biotypes were more salt tolerant compared to other cultivated rice MR219, MR269, and TQR-8.

Keywords: germination, salinity, rice and weedy rice, sustainable agriculture

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3339 Development of a Compact Permanent Magnet Axial Flux Motor Using Soft Magnetic Composite

Authors: Nasiru Aliyu, Glyn Atkinson, Nick Stannard


With increasing demand for electric motors used in nearly all sectors of our day to day activities, which range from the motor that rotates the washing machine and dishwasher to the tens of thousands of motors used in domestic appliance. The number of applications for soft magnetic composites (SMC) material is growing significantly. This paper presents the development of a compact single sided concentrated winding axial flux PM motor using soft magnetic composite as core for reducing core losses and cost. The effects of changing the flux carrying component to pressed SMC parts are investigated based on a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the material. A 3-D finite-element analysis is performed for accurate parameter calculation. To validate the simulation, a new static test measurement was fully conducted on a prototype motor and agree with the theoretical calculations and old measured static test.

Keywords: SMC, compact development, axial field motor, 3DFA

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3338 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network (WLAN)

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3337 Investigations of Thermo Fluid Characteristics of Copper Alloy Porous Heat Sinks by Forced Air Cooling

Authors: Ashish Mahalle, Kishore Borakhade


High porosity metal foams are excellent for heat dissipation. There use has been widened to include heat removal from high density microelectronics circuits. Other important applications have been found in compact heat exchangers for airborne equipment, regenerative and dissipative air cooled condenser towers, and compact heat sinks for power electronic. The low relative density, open porosity and high thermal conductivity of the cell edges, large accessible surface area per unit volume, and the ability to mix the cooling fluid make metal foam heat exchangers efficient, compact and light weight. This paper reports the thermal performance of metal foam for high heat dissipation. In experimentation metal foam samples of different pore diameters i.e. 35 µ, 20 µ, 12 µ, are analyzed for varying velocities and heat inputs. The study investigate the effect of various dimensionless no. like Re,Nu, Pr and heat transfer characteristics of basic flow configuration.

Keywords: pores, foam, effective thermal conductivity, permeability

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3336 Carbon Emission Reduction by Compact City Construction in Toyama, Japan

Authors: Benyan Jiang, Dawei Xia, Yong Li


Compact city construction is considered as an effective measure to reduce carbon emission in city lives. Toyama City started its compact city strategy in 2000 and was selected as a Japanese Environmental Model City in 2008 for its achievement. This paper takes Toyama as a study case, aiming to find how city polices affected people’s life styles and reduced carbon emission. The main materials used in this study are first-hand documents, like urban planning materials, government annual report and statistic data from transportation association. It is found that the main measures taken by Toyama City include the construction of light rail transit, increasing the frequency of buses, building park and ride parking lots. In addition to hardware facilities, it also offers flexible policies like passengers' coupons for the senior citizens and free use of parking lots by buying shopping vouchers. Besides, Toyama City encourages citizens to live within 500 meters of public transportation. People who buy an apartment near public transportation will receive 500,000 Japanese Yen. These measures have proven to their effects. Compared with 2005, in 2014, the transportation sector reduced emissions of 2.35 million tons of CO₂, 13.6%. This aspect is related to the increase in the number of cars in public transport and also related to fuel improvement.

Keywords: Toyama, compact city, public transportation, CO₂ reduction

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3335 Compactness and Quality of Life: Applying Regression Analysis on American Cities

Authors: Hsi-Chuan Wang, Hongxi Yin


Compactness has been proposed as a type of sustainable urban form globally. However, the meanings and the measurements might diverse in regarding to the varying interpretation; moreover, since compactness was proposed to eliminate auto culture and urban sprawl in the developed countries, voices have emerged asking to rethink the suitability of compactness in the developing countries – based upon such understanding, Quality of Life (QOL) has been suggested as a good way to show the overall benefit of compactness. In regarding to such background, two subjects were targeted for discussion in this paper: (I) the meaning and feasibility of compactness between the developing and developed countries, and (II) the interaction between compactness and QOL. This paper argues that compactness should not be considered a universal principle for cities of all kind, but rather an ideal concept for urban designer and planner to consider throughout local practices. It firstly reviewed the benefits of both compactness and sprawl to uncover the features behind these urban forms, and later addressed the meaning and difficulty of adopting compactness in both the developing and developed countries. Secondly, arguing compactness to be positioned as a ‘process’ along the transition from the developing countries to the developed ones, this paper applied both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to uncover (I) the relationship between compactness and QOL in regarding to 30 American cities and (II) the impact of ‘becoming compact’ on QOL in regarding to 8 identified American Urbanized Areas (UZAs). The findings indicated that higher compactness could link to lower QOL among the compact cities, but with higher QOL among the sprawl cities. In addition, based upon the comparison between 2000 and 2010 on 8 UZAs, their QOL have escalated during the transition from the sprawl areas into the compact ones, but the extent of improvement in QOL could differ greatly among areas. In regarding to our findings, compact development should be proposed as a general guideline leading the contemporary sprawl cities in transition with sustainable urbanism; however, to prevent the externalities from damaging QOL with over-compactness, the compact policy should be flexible to adjust a long-term roadmap for sustainable development.

