Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: lithography

44 The Development of Micro Patterns Using Benchtop Lithography for Marine Antifouling Applications

Authors: Felicia Wong Yen Myan, James Walker


Development of micro topographies usually begins with the fabrication of a master stamp. Fabrication of such small structures can be technically challenging and expensive. These techniques are often used for applications where patterns only cover a small surface area (e.g. semiconductors, microfluidic channels). This research investigated the use of benchtop lithography to fabricate patterns with average widths of 50 and 100 microns on silicon wafer substrates. Further development of this method will attempt to layer patterns to create hierarchical structures. Photomasks consisted of patterns printed onto transparency films with a high resolution printer and a fully patterned 10cm by 10cm area has been successfully developed. UV exposure was carried out with a self-made array of ultraviolet LEDs that was positioned a distance above a glass diffuser. Observations under a light microscope and SEM showed that developed patterns exhibit an adequate degree of fidelity with patterns from the master stamp.

Keywords: lithography, antifouling, marine, microtopography

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
43 Cost-Effective Soft Lithography of Organic Semiconductors in Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs)

Authors: Tae Kyu An


We demonstrate repurposing linear micropatterns on the CD as a master mold to fabricate TIPS-PEN microwires. From the micropatterns on CDs, we replicated polyurethane acrylate (PUA) templates which are robust and flexible until submicrometer scale patterns. Subsequently, 1.5 μm TIPS-PEN microwires separated by 1.5 μm were grown. Using crystal analysis tools with polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurement, it was revealed that each TIPS-PEN microwires are highly crystalline and uniform compared to spin-coated films. It is attributed to the template-guided growth of TIPS-PEN crystals along the linear template, thus the OFETs comprised of TIPS-PEN microwires displayed the high field-effect mobility.

Keywords: compact disk, macro patterning, OFET, soft lithography

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
42 Preparation and Sealing of Polymer Microchannels Using EB Lithography and Laser Welding

Authors: Ian Jones, Jonathan Griffiths


Laser welding offers the potential for making very precise joints in plastics products, both in terms of the joint location and the amount of heating applied. These methods have allowed the production of complex products such as microfluidic devices where channels and structure resolution below 100 µm is regularly used. However, to date, the dimension of welds made using lasers has been limited by the focus spot size that is achievable from the laser source. Theoretically, the minimum spot size possible from a laser is comparable to the wavelength of the radiation emitted. Practically, with reasonable focal length optics the spot size achievable is a few factors larger than this, and the melt zone in a plastics weld is larger again than this. The narrowest welds feasible to date have therefore been 10-20 µm wide using a near-infrared laser source. The aim of this work was to prepare laser absorber tracks and channels less than 10 µm wide in PMMA thermoplastic using EB lithography followed by sealing of channels using laser welding to carry out welds with widths of the order of 1 µm, below the resolution limit of the near-infrared laser used. Welded joints with a width of 1 µm have been achieved as well as channels with a width of 5 µm. The procedure was based on the principle of transmission laser welding using a thin coating of infrared absorbent material at the joint interface. The coating was patterned using electron-beam lithography to obtain the required resolution in a reproducible manner and that resolution was retained after the transmission laser welding process. The joint strength was ratified using larger scale samples. The results demonstrate that plastics products could be made with a high density of structure with resolution below 1 um, and that welding can be applied without excessively heating regions beyond the weld lines. This may be applied to smaller scale sensor and analysis chips, micro-bio and chemical reactors and to microelectronic packaging.

Keywords: microchannels, polymer, EB lithography, laser welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
41 A Study of Electrowetting-Assisted Mold Filling in Nanoimprint Lithography

Authors: Wei-Hsuan Hsu, Yi-Xuan Huang


Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) possesses the advantages of sub-10-nm feature and low cost. NIL patterns the resist with physical deformation using a mold, which can easily reproduce the required nano-scale pattern. However, the variation of process parameters and environmental conditions seriously affect reproduction quality. How to ensure the quality of imprinted pattern is essential for industry. In this study, the authors used the electrowetting technology to assist mold filling in the NIL process. A special mold structure was designed to cause electrowetting. During the imprinting process, when a voltage was applied between the mold and substrate, the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the surface of the mold can be converted. Both simulation and experiment confirmed that the electrowetting technology can assist mold filling and avoid incomplete filling rate. The proposed method can also reduce the crack formation during the de-molding process. Therefore, electrowetting technology can improve the process quality of NIL.

Keywords: electrowetting, mold filling, nano-imprint, surface modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
40 A Fabrication Method for PEDOT: PSS Based Humidity Sensor

Authors: Nazia Tarannum, M. Ayaz Ahmad


The main goal of this article is to report some interesting features for the fabrication/design of PEDOT:PSS based humidity sensor. Here first we fabricated humidity sensor and then studied its electro-mechanical characteristics. In general the humidity plays an important role in various private and government sectors all over the world. Monitoring and controlling the humidity is a great task for the reliable operation of various systems. The PEDOT:PSS is very much promising humidity sensor and also is fabricated by performing various analyses. The interdigited electrode (IDE) has channel length 200 microns prepared by lithography. Lithography of IDE was done on PPR coated glass substrate using negative mask and exposing it with UV light for 10 secs via DSA. During the above said fabrication, we have taken account for the following steps: •Plasma ashing of IDE •Spincoating of PEDOT:PSS was done @3000 rpm on IDE substrace •Baked the substrace at 130 °C up to time limit 15 mins. •Resistance measurement using Labtracer 2.9 software via Keithley 2400source meter.

