Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2883

Search results for: photo induced polymerization

2883 Photopolymerization of Dimethacrylamide with (Meth)acrylates

Authors: Yuling Xu, Haibo Wang, Dong Xie

Abstract:

A photopolymerizable dimethacrylamide was synthesized and copolymerized with the selected (meth)acrylates. The polymerization rate, degree of conversion, gel time, and compressive strength of the formed neat resins were investigated. The results show that in situ photo-polymerization of the synthesized dimethacrylamide with comonomers having an electron-withdrawing and/or acrylate group dramatically increased the polymerization rate, degree of conversion, and compressive strength. On the other hand, an electron-donating group on either carbon-carbon double bond or the ester linkage slowed down the polymerization. In contrast, the triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-based system did not show a clear pattern. Both strong hydrogen-bonding between (meth)acrylamide and organic acid groups may be responsible for higher compressive strengths. Within the limitation of this study, the photo-polymerization of dimethacrylamide can be greatly accelerated by copolymerization with monomers having electron-withdrawing and/or acrylate groups. The monomers with methacrylate group can significantly reduce the polymerization rate and degree of conversion.

Keywords: photopolymerization, dimethacrylamide, the degree of conversion, compressive strength

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2882 Impact of Light Intensity, Illumation Strategy and Self-Shading on Sustainable Algal Growth in Photo Bioreactors

Authors: Amritanshu Shriwastav, Purnendu Bose

Abstract:

Algal photo bioreactors were operated at incident light intensities of 0.24, 2.52 and 5.96 W L-1 to determine the impact of light on algal growth. Low specific Chlorophyll-a content of algae was a strong indicator of light induced stress on algal cells. It was concluded that long term operation of photo bioreactors in the continuous illumination mode was infeasible under the range of incident light intensities examined and provision of a dark period after each light period was necessary for algal cells to recover from light-induced stress. Long term operation of photo bioreactors in the intermittent illumination mode was however possible at light intensities of 0.24 and 2.52 W L-1. Further, the incident light intensity in the photo bioreactors was found to decline exponentially with increase in algal concentration in the reactor due to algal ‘self-shading’. This may be an important determinant for photo bioreactor performance at higher algal concentrations.

Keywords: Algae, algal growth, photo bioreactor, photo-inhibition, ‘self-shading’

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2881 Defect Induced Enhanced Photoresponse in Graphene

Authors: Prarthana Gowda, Tushar Sakorikar, Siva K. Reddy, Darim B. Ferry, Abha Misra

Abstract:

Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon allotrope has demonstrated excellent electrical, mechanical and optical properties. A tunable band gap of grapheme demonstrated broad band absorption of light with a response time of picoseconds, however it suffers a fast recombination of the photo generated carriers. Many reports have explored to overcome this problem; in this presentation, we discuss defect induced enhanced photoresponse in a few layer graphene (FLG) due to exposure of infrared (IR) radiation. The two and four-fold enhancement in the photocurrent is achieved by addition of multiwalled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) to an FLG surface and also creating the wrinkles in the FLG (WG) respectively. In our study, it is also inferred that the photo current generation is highly dependent on the morphological defects on the graphene. It is observed that the FLG (without defects) generates the photo current instantaneously, and after a prolonged exposure to the IR radiation decays the generation rate. Importantly, the presence of MWCNT on FLG enhances the stability and WG presented both stable as well as enhanced photo response.

Keywords: graphene, multiwalled carbon nano tubes, wrinkled graphene, photo detector, photo current

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2880 Synthesis and Two-Photon Polymerization of a Cytocompatibility Tyramine Functionalized Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel That Mimics the Chemical, Mechanical, and Structural Characteristics of Spinal Cord Tissue

Authors: James Britton, Vijaya Krishna, Manus Biggs, Abhay Pandit

Abstract:

Regeneration of the spinal cord after injury remains a great challenge due to the complexity of this organ. Inflammation and gliosis at the injury site hinder the outgrowth of axons and hence prevent synaptic reconnection and reinnervation. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the main component of the spinal cord extracellular matrix and plays a vital role in cell proliferation and axonal guidance. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized a photo-cross-linkable HA-tyramine (tyr) hydrogel from a chemical, mechanical, electrical, biological and structural perspective. From our experimentation, we have found that HA-tyr can be synthesized with controllable degrees of tyramine substitution using click chemistry. The complex modulus (G*) of HA-tyr can be tuned to mimic the mechanical properties of the native spinal cord via optimization of the photo-initiator concentration and UV exposure. We have examined the degree of tyramine-tyramine covalent bonding (polymerization) as a function of UV exposure and photo-initiator use via Photo and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both swelling and enzymatic degradation assays were conducted to examine the resilience of our 3D printed hydrogel constructs in-vitro. Using a femtosecond 780nm laser, the two-photon polymerization of HA-tyr hydrogel in the presence of riboflavin photoinitiator was optimized. A laser power of 50mW and scan speed of 30,000 μm/s produced high-resolution spatial patterning within the hydrogel with sustained mechanical integrity. Using dorsal root ganglion explants, the cytocompatibility of photo-crosslinked HA-tyr was assessed. Using potentiometry, the electrical conductivity of photo-crosslinked HA-tyr was assessed and compared to that of native spinal cord tissue as a function of frequency. In conclusion, we have developed a biocompatible hydrogel that can be used for photolithographic 3D printing to fabricate tissue engineered constructs for neural tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: 3D printing, hyaluronic acid, photolithography, spinal cord injury

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2879 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav

Abstract:

Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: degradation, nanocomposite, photocatalyst, spectroscopy, XRD

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2878 Optical Properties of N-(Hydroxymethyl) Acrylamide Polymer Gel Dosimeters for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Khalid A. Rabaeh, Belal Moftah, Ahmed A. Basfar, Akram A. Almousa

Abstract:

Polymer gel dosimeters are tissue equivalent martial that fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Polymer gel dosimeters can uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D). A novel composition of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) is introduced in this study for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 30 Gy. The polymerization degree is directly proportional to absorbed dose received by the polymer gel. UV/Vis spectrophotometer was used to investigate the degree of white color of irradiated NHMA gel which is associated to the degree of polymerization of polymer gel dosimeters. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose for all gel dosimeters in the dose range between 0 and 30 Gy. Dose rate , energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

Keywords: dosimeter, gel, spectrophotometer, N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide

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2877 Thermal Processing of Zn-Bi Layered Double Hydroxide ZnO Doped Bismuth for a Photo-Catalytic Efficiency under Light Visible

Authors: Benyamina Imane, Benalioua Bahia, Mansour Meriem, Bentouami Abdelhadi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of an acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The photo catalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of ZnO and ZnO-Bi respectively.

Keywords: LDH, POA, photo-catalysis, Bi-ZnO doping

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2876 Facial Design of Combined Photoelectrocehmcial-Fenton Coupling Nanocomposites for Antibiotic Eliminations

Authors: Xinyong Li

Abstract:

A new coupling system was constructed by combining photo-electrochemical cell with eletro-fenton cell (PEC-EF). The electrode material in this system was derived from MnyFe₁₋yCo Prussian-Blue-Analog (PBA). Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇[email protected] spin-coated on carbon paper behaved as the gas diffusion cathode and Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇O₂.₂ spin-coated on fluorine-tin oxide glass (FTO) as anode. The two separated cells could degrade Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) simultaneously and some coupling mechanisms by PEC and EF enhancing the degradation efficiency were investigated. The continuous on-site generation of H₂O₂ at cathode through an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was realized over rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE). The electron transfer number (n) of the ORR with Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇[email protected] was 2.5 in the selected potential and pH range. The photo-electrochemical properties of Mn₀.₄Fe₀.₆Co₀.₆₇O₂.₂ were systematically studied, which displayed good response towards visible light. The photo-induced electrons at anode can transfer to cathode for further use. Efficient photo-electro-catalytic performance was observed in degrading SMX. Almost 100% SMX removal was achieved in 120 min. This work not only provided a highly effective technique for antibiotic treatment but also revealed the synergic effect between PEC and EF.

Keywords: Electro-Fenton, photo-electrochemical, synergic effect, sulfamethoxazole

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2875 Swelling Behavior of Cross-Linked Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

Authors: Salah Hamri, Tewfik Bouchaour, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

The aim of this works is the study of swelling ratio of cross-linked polymer networks poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The system composed of erythrosine and Triethanolamine, in aqueous medium, is used as photo-initiator and 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate as cross-linker. The analysis of UV-visible and infrared spectra, which were taken at different times during polymerization/cross linking, makes it possible to obtain useful information on the reaction mechanism. The swelling behavior was study by changing the nature of solvent, dye sensitizer (erythrosine, rose Bengal and eosin), and pH of the medium. The exploitation of experimental results using Fick diffusion model is also expected and shows a good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: cross-linker, photo-sensitizer, polymer network, swelling ratio