Keywords: compactness, quality of life, sprawl, sustainable urbanism

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3334 System Analysis on Compact Heat Storage in the Built Environment

Authors: Wilko Planje, Remco Pollé, Frank van Buuren


An increased share of renewable energy sources in the built environment implies the usage of energy buffers to match supply and demand and to prevent overloads of existing grids. Compact heat storage systems based on thermochemical materials (TCM) are promising to be incorporated in future installations as an alternative for regular thermal buffers. This is due to the high energy density (1 – 2 GJ/m3). In order to determine the feasibility of TCM-based systems on building level several installation configurations are simulated and analyzed for different mixes of renewable energy sources (solar thermal, PV, wind, underground, air) for apartments/multistore-buildings for the Dutch situation. Thereby capacity, volume and financial costs are calculated. The simulation consists of options to include the current and future wind power (sea and land) and local roof-attached PV or solar-thermal systems. Thereby, the compact thermal buffer and optionally an electric battery (typically 10 kWhe) form the local storage elements for energy matching and shaving purposes. Besides, electric-driven heat pumps (air / ground) can be included for efficient heat generation in case of power-to-heat. The total local installation provides both space heating, domestic hot water as well as electricity for a specific case with low-energy apartments (annually 9 GJth + 8 GJe) in the year 2025. The energy balance is completed with grid-supplied non-renewable electricity. Taking into account the grid capacities (permanent 1 kWe/household), spatial requirements for the thermal buffer (< 2.5 m3/household) and a desired minimum of 90% share of renewable energy per household on the total consumption the wind-powered scenario results in acceptable sizes of compact thermal buffers with an energy-capacity of 4 - 5 GJth per household. This buffer is combined with a 10 kWhe battery and air source heat pump system. Compact thermal buffers of less than 1 GJ (typically volumes 0.5 - 1 m3) are possible when the installed wind-power is increased with a factor 5. In case of 15-fold of installed wind power compact heat storage devices compete with 1000 L water buffers. The conclusion is that compact heat storage systems can be of interest in the coming decades in combination with well-retrofitted low energy residences based on the current trends of installed renewable energy power.

Keywords: compact thermal storage, thermochemical material, built environment, renewable energy

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3333 A Rapid and Cost-Effective Approach to Manufacturing Modeling Platform for Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: Chil-Chyuan Kuo, Chen-Hsuan Tsai


This study presents a cost-effective approach for rapid fabricating modeling platforms utilized in fused deposition modeling system. A small-batch production of modeling platforms about 20 pieces can be obtained economically through silicone rubber mold using vacuum casting without applying the plastic injection molding. The air venting systems is crucial for fabricating modeling platform using vacuum casting. Modeling platforms fabricated can be used for building rapid prototyping model after sandblasting. This study offers industrial value because it has both time-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

Keywords: vacuum casting, fused deposition modeling, modeling platform, sandblasting, surface roughness

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3332 Simulation and Characterization of Compact Magnetic Proton Recoil Spectrometer for Fast Neutron Spectra Measurements

Authors: Xingyu Peng, Qingyuan Hu, Xuebin Zhu, Xi Yuan


Neutron spectrometry has contributed much to the development of nuclear physics since 1932 and has also become an importance tool in several other fields, notably nuclear technology, fusion plasma diagnostics and radiation protection. Compared with neutron fluxes, neutron spectra can provide more detailed information on the internal physical process of neutron sources, such as fast neutron reactors, fusion plasma, fission-fusion hybrid reactors, and so on. However, high performance neutron spectrometer is not so commonly available as it requires the use of large and complex instrumentation. This work describes the development and characterization of a compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for high-resolution measurements of fast neutron spectra. The compact MPR spectrometer is featured by its large recoil angle, small size permanent analysis magnet, short beam transport line and dual-purpose detector array for both steady state and pulsed neutron spectra measurement. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle transport code is developed to simulate the response function of the spectrometer. Simulation results illustrate that the performance of the spectrometer is mainly determined by n-p recoil foil and proton apertures, and an overall energy resolution of 3% is achieved for 14 MeV neutrons. Dedicated experiments using alpha source and mono-energetic neutron beam are employed to verify the simulated response function of the compact MPR spectrometer. These experimental results show a good agreement with the simulated ones, which indicates that the simulation code possesses good accuracy and reliability. The compact MPR spectrometer described in this work is a valuable tool for fast neutron spectra measurements for the fission or fusion devices.