Keywords: fabrication method, PEDOT:PSS material, humidity sensor, electro-mechanical

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
39 Light-Scattering Characteristics of Ordered Arrays Nobel Metal Nanoparticles

Authors: Yassine Ait-El-Aoud, Michael Okomoto, Andrew M. Luce, Alkim Akyurtlu, Richard M. Osgood III


Light scattering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has a unique, and technologically important effect on enhancing light absorption in substrates because most of the light scatters into the substrate near the localized plasmon resonance of the NPs. The optical response, such as the resonant frequency and forward- and backward-scattering, can be tuned to trap light over a certain spectral region by adjusting the nanoparticle material size, shape, aggregation state, Metallic vs. insulating state, as well as local environmental conditions. In this work, we examined the light scattering characteristics of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles and the light trapping, in order to enhance absorption, by measuring the forward- and backward-scattering using a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Samples were fabricated using the popular self-assembly process method: dip coating, combined with nanosphere lithography.

Keywords: dip coating, light-scattering, metal nanoparticles, nanosphere lithography

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
38 Characterization of Surface Microstructures on Bio-Based PLA Fabricated with Nano-Imprint Lithography

Authors: D. Bikiaris, M. Nerantzaki, I. Koliakou, A. Francone, N. Kehagias


In the present study, the formation of structures in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been investigated with respect to producing areas of regular, superficial features with dimensions comparable to those of cells or biological macromolecules. Nanoimprint lithography, a method of pattern replication in polymers, has been used for the production of features ranging from tens of micrometers, covering areas up to 1 cm², down to hundreds of nanometers. Both micro- and nano-structures were faithfully replicated. Potentially, PLA has wide uses within biomedical fields, from implantable medical devices, including screws and pins, to membrane applications, such as wound covers, and even as an injectable polymer for, for example, lipoatrophy. The possibility of fabricating structured PLA surfaces, with structures of the dimensions associated with cells or biological macro- molecules, is of interest in fields such as cellular engineering. Imprint-based technologies have demonstrated the ability to selectively imprint polymer films over large areas resulting in 3D imprints over flat, curved or pre-patterned surfaces. Here, we compare nano-patterned with nano-patterned by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) PLA film. A silicon nanostructured stamp (provided by Nanotypos company) having positive and negative protrusions was used to pattern PLA films by means of thermal NIL. The polymer film was heated from 40°C to 60°C above its Tg and embossed with a pressure of 60 bars for 3 min. The stamp and substrate were demolded at room temperature. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed good replication fidelity of the replicated Si stamp. Contact-angle measurements suggested that positive microstructuring of the polymer (where features protrude from the polymer surface) produced a more hydrophilic surface than negative micro-structuring. The ability to structure the surface of the poly(lactic acid), allied to the polymer’s post-processing transparency and proven biocompatibility. Films produced in this were also shown to enhance the aligned attachment behavior and proliferation of Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem cells, leading to the observed growth contact guidance. The bacterial attachment patterns of some bacteria, highlighted that the nano-patterned PLA structure can reduce the propensity for the bacteria to attach to the surface, with a greater bactericidal being demonstrated activity against the Staphylococcus aureus cells. These biocompatible, micro- and nanopatterned PLA surfaces could be useful for polymer– cell interaction experiments at dimensions at, or below, that of individual cells. Indeed, post-fabrication modification of the microstructured PLA surface, with materials such as collagen (which can further reduce the hydrophobicity of the surface), will extend the range of applications, possibly through the use of PLA’s inherent biodegradability. Further study is being undertaken to examine whether these structures promote cell growth on the polymer surface.

Keywords: poly(lactic acid), nano-imprint lithography, anti-bacterial properties, PLA

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
37 Enhancement of Light Extraction of Luminescent Coating by Nanostructuring

Authors: Aubry Martin, Nehed Amara, Jeff Nyalosaso, Audrey Potdevin, FrançOis ReVeret, Michel Langlet, Genevieve Chadeyron