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2874 Surface Modified Quantum Dots for Nanophotonics, Stereolithography and Hybrid Systems for Biomedical Studies

Authors: Redouane Krini, Lutz Nuhn, Hicham El Mard Cheol Woo Ha, Yoondeok Han, Kwang-Sup Lee, Dong-Yol Yang, Jinsoo Joo, Rudolf Zentel

Abstract:

To use Quantum Dots (QDs) in the two photon initiated polymerization technique (TPIP) for 3D patternings, QDs were modified on the surface with photosensitive end groups which are able to undergo a photopolymerization. We were able to fabricate fluorescent 3D lattice structures using photopatternable QDs by TPIP for photonic devices such as photonic crystals and metamaterials. The QDs in different diameter have different emission colors and through mixing of RGB QDs white light fluorescent from the polymeric structures has been created. Metamaterials are capable for unique interaction with the electrical and magnetic components of the electromagnetic radiation and for manipulating light it is crucial to have a negative refractive index. In combination with QDs via TPIP technique polymeric structures can be designed with properties which cannot be found in nature. This makes these artificial materials gaining a huge importance for real-life applications in photonic and optoelectronic. Understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is of a huge interest in the biomedical research field. We developed a synthetic strategy of polymer functionalized nanoparticles for biomedical studies to obtain hybrid systems of QDs and copolymers with a strong binding network in an inner shell and which can be modified in the end through their poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized outer shell. These hybrid systems can be used as models for investigation of cell penetration and drug delivery by using measurements combination between CryoTEM and fluorescence studies.

Keywords: biomedical study models, lithography, photo induced polymerization, quantum dots

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2873 Optimization of the Conditions of Oligomerization and Polymerization Processes of Selected Olefins with the Use of Complex Compounds of Transition Metal Ions

Authors: Joanna Drzeżdżon, Marzena Białek

Abstract:

Polyolefins are a group of materials used today in all areas of life. They are used in food, domestic and other industries. In particular, polyethylene and polypropylene have found application in the production of packaging materials, pipes, containers, car parts, as well as elements of medical equipment, e.g., syringes. Optimization of the polymerization and oligomerization processes of selected olefins is a very important stage before the technological implementation of polyolefin production. The purpose of the studies is to determine the conditions for ethylene polymerization as well as 3-buten-2-ol and 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol oligomerization with the use of oxovanadium(IV) dipicolinate complexes with N-heterocyclic ligands. Additionally, the studies aim to determine the catalytic activities of the dipicolinate oxovanadium(IV) complexes with N-heterocyclic ligands in the studied polymerization and oligomerization processes.

Keywords: polymerization, oligomerization, dipicolinate, vanadium, ethylene, 3-buten-2-ol

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2872 Assessing the Preparedness of Teachers for Their Role in an Inclusive Classroom: Photo-Voice as a Reflexive Tool

Authors: Nan Stevens

Abstract:

Photo-voice is a participatory method through which participants identify and represent their lived experiences and contexts through the use of photo imagery. Photo-voice is a qualitative research method that explores individuals’ lived experiences. This method is known as a creative art form to help researchers listen to the 'voice' of a certain population. A teacher educator at Thompson Rivers University, responsible for preparing new teachers for the demands of the profession in an ever-changing demographic, utilized the Photo-voice method to enable a self-study of emerging teachers’ readiness for the inclusive classroom. Coding analysis was applied to 96 Photo-voice portfolios, which were created over two years with the Inclusive Education course work, in a Bachelor of Education program (Elementary). Coding utilized students’ written associations to their visual images, anecdotes attached to visual metaphors, and personal narratives that illustrated the professional development process in which they were engaged. Thematic findings include: 1) becoming an inclusive educator is a process; 2) one must be open to identifying and exploring their fear and biases, and 3) an attitudinal shift enables relevant skill acquisition and readiness for working with diverse student needs.

Keywords: teacher education, inclusive education, professional development, Photo-voice

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2871 PhotoRoom App

Authors: Nouf Nasser, Nada Alotaibi, Jazzal Kandiel

Abstract:

This research study is about the use of artificial intelligence in PhotoRoom. When an individual selects a photo, PhotoRoom automagically removes or separates the background from other parts of the photo through the use of artificial intelligence. This will allow an individual to select their desired background and edit it as they wish. The methodology used was an observation, where various reviews and parts of the app were observed. The review section's findings showed that many people actually like the app, and some even rated it five stars. The conclusion was that PhotoRoom is one of the best photo editing apps due to its speed and accuracy in removing backgrounds.