Keywords: neutron spectrometry, magnetic proton recoil spectrometer, neutron spectra, fast neutron

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3331 Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang


This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: dual-band, bandpass filter, stepped impedance resonators, SIR

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3330 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi


Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines, ultra-wideband

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3329 New High Order Group Iterative Schemes in the Solution of Poisson Equation

Authors: Sam Teek Ling, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd. Ali


We investigate the formulation and implementation of new explicit group iterative methods in solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The methods are derived from a fourth order compact nine point finite difference discretization. The methods are compared with the existing second order standard five point formula to show the dramatic improvement in computed accuracy. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: explicit group iterative method, finite difference, fourth order compact, Poisson equation

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3328 Standardized Description and Modeling Methods of Semiconductor IP Interfaces

Authors: Seongsoo Lee


IP reuse is an effective design methodology for modern SoC design to reduce effort and time. However, description and modeling methods of IP interfaces are different due to different IP designers. In this paper, standardized description and modeling methods of IP interfaces are proposed. It consists of 11 items such as IP information, model provision, data type, description level, interface information, port information, signal information, protocol information, modeling level, modeling information, and source file. The proposed description and modeling methods enables easy understanding, simulation, verification, and modification in IP reuse.

Keywords: interface, standardization, description, modeling, semiconductor IP

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3327 A Study of Closed Sets and Maps with Ideals

Authors: Asha Gupta, Ramandeep Kaur


The purpose of this paper is to study a class of closed sets, called generalized pre-closed sets with respect to an ideal (briefly Igp-closed sets), which is an extension of generalized pre-closed sets in general topology. Then, by using these sets, the concepts of Igp- compact spaces along with some classes of maps like continuous and closed maps via ideals have been introduced and analogues of some known results for compact spaces, continuous maps and closed maps in general topology have been obtained.

Keywords: ideal, gp-closed sets, gp-closed maps, gp-continuous maps

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3326 Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Residents for Urban Spatial Restructuring

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park, Taehyun Kim


Since the rapid economic development, Korea has recently entered a period of low growth due to population decline and aging. Due to the urbanization around the metropolitan area and the hollowing of local cities, the ecological capacity of a city is decreasing while ecological footprints are increasing, requiring a compact space plan for maintaining urban functions. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between urban spatial structure and residents' ecological footprints for sustainable spatial planning. To do this, we try to analyze the relationship between intra-urban spatial structure, such as net/gross density and service accessibility, and resident ecological footprints of food, housing, transportation, goods and services through survey and structural equation modeling. The results of the study will be useful in establishing an implementation plan for sustainable development goals (SDGs), especially for sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) and responsible consumption and production (SDG 12) in the future.

Keywords: ecological footprint, structural equation modeling, survey, sustainability, urban spatial structure

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3325 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach


A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design is composed of a rectangular patch with symmetric L-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875

Keywords: UWB planar antenna, L-shaped slots, wireless applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST

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3324 Design of a Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for LTE Applications by Applying FDSC Model

Authors: Settapong Malisuwan, Jesada Sivaraks, Peerawat Promkladpanao, Nattakit Suriyakrai, Navneet Madan


In this paper, a compact microstrip patch antenna is designed for mobile LTE applications by applying the frequency-dependent Smith-Chart (FDSC) model. The FDSC model is adopted in this research to reduce the error on the frequency-dependent characteristics. The Ansoft HFSS and various techniques is applied to meet frequency and size requirements. The proposed method within this research is suitable for use in computer-aided microstrip antenna design and RF integrated circuit (RFIC) design.