Energy-saving lighting devices based on LightEmitting Diodes (LEDs) combine a semiconductor chip emitting in the ultraviolet or blue wavelength region to one or more phosphor(s) deposited in the form of coatings. The most common ones combine a blue LED with the yellow phosphor Y₃Al₅O₁₂:Ce³⁺ (YAG:Ce) and a red phosphor. Even if these devices are characterized by satisfying photometric parameters (Color Rendering Index, Color Temperature) and good luminous efficiencies, further improvements can be carried out to enhance light extraction efficiency (increase in phosphor forward emission). One of the possible strategies is to pattern the phosphor coatings. Here, we have worked on different ways to nanostructure the coating surface. On the one hand, we used the colloidal lithography combined with the Langmuir-Blodgett technique to directly pattern the surface of YAG:Tb³⁺ sol-gel derived coatings, YAG:Tb³⁺ being used as phosphor model. On the other hand, we achieved composite architectures combining YAG:Ce coatings and ZnO nanowires. Structural, morphological and optical properties of both systems have been studied and compared to flat YAG coatings. In both cases, nanostructuring brought a significative enhancement of photoluminescence properties under UV or blue radiations. In particular, angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements have shown that nanostructuring modifies photons path within the coatings, with a better extraction of the guided modes. These two strategies have the advantage of being versatile and applicable to any phosphor synthesizable by sol-gel technique. They then appear as promising ways to enhancement luminescence efficiencies of both phosphor coatings and the optical devices into which they are incorporated, such as LED-based lighting or safety devices.

Keywords: phosphor coatings, nanostructuring, light extraction, ZnO nanowires, colloidal lithography, LED devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
36 Laser Writing on Vitroceramic Disks for Petabyte Data Storage

Authors: C. Busuioc, S. I. Jinga, E. Pavel


The continuous need of more non-volatile memories with a higher storage capacity, smaller dimensions and weight, as well as lower costs, has led to the exploration of optical lithography on active media, as well as patterned magnetic composites. In this context, optical lithography is a technique that can provide a significant decrease of the information bit size to the nanometric scale. However, there are some restrictions that arise from the need of breaking the optical diffraction limit. Major achievements have been obtained by employing a vitoceramic material as active medium and a laser beam operated at low power for the direct writing procedure. Thus, optical discs with ultra-high density were fabricated by a conventional melt-quenching method starting from analytical purity reagents. They were subsequently used for 3D recording based on their photosensitive features. Naturally, the next step consists in the elucidation of the composition and structure of the active centers, in correlation with the use of silver and rare-earth compounds for the synthesis of the optical supports. This has been accomplished by modern characterization methods, namely transmission electron microscopy coupled with selected area electron diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The influence of laser diode parameters, silver concentration and fluorescent compounds formation on the writing process and final material properties was investigated. The results indicate performances in terms of capacity with two order of magnitude higher than other reported information storage systems. Moreover, the fluorescent photosensitive vitroceramics may be integrated in other applications which appeal to nanofabrication as the driving force in electronics and photonics fields.

Keywords: data storage, fluorescent compounds, laser writing, vitroceramics

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
35 Top-Down Approach for Fabricating Hematite Nanowire Arrays

Authors: Seungmin Shin, Jin-Baek Kim


Hematite (α-Fe2O3) has very good semiconducting properties with a band gap of 2.1 eV and is antiferromagnetic. Due to its electrochemical stability, low toxicity, wide abundance, and low-cost, hematite, it is a particularly attractive material for photoelectrochemical cells. Additionally, hematite has also found applications in gas sensing, field emission, heterogeneous catalysis, and lithium-ion battery electrodes. Here, we discovered a new universal top-down method for the synthesis of one-dimensional hematite nanowire arrays. Various shapes and lengths of hematite nanowire have been easily fabricated over large areas by sequential processes. The obtained hematite nanowire arrays are promising candidates as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical solar cells.

Keywords: hematite, lithography, nanowire, top-down process

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
34 Characteristics of Silicon Integrated Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Jingqi Li


A new vertical carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) has been developed. The source, drain and gate are vertically stacked in this structure. The carbon nanotubes are put on the side wall of the vertical stack. Unique transfer characteristics which depend on both silicon type and the sign of drain voltage have been observed in silicon integrated CNTFETs. The significant advantage of this CNTFET is that the short channel of the transistor can be fabricated without using complicate lithography technique.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, field-effect transistors, electrical property, short channel fabrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
33 Nanoimprinted-Block Copolymer-Based Porous Nanocone Substrate for SERS Enhancement

Authors: Yunha Ryu, Kyoungsik Kim


Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful techniques for chemical detection, but the low sensitivity originated from the extremely small cross-section of the Raman scattering limits the practical use of Raman spectroscopy. To overcome this problem, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been intensively studied for several decades. Because the SERS effect is mainly induced from strong electromagnetic near-field enhancement as a result of localized surface plasmon resonance of metallic nanostructures, it is important to design the plasmonic structures with high density of electromagnetic hot spots for SERS substrate. One of the useful fabrication methods is using porous nanomaterial as a template for metallic structure. Internal pores on a scale of tens of nanometers can be strong EM hotspots by confining the incident light. Also, porous structures can capture more target molecules than non-porous structures in a same detection spot thanks to the large surface area. Herein we report the facile fabrication method of porous SERS substrate by integrating solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography and selective etching of block copolymer. We obtained nanostructures with high porosity via simple selective etching of the one microdomain of the diblock copolymer. Furthermore, we imprinted of the nanocone patterns into the spin-coated flat block copolymer film to make three-dimensional SERS substrate for the high density of SERS hot spots as well as large surface area. We used solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (SAIL) to reduce the fabrication time and cost for patterning BCP film by taking advantage of a solvent which dissolves both polystyrenre and poly(methyl methacrylate) domain of the block copolymer, and thus block copolymer film was molded under the low temperature and atmospheric pressure in a short time. After Ag deposition, we measured Raman intensity of dye molecules adsorbed on the fabricated structure. Compared to the Raman signals of Ag coated solid nanocone, porous nanocone showed 10 times higher Raman intensity at 1510 cm(-1) band. In conclusion, we fabricated porous metallic nanocone arrays with high density electromagnetic hotspots by templating nanoimprinted diblock copolymer with selective etching and demonstrated its capability as an effective SERS substrate.