Keywords: removing background, app, artificial intelligence, machine learning

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2870 Photo-Reflective Mulches For Saving Water in Agriculture

Authors: P. Mormile, M. Rippa, G. Bonanomi, F. Scala, Changrong Yan, L. Petti

Abstract:

Photo-reflective films represent, in the panorama of agricultural films, a valid support for Spring and Summer cultivations, both in open field and under greenhouse. In fact, thanks to the high reflectivity of these films, thermal aggression, that causes serious problems to plants when traditional black mulch films are used, is avoided. Yellow or silver colored photo-reflective films protect plants from damages, assure the mulching effect, give a valid support to Integrated Pest Management and, according to recent trials, greatly contribute in saving water. This further advantage is determined by the high water condensation under the mulch film and this gives rise to reduction of irrigation. Water saving means also energy saving for electric system of water circulation. Trials performed at different geographic and ambient context confirm that the use of photo-reflective mulch films during the hot season allows to save water up to 30%.

Keywords: photo-selective mulches, saving water, water circulation, irrigation

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2869 Highly Stretchable, Intelligent and Conductive PEDOT/PU Nanofibers Based on Electrospinning and in situ Polymerization

Authors: Kun Qi, Yuman Zhou, Jianxin He

Abstract:

A facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning and followed by in situ polymerization to fabricate a highly stretchable and conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Polyurethane (PEDOT/PU) nanofibrous membrane is reported. PU nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and then PEDOT was coated on the plasma modified PU nanofiber surface via in-situ polymerization to form flexible PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers with conductivity. The results show PEDOT is successfully synthesized on the surface of PU nanofiber and PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers possess skin-core structure. Furthermore, the experiments indicate the optimal technological parameters of the polymerization process are as follow: The concentration of EDOT monomers is 50 mmol/L, the polymerization time is 24 h and the temperature is 25℃. The PEDOT/PU nanofibers exhibit excellent electrical conductivity ( 27.4 S/cm). In addition, flexible sensor made from conductive PEDOT/PU nanofibers shows highly sensitive response towards tensile strain and also can be used to detect finger motion. The results demonstrate promising application of the as-obtained nanofibrous membrane in flexible wearable electronic fields.

Keywords: electrospinning, polyurethane, PEDOT, conductive nanofiber, flexible senor

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2868 2D CFD-PBM Coupled Model of Particle Growth in an Industrial Gas Phase Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactor

Authors: H. Kazemi Esfeh, V. Akbari, M. Ehdaei, T. N. G. Borhani, A. Shamiri, M. Najafi

Abstract:

In an industrial fluidized bed polymerization reactor, particle size distribution (PSD) plays a significant role in the reactor efficiency evaluation. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models coupled with population balance equation (CFD-PBM) have been extensively employed to investigate the flow behavior in the poly-disperse multiphase fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) utilizing ANSYS Fluent code. In this study, an existing CFD-PBM/ DQMOM coupled modeling framework has been used to highlight its potential to analyze the industrial-scale gas phase polymerization reactor. The predicted results reveal an acceptable agreement with the observed industrial data in terms of pressure drop and bed height. The simulated results also indicate that the higher particle growth rate can be achieved for bigger particles. Hence, the 2D CFD-PBM/DQMOM coupled model can be used as a reliable tool for analyzing and improving the design and operation of the gas phase polymerization FBRs.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, population balance equation, fluidized bed polymerization reactor, direct quadrature method of moments

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2867 Rational Design and Synthesis of 2D/3D Conjugated Porous Polymers via Facile and 'Greener' Direct Arylation Polycondensation

Authors: Hassan Bohra, Mingfeng Wang

Abstract:

Conjugated porous polymers (CPPs) are amorphous, insoluble and highly robust organic semiconductors that have been largely synthesized by traditional transition-metal catalyzed reactions. The distinguishing feature of CPP materials is that they combine microporosity and high surface areas with extended conjugation, making them ideal for versatile applications such as separation, catalysis and energy storage. By applying a modular approach to synthesis, chemical and electronic properties of CPPs can be tailored for specific applications making these materials economical alternatives to inorganic semiconductors. Direct arylation - an environmentally benign alternative to traditional polymerization reactions – is one such reaction that extensively over the last decade for the synthesis of linear p-conjugated polymers. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new series of robust conjugated porous polymers synthesized by facile direct arylation polymerization of thiophene-flanked acceptor building blocks with multi-brominated aryls with different geometries. We observed that the porosities and morphologies of the polymers are determined by the chemical structure of the aryl bromide used. Moreover, good control of the optical bandgap in the range 2.53 - 1.3 eV could be obtained by using different building blocks. Structure-property relationships demonstrated in this study suggest that direct arylation polymerization is an attractive synthetic tool for the rational design of porous organic materials with tunable photo-physical properties for applications in photocatalysis, energy storage and conversion.