Keywords: frequency-dependent, smith-chart, microstrip, antenna, LTE, CAD

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3323 Urban Compactness and Sustainability: Beijing Experience

Authors: Xilu Liu, Ameen Farooq


Beijing has several compact residential housing settings in many of its urban districts. The study in this paper reveals that urban compactness, as predictor of density, may carry an altogether different meaning in the developing world when compared to the U.S for achieving objectives of urban sustainability. Recent urban design studies in the U.S are debating for compact and mixed-use higher density housing to achieve sustainable and energy efficient living environments. While the concept of urban compactness is widely accepted as an approach in modern architectural and urban design fields, this belief may not directly carry well into all areas within cities of developing countries. Beijing’s technology-driven economy, with its historic and rich cultural heritage and a highly speculated real-estate market, extends its urban boundaries into multiple compact urban settings of varying scales and densities. The accelerated pace of migration from the countryside for better opportunities has led to unsustainable and uncontrolled buildups in order to meet the growing population demand within and outside of the urban center. This unwarranted compactness in certain urban zones has produced an unhealthy physical density with serious environmental and ecological challenging basic living conditions. In addition, crowding, traffic congestion, pollution and limited housing surrounding this compactness is a threat to public health. Several residential blocks in close proximity to each other were found quite compacted, or ill-planned, with residential sites due to lack of proper planning in Beijing. Most of them at first sight appear to be compact and dense but further analytical studies revealed that what appear to be dense actually are not as dense as to make a good case that could serve as the corner stone of sustainability and energy efficiency. This study considered several factors including floor area ratio (FAR), ground coverage (GSI), open space ratio (OSR) as indicators in analyzing urban compactness as a predictor of density. The findings suggest that these measures, influencing the density of residential sites under study, were much smaller in density than expected given their compact adjacencies. Further analysis revealed that several residential housing appear to support the notion of density in its compact layout but are actually compacted due to unregulated planning marred by lack of proper urban design standards, policies and guidelines specific to their urban context and condition.

Keywords: Beijing, density, sustainability, urban compactness

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3322 Robust Single/Multi bit Memristor Based Memory

Authors: Ahmed Emara, Maged Ghoneima, Mohamed Dessouky


Demand for low power fast memories is increasing with the increase in IC’s complexity, in this paper we introduce a proposal for a compact SRAM based on memristor devices. The compact size of the proposed cell (1T2M compared to 6T of traditional SRAMs) allows denser memories on the same area. In this paper, we will discuss the proposed memristor memory cell for single/multi bit data storing configurations along with the writing and reading operations. Stored data stability across successive read operation will be illustrated, operational simulation results and a comparison of our proposed design with previously conventional SRAM and previously proposed memristor cells will be provided.

Keywords: memristor, multi-bit, single-bit, circuits, systems

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3321 Comparative Advantage of Mobile Agent Application in Procuring Software Products on the Internet

Authors: Michael K. Adu, Boniface K. Alese, Olumide S. Ogunnusi


This paper brings to fore the inherent advantages in application of mobile agents to procure software products rather than downloading software content on the Internet. It proposes a system whereby the products come on compact disk with mobile agent as deliverable. The client/user purchases a software product, but must connect to the remote server of the software developer before installation. The user provides an activation code that activates mobile agent which is part of the software product on compact disk. The validity of the activation code is checked on connection at the developer’s end to ascertain authenticity and prevent piracy. The system is implemented by downloading two different software products as compare with installing same products on compact disk with mobile agent’s application. Downloading software contents from developer’s database as in the traditional method requires a continuously open connection between the client and the developer’s end, a fixed network is not economically or technically feasible. Mobile agent after being dispatched into the network becomes independent of the creating process and can operate asynchronously and autonomously. It can reconnect later after completing its task and return for result delivery. Response Time and Network Load are very minimal with application of Mobile agent.

Keywords: software products, software developer, internet, activation code, mobile agent

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3320 A Comparative Study on ANN, ANFIS and SVM Methods for Computing Resonant Frequency of A-Shaped Compact Microstrip Antennas

Authors: Ahmet Kayabasi, Ali Akdagli


In this study, three robust predicting methods, namely artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for computing the resonant frequency of A-shaped compact microstrip antennas (ACMAs) operating at UHF band. Firstly, the resonant frequencies of 144 ACMAs with various dimensions and electrical parameters were simulated with the help of IE3D™ based on method of moment (MoM). The ANN, ANFIS and SVM models for computing the resonant frequency were then built by considering the simulation data. 124 simulated ACMAs were utilized for training and the remaining 20 ACMAs were used for testing the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models are compared in the training and test process. The average percentage errors (APE) regarding the computed resonant frequencies for training of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM were obtained as 0.457%, 0.399% and 0.600%, respectively. The constructed models were then tested and APE values as 0.601% for ANN, 0.744% for ANFIS and 0.623% for SVM were achieved. The results obtained here show that ANN, ANFIS and SVM methods can be successfully applied to compute the resonant frequency of ACMAs, since they are useful and versatile methods that yield accurate results.

Keywords: a-shaped compact microstrip antenna, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), support vector machine (SVM)

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