Keywords: block copolymer, porous nanostructure, solvent-assisted nanoimprint, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 552
32 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
31 Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal

Authors: M. Javadzadeh, H. Khoshsima


In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.

Keywords: liquid crystal, lens, Fresnel zone, diffraction, Fresnel lens

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
30 3D Writing on Photosensitive Glass-Ceramics

Authors: C. Busuioc, S. Jinga, E. Pavel


Optical lithography is a key technique in the development of sub-5 nm patterns for the semiconductor industry. We have already reported that the best results obtained with respect to direct laser writing process on active media, such as glass-ceramics, are achieved only when the energy of the laser radiation is absorbed in discrete quantities. Further, we need to clarify the role of active centers concentration in silver nanocrystals natural generation, as well as in fluorescent rare-earth nanostructures formation. As a consequence, samples with different compositions were prepared. SEM, AFM, TEM and STEM investigations were employed in order to demonstrate that few nm width lines can be written on fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics, these being efficient absorbers. Moreover, we believe that the experimental data will lead to the best choice in terms of active centers amount, laser power and glass-ceramic matrix.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, 3D laser writing, optical disks, data storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
29 Design, Development and Testing of Polymer-Glass Microfluidic Chips for Electrophoretic Analysis of Biological Sample

Authors: Yana Posmitnaya, Galina Rudnitskaya, Tatyana Lukashenko, Anton Bukatin, Anatoly Evstrapov


An important area of biological and medical research is the study of genetic mutations and polymorphisms that can alter gene function and cause inherited diseases and other diseases. The following methods to analyse DNA fragments are used: capillary electrophoresis and electrophoresis on microfluidic chip (MFC), mass spectrometry with electrophoresis on MFC, hybridization assay on microarray. Electrophoresis on MFC allows to analyse small volumes of samples with high speed and throughput. A soft lithography in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was chosen for operative fabrication of MFCs. A master-form from silicon and photoresist SU-8 2025 (MicroChem Corp.) was created for the formation of micro-sized structures in PDMS. A universal topology which combines T-injector and simple cross was selected for the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Glass K8 and PDMS Sylgard® 184 (Dow Corning Corp.) were used for fabrication of MFCs. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) plays an important role in the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Therefore, the estimate of the quantity of EOF and the ways of its regulation are of interest for the development of the new methods of the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The following methods of surface modification were chosen to change EOF: high-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment in oxygen and argon at low pressure (1 mbar); 1% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol; 3% aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188 (Sigma-Aldrich Corp.). The electroosmotic mobility was evaluated by the method of Huang X. et al., wherein the borate buffer was used. The influence of physical and chemical methods of treatment on the wetting properties of the PDMS surface was controlled by the sessile drop method. The most effective way of surface modification of MFCs, from the standpoint of obtaining the smallest value of the contact angle and the smallest value of the EOF, was the processing with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. This method of modification has been selected for the treatment of channels of MFCs, which are used for the separation of mixture of oligonucleotides fluorescently labeled with the length of chain with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nucleotides. Electrophoresis was performed on the device MFAS-01 (IAI RAS, Russia) at the separation voltage of 1500 V. 6% solution of polydimethylacrylamide with the addition of 7M carbamide was used as the separation medium. The separation time of components of the mixture was determined from electropherograms. The time for untreated MFC was ~275 s, and for the ones treated with solution of Kolliphor® P 188 – ~ 220 s. Research of physical-chemical methods of surface modification of MFCs allowed to choose the most effective way for reducing EOF – the modification with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. In this case, the separation time of the mixture of oligonucleotides decreased about 20%. The further optimization of method of modification of channels of MFCs will allow decreasing the separation time of sample and increasing the throughput of analysis.

Keywords: electrophoresis, microfluidic chip, modification, nucleic acid, polydimethylsiloxane, soft lithography

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
28 Numerical Analysis and Design of Dielectric to Plasmonic Waveguides Couplers

Authors: Emanuela Paranhos Lima, Vitaly Félix Rodríguez Esquerre


In this work, efficient directional coupler composed of dielectric waveguides and metallic film has been analyzed in details by simulations using finite element method (FEM). The structure consists of a step-index fiber with dielectric core, silica cladding, and a metal nanowire parallel to the core. The results show that an efficient conversion of optical dielectric modes to long range plasmonic is possible. Low insertion losses in conjunction with short coupling length and a broadband operation can be achieved under certain conditions. This kind of couplers has potential applications for the design of photonic integrated circuits for signal routing between dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, sensing, lithography, and optical storage systems. A high efficient focusing of light in a very small region can be obtained.