Keywords: direct arylation, conjugated porous polymers, triazine, photocatalysis

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2866 Synthesis and Charaterization of Nanocomposite Poly (4,4' Methylenedianiline) Catalyzed by Maghnite-H+

Authors: A. Belmokhtar, A. Yahiaoui, A. Benyoucef, M. Belbachir

Abstract:

We reported the synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite poly (4,4’ methylenedianiline) via chemical polymerization of monomers 4,4’ methylenedianiline by ammonium persulfate (APS) at room temperature catalyzed by Maghnite-H+. A facile method was demonstrated to grow poly (4,4’ methylenedianiline) nanocomposite, which was carried out by mixing Ammonium Persulfate (APS) aqueous and 4,4’ methylenedianiline solution in the presence of Maghnite-H+ at room temperature The effect of amount of catalyst and time on the polymerization yield of the polymers was studied. Structure was confirmed by elemental analysis, UV vis, RMN-1H, and voltammetry cyclique.

Keywords: charaterization, maghnite-h+, polymerization, poly (4, 4’ methylenedianiline)

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2865 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. G. Smitha, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract:

Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: polypyrrole, sol gel, impedance, composites

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2864 Preparation and Characterization of Conductive Poly(N-Ethyl Aniline)/Kaolinite Composite Material by Chemical Polymerization

Authors: Hande Taşdemir, Meral Şahin, Mehmet Saçak

Abstract:

Conductive composite materials obtained by physical or chemical mixing of two or more components having conducting and insulating properties have been increasingly attracted. Kaolinite in kaolin clays is one of silicates with two layers of molecular sheets of (Si2O5)2− and [Al2(OH)4]2+ with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. The most abundant hydrophillic kaolinite is extensively used in industrial processes and therefore it is convenient for the preparation of organic/inorganic composites. In this study, conductive poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite was prepared by chemical polymerization of N-ethyl aniline in the presence of kaolinite particles using ammonium persulfate as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite prepared were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as ammonium persulfate, N-ethyl aniline and HCl concentrations. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite increased with increasing oxidant and monomer concentrations up to 0.1 M and 0.2 M, respectively, and decreased at higher concentrations. The maximum yield of polymer in the composite (15.0%) and the highest conductivity value of the composite (5.0×10-5 S/cm) was achieved by polymerization for 2 hours at 20°C in HCl of 0.5 M. The structure, morphological analyses and thermal behaviours of poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite were characterized by FTIR and XRD spectroscopy, SEM and TGA techniques.

Keywords: kaolinite, poly(N-ethylaniline), conductive composite, chemical polymerization

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2863 A Comparative Study of Photo and Electro-Fenton Reactions Efficiency in Degradation of Cationic Dyes Mixture

Authors: S. Bouafia Chergui, Nihal Oturan, Hussein Khalaf, Mehmet A. Oturan

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to compare the degradation of a mixture of three cationic dyes by advanced oxidation processes (electro-Fenton, photo-Fenton) in aqueous solution. These processes are based on the in situ production of hydroxyl radical, a highly strong oxidant, which allows the degradation of organic pollutants until their mineralization into CO2 and H2O. Under optimal operating conditions, the evolution of total organic carbon (TOC) and electrical energy efficiency have been investigated for the two processes.

Keywords: photo-fenton, electro-fenton, energy efficiency, water treatment

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2862 Mountain Photo Sphere: An Android Application of Mountain Hiking Street View

Authors: Yanto Budisusanto, Aulia Rachmawati

Abstract:

Land navigation technology that is being developed is Google Street View to provide 360° street views, enabling the user to know the road conditions physically with the photo display. For climbers, especially beginners, detail information of climbing terrain is needed so climbers can prepare supplies and strategies before climbing. Therefore, we built a mountaineer guide application named Mountain Photo Sphere. This application displays a 360̊ panoramic view of mountain hiking trail and important points along the hiking path and its surrounding conditions. By combining panoramic photos 360̊ and tracking paths from coordinate data, a virtual tour will be formed. It is built using Java language and Android Studio. The hiking trail map composed by Google Maps API (Gaining access to google maps), Google GEO API (Gaining access to google maps), and OpenStreetMap API (Getting map files to be accessed offline on the Application). This application can be accessed offline so that climbers can use the application during climbing activities.