Keywords: directional coupler, finite element method, metallic nanowire, plasmonic, surface plasmon polariton, superfocusing

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
27 Luminescent Properties of Plastic Scintillator with Large Area Photonic Crystal Prepared by a Combination of Nanoimprint Lithography and Atomic Layer Deposition

Authors: Jinlu Ruan, Liang Chen, Bo Liu, Xiaoping Ouyang, Zhichao Zhu, Zhongbing Zhang, Shiyi He, Mengxuan Xu


Plastic scintillators play an important role in the measurement of a mixed neutron/gamma pulsed radiation, neutron radiography and pulse shape discrimination technology. In some research, these luminescent properties are necessary that photons produced by the interactions between a plastic scintillator and radiations can be detected as much as possible by the photoelectric detectors and more photons can be emitted from the scintillators along a specific direction where detectors are located. Unfortunately, a majority of these photons produced are trapped in the plastic scintillators due to the total internal reflection (TIR), because there is a significant light-trapping effect when the incident angle of internal scintillation light is larger than the critical angle. Some of these photons trapped in the scintillator may be absorbed by the scintillator itself and the others are emitted from the edges of the scintillator. This makes the light extraction of plastic scintillators very low. Moreover, only a small portion of the photons emitted from the scintillator easily can be detected by detectors effectively, because the distribution of the emission directions of this portion of photons exhibits approximate Lambertian angular profile following a cosine emission law. Therefore, enhancing the light extraction efficiency and adjusting the emission angular profile become the keys for improving the number of photons detected by the detectors. In recent years, photonic crystal structures have been covered on inorganic scintillators to enhance the light extraction efficiency and adjust the angular profile of scintillation light successfully. However, that, preparation methods of photonic crystals will deteriorate performance of plastic scintillators and even destroy the plastic scintillators, makes the investigation on preparation methods of photonic crystals for plastic scintillators and luminescent properties of plastic scintillators with photonic crystal structures inadequate. Although we have successfully made photonic crystal structures covered on the surface of plastic scintillators by a modified self-assembly technique and achieved a great enhance of light extraction efficiency without evident angular-dependence for the angular profile of scintillation light, the preparation of photonic crystal structures with large area (the diameter is larger than 6cm) and perfect periodic structure is still difficult. In this paper, large area photonic crystals on the surface of scintillators were prepared by nanoimprint lithography firstly, and then a conformal layer with material of high refractive index on the surface of photonic crystal by atomic layer deposition technique in order to enhance the stability of photonic crystal structures and increase the number of leaky modes for improving the light extraction efficiency. The luminescent properties of the plastic scintillator with photonic crystals prepared by the mentioned method are compared with those of the plastic scintillator without photonic crystal. The results indicate that the number of photons detected by detectors is increased by the enhanced light extraction efficiency and the angular profile of scintillation light exhibits evident angular-dependence for the scintillator with photonic crystals. The mentioned preparation of photonic crystals is beneficial to scintillation detection applications and lays an important technique foundation for the plastic scintillators to meet special requirements under different application backgrounds.

Keywords: angular profile, atomic layer deposition, light extraction efficiency, plastic scintillator, photonic crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
26 Lamb Wave-Based Blood Coagulation Measurement System Using Citrated Plasma

Authors: Hyunjoo Choi, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim


Acoustomicrofluidics has gained much attention due to the advantages, such as noninvasiveness and easy integration with other miniaturized systems, for clinical and biological applications. However, a limitation of acoustomicrofluidics is the complicated and costly fabrication process of electrodes. In this study, we propose a low-cost and lithography-free device using Lamb wave for blood analysis. Using a Lamb wave, calcium ion-removed blood plasma and coagulation reagents can be rapidly mixed for blood coagulation test. Due to the coagulation process, the viscosity of the sample increases and the viscosity change can be monitored by internal acoustic streaming of microparticles suspended in the sample droplet. When the acoustic streaming of particles stops by the viscosity increase is defined as the coagulation time. With the addition of calcium ion at 0-25 mM, the coagulation time was measured and compared with the conventional index for blood coagulation analysis, prothrombin time, which showed highly correlated with the correlation coefficient as 0.94. Therefore, our simple and cost-effective Lamb wave-based blood analysis device has the powerful potential to be utilized in clinical settings.

Keywords: acoustomicrofluidics, blood analysis, coagulation, lamb wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
25 Nano-Texturing of Single Crystalline Silicon via Cu-Catalyzed Chemical Etching

Authors: A. A. Abaker Omer, H. B. Mohamed Balh, W. Liu, A. Abas, J. Yu, S. Li, W. Ma, W. El Kolaly, Y. Y. Ahmed Abuker


We have discovered an important technical solution that could make new approaches in the processing of wet silicon etching, especially in the production of photovoltaic cells. During its inferior light-trapping and structural properties, the inverted pyramid structure outperforms the conventional pyramid textures and black silicone. The traditional pyramid textures and black silicon can only be accomplished with more advanced lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate the feasibility of an inverted pyramidal structure of silicon via one-step Cu-catalyzed chemical etching (CCCE) in Cu (NO3)2/HF/H2O2/H2O solutions. The effects of etching time and reaction temperature on surface geometry and light trapping were systematically investigated. The conclusion shows that the inverted pyramid structure has ultra-low reflectivity of ~4.2% in the wavelength of 300~1000 nm; introduce of Cu particles can significantly accelerate the dissolution of the silicon wafer. The etching and the inverted pyramid structure formation mechanism are discussed. Inverted pyramid structure with outstanding anti-reflectivity includes useful applications throughout the manufacture of semi-conductive industry-compatible solar cells, and can have significant impacts on industry colleagues and populations.

Keywords: Cu-catalyzed chemical etching, inverted pyramid nanostructured, reflection, solar cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
24 Development of Colorimetric Based Microfluidic Platform for Quantification of Fluid Contaminants

Authors: Sangeeta Palekar, Mahima Rana, Jayu Kalambe


In this paper, a microfluidic-based platform for the quantification of contaminants in the water is proposed. The proposed system uses microfluidic channels with an embedded environment for contaminants detection in water. Microfluidics-based platforms present an evident stage of innovation for fluid analysis, with different applications advancing minimal efforts and simplicity of fabrication. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidics channel is fabricated using a soft lithography technique. Vertical and horizontal connections for fluid dispensing with the microfluidic channel are explored. The principle of colorimetry, which incorporates the use of Griess reagent for the detection of nitrite, has been adopted. Nitrite has high water solubility and water retention, due to which it has a greater potential to stay in groundwater, endangering aquatic life along with human health, hence taken as a case study in this work. The developed platform also compares the detection methodology, containing photodetectors for measuring absorbance and image sensors for measuring color change for quantification of contaminants like nitrite in water. The utilization of image processing techniques offers the advantage of operational flexibility, as the same system can be used to identify other contaminants present in water by introducing minor software changes.

Keywords: colorimetric, fluid contaminants, nitrite detection, microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
23 Fabrication of Nanostructured Arrays Using Si-Containing Block Copolymer and Dually Responsive Photoresist

Authors: Kyoungok Jung, Chang Hong Bak, Gyeong Cheon Jo, Jin-Baek Kim


Nanostructured arrays have drawn extensive attention because of their unique properties resulting from nanoscale features. However, it is difficult to achieve uniform and freestanding 1D nanostrcutures over a large area. Here, a simple and novel method was developed for fabrication of universal nanoporous templates for high-density nanostructure arrays, by combining self-assembly of a Si-containing block copolymer with a bilayer lithography system. We introduced a dually responsive photoresist bottom layer into which the nanopatterns of block copolymer are transferred by oxygen reactive ion etching. Because the dually responsive layer becomes cross-linked by heating, it can be used as a hard template during the etching process. It becomes soluble again by chain scission upon exposure to light. Therefore, it can be easily removed by the lift-off process. The template was applicable to the various conducting substrates due to the compatibility of the photoresist with a wide range of substrates and was used in electrodeposition for well-aligned and high-density inorganic and organic nanoarrays. We successfully obtained vertically aligned and highly ordered gold nanorods and polypyrrole dots on the substrate without aggregation, and these arrays did not collapse after removing the dually responsive templates by the simple lift-off process.

Keywords: block copolymer, dually responsive, nanostructure, photoresist

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
22 Microfluidic Fluid Shear Mechanotransduction Device Using Linear Optimization of Hydraulic Channels

Authors: Sanat K. Dash, Rama S. Verma, Sarit K. Das


A logarithmic microfluidic shear device was designed and fabricated for cellular mechanotransduction studies. The device contains four cell culture chambers in which flow was modulated to achieve a logarithmic increment. Resistance values were optimized to make the device compact. The network of resistances was developed according to a unique combination of series and parallel resistances as found via optimization. Simulation results done in Ansys 16.1 matched the analytical calculations and showed the shear stress distribution at different inlet flow rates. Fabrication of the device was carried out using conventional photolithography and PDMS soft lithography. Flow profile was validated taking DI water as working fluid and measuring the volume collected at all four outlets. Volumes collected at the outlets were in accordance with the simulation results at inlet flow rates ranging from 1 ml/min to 0.1 ml/min. The device can exert fluid shear stresses ranging four orders of magnitude on the culture chamber walls which will cover shear stress values from interstitial flow to blood flow. This will allow studying cell behavior in the long physiological range of shear stress in a single run reducing number of experiments.