Keywords: google street view, panoramic photo 360°, mountain hiking, mountain photo sphere

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2861 From Homogeneous to Phase Separated UV-Cured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: Influence of the System Composition on Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Caroline Rocco, Feyza Karasu, Céline Croutxé-Barghorn, Xavier Allonas, Maxime Lecompère, Gérard Riess, Yujing Zhang, Catarina Esteves, Leendert van der Ven, Rolf van Benthem Gijsbertus de With

Abstract:

Acrylates are widely used in UV-curing technology. Their high reactivity can, however, limit their conversion due to early vitrification. In addition, the free radical photopolymerization is known to be sensitive to oxygen inhibition leading to tacky surfaces. Although epoxides can lead to full polymerization, they are sensitive to humidity and exhibit low polymerization rate. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of both classes of monomers, Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) can be synthesized. They consist of at least two cross linked polymers which are permanently entangled. They can be achieved under thermal and/or light induced polymerization in one or two steps approach. IPNs can display homogeneous to heterogeneous morphologies with various degrees of phase separation strongly linked to the monomer miscibility and also synthesis parameters. In this presentation, we synthesize UV-cured methacrylate - epoxide based IPNs with different chemical compositions in order to get a better understanding of their formation and phase separation. Miscibility before and during the photopolymerization, reaction kinetics, as well as mechanical properties and morphology have been investigated. The key parameters controlling the morphology and the phase separation, namely monomer miscibility and synthesis parameters have been identified. By monitoring the stiffness changes on the film surface, atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) gave, in conjunction with polymerization kinetic profiles and thermomechanical properties, explanations and corroborated the miscibility predictions. When varying the methacrylate / epoxide ratio, it was possible to move from a miscible and highly-interpenetrated IPN to a totally immiscible and phase-separated one.

Keywords: investigation of properties and morphology, kinetics, phase separation, UV-cured IPNs

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2860 Effects of Hydrogen Bonding and Vinylcarbazole Derivatives on 3-Cyanovinylcarbazole Mediated Photo-Cross-Linking Induced Cytosine Deamination

Authors: Siddhant Sethi, Yasuharu Takashima, Shigetaka Nakamura, Kenzo Fujimoto

Abstract:

Site-directed mutagenesis is a renowned technique to introduce specific mutations in the genome. To achieve site-directed mutagenesis, many chemical and enzymatic approaches have been reported in the past like disulphite induced genome editing, CRISPR-Cas9, TALEN etc. The chemical methods are invasive whereas the enzymatic approaches are time-consuming and expensive. Most of these techniques are unusable in the cellular application due to their toxicity and other limitations. Photo-chemical cytosine deamination, introduced in 2010, is one of the major technique for enzyme-free single-point mutation of cytosine to uracil in DNA and RNA, wherein, 3-cyanovinylcarbazole nucleoside (CNVK) containing oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) having CNVK at -1 position to that of target cytosine is reversibly crosslinked to target DNA strand using 366 nm and then incubated at 90ºC to accommodate deamination. This technique is superior to enzymatic methods of site-directed mutagenesis but has a disadvantage that it requires the use of high temperature for the deamination step which restricts its applicability in the in vivo applications. This study has been focused on improving the technique by reducing the temperature required for deamination. Firstly, the photo-cross-linker, CNVK has been modified by replacing cyano group attached to vinyl group with methyl ester (OMeVK), amide (NH2VK), and carboxylic acid (OHVK) to observe the acceleration in the deamination of target cytosine cross-linked to vinylcarbazole derivative. Among the derivatives, OHVK has shown 2 times acceleration in deamination reaction as compared to CNVK, while the other two derivatives have shown deceleration towards deamination reaction. The trend of rate of deamination reaction follows the same order as that of hydrophilicity of the vinylcarbazole derivatives. OHVK being most hydrophilic has shown highest acceleration while OMeVK is least hydrophilic has proven to be least active for deamination. Secondly, in the related study, the counter-base of the target cytosine, guanine has been replaced by inosine, 2-aminopurine, nebularine, and 5-nitroindole having distinct hydrogen bonding patterns with target cytosine. Among the ODNs with these counter bases, ODN with inosine has shown 12 fold acceleration towards deamination of cytosine cross-linked to CNVK at physiological conditions as compared to guanosine. Whereas, when 2-aminopurine, nebularine, and 5-nitroindole were used, no deamination reaction took place. It can be concluded that inosine has potential to be used as the counter base of target cytosine for the CNVK mediated photo-cross-linking induced deamination of cytosine. The increase in rate of deamination reaction has been attributed to pattern and number of hydrogen bonding between the cytosine and counter base. One of the important factor is presence of hydrogen bond between exo-cyclic amino group of cytosine and the counter base. These results will be useful for development of more efficient technique for site-directed mutagenesis for C → U transformations in the DNA/RNA which might be used in the living system for treatment of various genetic disorders and genome engineering for making designer and non-native proteins.