Keywords: microfluidics, mechanotransduction, fluid shear stress, physiological shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
21 Energy Deposited by Secondary Electrons Generated by Swift Proton Beams through Polymethylmethacrylate

Authors: Maurizio Dapor, Isabel Abril, Pablo de Vera, Rafael Garcia-Molina


The ionization yield of ion tracks in polymers and bio-molecular systems reaches a maximum, known as the Bragg peak, close to the end of the ion trajectories. Along the path of the ions through the materials, many electrons are generated, which produce a cascade of further ionizations and, consequently, a shower of secondary electrons. Among these, very low energy secondary electrons can produce damage in the biomolecules by dissociative electron attachment. This work deals with the calculation of the energy distribution of electrons produced by protons in a sample of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a material that is used as a phantom for living tissues in hadron therapy. PMMA is also of relevance for microelectronics in CMOS technologies and as a photoresist mask in electron beam lithography. We present a Monte Carlo code that, starting from a realistic description of the energy distribution of the electrons ejected by protons moving through PMMA, simulates the entire cascade of generated secondary electrons. By following in detail the motion of all these electrons, we find the radial distribution of the energy that they deposit in PMMA for several initial proton energies characteristic of the Bragg peak.

Keywords: Monte Carlo method, secondary electrons, energetic ions, ion-beam cancer therapy, ionization cross section, polymethylmethacrylate, proton beams, secondary electrons, radial energy distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
20 Overview of Multi-Chip Alternatives for 2.5 and 3D Integrated Circuit Packagings

Authors: Ching-Feng Chen


With the size of the transistor gradually approaching the physical limit, it challenges the persistence of Moore’s Law due to the development of the high numerical aperture (high-NA) lithography equipment and other issues such as short channel effects. In the context of the ever-increasing technical requirements of portable devices and high-performance computing, relying on the law continuation to enhance the chip density will no longer support the prospects of the electronics industry. Weighing the chip’s power consumption-performance-area-cost-cycle time to market (PPACC) is an updated benchmark to drive the evolution of the advanced wafer nanometer (nm). The advent of two and half- and three-dimensional (2.5 and 3D)- Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) packaging based on Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology has updated the traditional die assembly methods and provided the solution. This overview investigates the up-to-date and cutting-edge packaging technologies for 2.5D and 3D integrated circuits (ICs) based on the updated transistor structure and technology nodes. The author concludes that multi-chip solutions for 2.5D and 3D IC packagings are feasible to prolong Moore’s Law.

Keywords: moore’s law, high numerical aperture (high-NA), power consumption-performance-area-cost-cycle time to market (PPACC), 2.5 and 3D- very-large-scale integration, packaging, through silicon via (TSV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
19 Polymer Patterning by Dip Pen Nanolithography

Authors: Ayse Cagil Kandemir, Derya Erdem, Markus Niederberger, Ralph Spolenak


Dip Pen nanolithography (DPN), which is a tip based method, serves a novel approach to produce nano and micro-scaled patterns due to its high resolution and pattern flexibility. It is introduced as a new constructive scanning probe lithography (SPL) technique. DPN delivers materials in the form of an ink by using the tip of a cantilever as pen and substrate as paper in order to form surface architectures. First studies rely on delivery of small organic molecules on gold substrate in ambient conditions. As time passes different inks such as; polymers, colloidal particles, oligonucleotides, metallic salts were examined on a variety of surfaces. Discovery of DPN also enabled patterning with multiple inks by using multiple cantilevers for the first time in SPL history. Specifically, polymer inks, which constitute a flexible matrix for various materials, can have a potential in MEMS, NEMS and drug delivery applications. In our study, it is aimed to construct polymer patterns using DPN by studying wetting behavior of polymer on semiconductor, metal and polymer surfaces. The optimum viscosity range of polymer and effect of environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature are examined. It is observed that there is an inverse relation with ink viscosity and depletion time. This study also yields the optimal writing conditions to produce consistent patterns with DPN. It is shown that written dot sizes increase with dwell time, indicating that the examined writing conditions yield repeatable patterns.

Keywords: dip pen nanolithography, polymer, surface patterning, surface science

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
18 Controlled Growth of Charge Transfer Complex Nanowire by Physical Vapor Deposition Method Using Dielectrophoretic Force

Authors: Rabaya Basori, Arup K. Raychaudhuri


In recent years, a variety of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been synthesized and used as basic building blocks for the development of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely investigated as a scalable technique to trap and manipulate polarizable objects. This includes biological cells, nanoparticles, DNA molecules, organic or inorganic NWs and proteins using electric field gradients. In this article, we have used DEP force to localize nanowire growth by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method as well as control of NW diameter on field assisted growth of the NWs of CuTCNQ (Cu-tetracyanoquinodimethane); a metal-organic charge transfer complex material which is well known of resistive switching. We report a versatile analysis platform, based on a set of nanogap electrodes, for the controlled growth of nanowire. Non-uniform electric field and dielectrophoretic force is created in between two metal electrodes, patterned by electron beam lithography process. Suspended CuTCNQ nanowires have been grown laterally between two electrodes in the vicinity of electric field and dielectric force by applying external bias. Growth and diameter dependence of the nanowires on external bias has been investigated in the framework of these two forces by COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. This report will help successful in-situ nanodevice fabrication with constrained number of NW and diameter without any post treatment.