Keywords: C to U transformation, DNA editing, genome engineering, ultra-fast photo-cross-linking

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
2859 Implementation of a Photo-Curable 3D Additive Manufacturing Technology with Grey Capability by Using Piezo Ink-jets

Authors: Ming-Jong Tsai, Y. L. Cheng, Y. L. Kuo, S. Y. Hsiao, J. W. Chen, P. H. Liu, D. H. Chen

Abstract:

The 3D printing is a combination of digital technology, material science, intelligent manufacturing and control of opto-mechatronics systems. It is called the third industrial revolution from the view of the Economist Journal. A color 3D printing machine may provide the necessary support for high value-added industrial and commercial design, architectural design, personal boutique, and 3D artist’s creation. The main goal of this paper is to develop photo-curable color 3D manufacturing technology and system implementation. The key technologies include (1) Photo-curable color 3D additive manufacturing processes development and materials research (2) Piezo type ink-jet head control and Opto-mechatronics integration technique of the photo-curable color 3D laminated manufacturing system. The proposed system is integrated with single Piezo type ink-jet head with two individual channels for two primary UV light curable color resins which can provide for future colorful 3D printing solutions. The main research results are 16 grey levels and grey resolution of 75 dpi.

Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, color, photo-curable, Piezo type ink-jet, UV Resin

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
2858 Removal of Nutrients from Sewage Using Algal Photo-Bioreactor

Authors: Purnendu Bose, Jyoti Kainthola

Abstract:

Due to recent advances in illumination technology, artificially illuminated algal-bacterial photo bioreactors are now a potentially feasible option for simultaneous and comprehensive organic carbon and nutrients removal from secondary treated domestic sewage. The experiments described herein were designed to determine the extent of nutrient uptake in photo bioreactors through algal assimilation. Accordingly, quasi steady state data on algal photo bioreactor performance was obtained under 20 different conditions. Results indicated that irrespective of influent N and P levels, algal biomass recycling resulted in superior performance of algal photo bioreactors in terms of both N and P removals. Further, both N and P removals were positively related to the growth of algal biomass in the reactor. Conditions in the reactor favouring greater algal growth also resulted in greater N and P removals. N and P removals were adversely impacted in reactors with low algal concentrations due to the inability of the algae to grow fast enough under the conditions provided. Increasing algal concentrations in reactors over a certain threshold value through higher algal biomass recycling was also not fruitful, since algal growth slowed under such conditions due to reduced light availability due to algal ‘self-shading’. It was concluded that N removals greater than 80% at high influent N concentrations is not possible with the present reactor configuration. Greater than 80% N removals may however be possible in similar reactors if higher light intensity is provided. High P removal is possible only if the influent N: P ratio in the reactor is aligned closely with the algal stoichiometric requirements for P.

Keywords: nutrients, algae, photo, bioreactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
2857 Copolymers of Pyrrole and α,ω-Dithienyl Terminated Poly(ethylene glycol)

Authors: Nesrin Köken, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

This work presents synthesis of α,ω-dithienyl terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGTh) capable for further chain extension by either chemical or electrochemical polymerization. PEGTh was characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR. Further, copolymerization of PEGTh and pyrrole (Py) was performed by chemical oxidative polymerization using ceric (IV) salt as an oxidant (PPy-PEGTh). PEG without end group modification was used directly to prepare copolymers with Py by Ce (IV) salt (PPy-PEG). Block copolymers with mole ratio of pyrrole to PEGTh (PEG) 50:1 and 10:1 were synthesized. The electrical conductivities of copolymers PPy-PEGTh and PPy-PEG were determined by four-point probe technique. Influence of the synthetic route and content of the insulating segment on conductivity and yield of the copolymers were investigated.