Keywords: nanowire, dielectrophoretic force, confined growth, controlled diameter, comsol multiphysics simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
17 Sustainable Radiation Curable Palm Oil-Based Products for Advanced Materials Applications

Authors: R. Tajau, R. Rohani, M. S. Alias, N. H. Mudri, K. A. Abdul Halim, M. H. Harun, N. Mat Isa, R. Che Ismail, S. Muhammad Faisal, M. Talib, M. R. Mohamed Zin


Bio-based polymeric materials are increasingly used for a variety of applications, including surface coating, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. These polymeric materials are ideal for the aforementioned applications because they are derived from natural resources, non-toxic, low-cost, biocompatible, and biodegradable, and have promising thermal and mechanical properties. The nature of hydrocarbon chains, carbon double bonds, and ester bonds allows various sources of oil (edible), such as soy, sunflower, olive, and oil palm, to fine-tune their particular structures in the development of innovative materials. Palm oil can be the most eminent raw material used for manufacturing new and advanced natural polymeric materials involving radiation techniques, such as coating resins, nanoparticles, scaffold, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and lithography for different branches of the industry in countries where oil palm is abundant. The radiation technique is among the most versatile, cost-effective, simple, and effective methods. Crosslinking, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), polymerisation, grafting, and degradation are among the radiation mechanisms. Exposure to gamma, EB, UV, or laser irradiation, which are commonly used in the development of polymeric materials, is used in these mechanisms. Therefore, this review focuses on current radiation processing technologies for the development of various radiation-curable bio-based polymeric materials with a promising future in biomedical and industrial applications. The key focus of this review is on radiation curable palm oil-based products, which have been published frequently in recent studies.

Keywords: palm oil, radiation processing, surface coatings, VOC

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
16 High Aspect Ratio Micropillar Array Based Microfluidic Viscometer

Authors: Ahmet Erten, Adil Mustafa, Ayşenur Eser, Özlem Yalçın


We present a new viscometer based on a microfluidic chip with elastic high aspect ratio micropillar arrays. The displacement of pillar tips in flow direction can be used to analyze viscosity of liquid. In our work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze pillar displacement of various micropillar array configurations in flow direction at different viscosities. Following CFD optimization, micro-CNC based rapid prototyping is used to fabricate molds for microfluidic chips. Microfluidic chips are fabricated out of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography methods with molds machined out of aluminum. Tip displacements of micropillar array (300 µm in diameter and 1400 µm in height) in flow direction are recorded using a microscope mounted camera, and the displacements are analyzed using image processing with an algorithm written in MATLAB. Experiments are performed with water-glycerol solutions mixed at 4 different ratios to attain 1 cP, 5 cP, 10 cP and 15 cP viscosities at room temperature. The prepared solutions are injected into the microfluidic chips using a syringe pump at flow rates from 10-100 mL / hr and the displacement versus flow rate is plotted for different viscosities. A displacement of around 1.5 µm was observed for 15 cP solution at 60 mL / hr while only a 1 µm displacement was observed for 10 cP solution. The presented viscometer design optimization is still in progress for better sensitivity and accuracy. Our microfluidic viscometer platform has potential for tailor made microfluidic chips to enable real time observation and control of viscosity changes in biological or chemical reactions.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), high aspect ratio, micropillar array, viscometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
15 Surface Modified Quantum Dots for Nanophotonics, Stereolithography and Hybrid Systems for Biomedical Studies

Authors: Redouane Krini, Lutz Nuhn, Hicham El Mard Cheol Woo Ha, Yoondeok Han, Kwang-Sup Lee, Dong-Yol Yang, Jinsoo Joo, Rudolf Zentel


To use Quantum Dots (QDs) in the two photon initiated polymerization technique (TPIP) for 3D patternings, QDs were modified on the surface with photosensitive end groups which are able to undergo a photopolymerization. We were able to fabricate fluorescent 3D lattice structures using photopatternable QDs by TPIP for photonic devices such as photonic crystals and metamaterials. The QDs in different diameter have different emission colors and through mixing of RGB QDs white light fluorescent from the polymeric structures has been created. Metamaterials are capable for unique interaction with the electrical and magnetic components of the electromagnetic radiation and for manipulating light it is crucial to have a negative refractive index. In combination with QDs via TPIP technique polymeric structures can be designed with properties which cannot be found in nature. This makes these artificial materials gaining a huge importance for real-life applications in photonic and optoelectronic. Understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is of a huge interest in the biomedical research field. We developed a synthetic strategy of polymer functionalized nanoparticles for biomedical studies to obtain hybrid systems of QDs and copolymers with a strong binding network in an inner shell and which can be modified in the end through their poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized outer shell. These hybrid systems can be used as models for investigation of cell penetration and drug delivery by using measurements combination between CryoTEM and fluorescence studies.

Keywords: biomedical study models, lithography, photo induced polymerization, quantum dots

Procedia PDF Downloads 452