Keywords: chemical oxidative polymerization, conducting polymer, poly(ethylene glycol), polypyrrole

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2856 Development of Polymer Nano-Particles as in vivo Imaging Agents for Photo-Acoustic Imaging

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki

Abstract:

Molecular imaging has attracted much attention to visualize a tumor site in a living body on the basis of biological functions. A fluorescence in vivo imaging technique has been widely employed as a useful modality for small animals in pre-clinical researches. However, it is difficult to observe a site deep inside a body because of a short penetration depth of light. A photo-acoustic effect is a generation of a sound wave following light absorption. Because the sound wave is less susceptible to the absorption of tissues, an in vivo imaging method based on the photoacoustic effect can observe deep inside a living body. The current study developed an in vivo imaging agent for a photoacoustic imaging method. Nano-particles of poly(lactic acid) including indocyanine dye were developed as bio-compatible imaging agent with strong light absorption. A tumor site inside a mouse body was successfully observed in a photo-acoustic image. A photo-acoustic imaging with polymer nano-particle agent would be a powerful method to visualize a tumor.

Keywords: nano-particle, photo-acoustic effect, polymer, dye, in vivo imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2855 Metal-Organic Frameworks for Innovative Functional Textiles

Authors: Hossam E. Emam

Abstract:

Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are new hybrid materials investigated from 15 years ago; they synthesized from metals as inorganic center joined with multidentate organic linkers to form a 1D, 2D or 3D network structure. MOFs have unique properties such as pore crystalline structure, large surface area, chemical tenability and luminescent characters. These significant properties enable MOFs to be applied in many fields such like gas storage, adsorption/separation, drug delivery/biomedicine, catalysis, polymerization, magnetism and luminescence applications. Recently, many of published reports interested in superiority of MOFs for functionalization of textiles to exploit the unique properties of MOFs. Incorporation of MOFs is found to acquire the textiles some additional formidable functions to be used in considerable fields such like water treatment and fuel purification. Modification of textiles with MOFs could be easily performed by two main techniques; Ex-situ (preparation of MOFs then applied onto textiles) and in-situ (ingrowth of MOFs within textiles networks). Uniqueness of MOFs could be assimilated in acquirement of decorative color, antimicrobial character, anti-mosquitos character, ultraviolet radiation protective, self-clean, photo-luminescent and sensor character. Additionally, textiles treatment with MOFs make it applicable as filter in the adsorption of toxic gases, hazardous materials (such as pesticides, dyes and aromatics molecules) and fuel purification (such as removal of oxygenated, nitrogenated and sulfur compounds). Also, the porous structure of MOFs make it mostly utilized in control release of insecticides from the surface of the textile. Moreover, [email protected] as recyclable materials lead it applicable as photo-catalyst composites for photo-degradation of different dyes in the day light. Therefore, MOFs is extensively considered for imparting textiles with formidable properties as ingeniousness way for textile functionalization.

Keywords: MOF, functional textiles, water treatment, fuel purification, environmental applications

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2854 Antioxidant Juice Prevents UV- Induced Skin Damage in Rats

Authors: S. P. Gomes, D. C. Goncalves, E. Ribeiro, M. C. L. Seelaender

Abstract:

Skin is susceptible to photo damage induced by exposure to sunlight, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which induces breakdown of extracellular matrix, DNA degradation, skin cell lesion and apoptosis, and development of cancer. Phytonutrients demonstrate protective effects against UV damage. The purpose of this study was evaluating the effect of an antioxidant juice (AJ) contaning Brazilian natural products upon skin damage. The juice was produced by Metabolics®. Male Wistar rats were divided in 4 groups: Animals receiving the antioxidant juice (AJ): orange, carrot, honey, tomato extract, avocado, ginger and camu-camu (Brazilian fruit, a major source of vitamin C) ad libitum for 21 days; or water (C), subdivided in groups exposed or not to UV radiation for 2 non consecutive days, during five hours each day, after 15 days of juice supplementation. On the 22nd day, rats were killed by decapitation and epithelium samples from the dorsal skin removed, fixed in bouin and embedded in paraffin. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or mallory and picrosirius red. Isolated DNA was submitted to electrophoresis (1.8% agarose gel, 0.5% ethidium bromide). UV radiation significantly induced sunburn of superficial epithelial cells of C, AJ treatment reduced this effect. Collagen changes were observed in UV groups, yet AJ treatment prevented collagen degradation. UV radiation induced significant DNA degradation, in C, which was prevented by AJ treatment. The antioxidant juice consumed chronically protected against acute skin damage.

Keywords: nutraceuticals, antioxidants, photoprotection, uv radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 557