Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 369

Search results for: insect pest

369 Entomopathogenic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents: Review Paper

Authors: Tadesse Kebede Dabsu

Abstract:

Insect pest is one the major limiting factor for sustainable food production. To overtake insect pest problem, since Second World War, producers have used excessive insecticide for insect pest management. However, in the era of 21st Century, the excessive use of insecticide caused insect resistant, insecticide bioaccumulation, insecticide hazard to environment, human health problem, and the like. Due to these problems, research efforts have been focused on the development of environmental free sustainable insect pest management method. To minimize all above mentioned risk utilizing of biological control such as entomopathogenicmicroorganism include bacteria, virus, fungus, and their productsare the best option for suppress insect population below certain density level. The objective of this review was to review the updated available studies and recent developments on the entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB) as biological control of insect pest and challenge of using them for control of insect pest. EPB’s mechanisms of insecticidal activities, type, taxonomy, and history are included in this paper body. EPB has been successfully used for the suppression of populations of insect pests. Controlling of harmful insect by entomopathogenic bacteria is an effective, low bioaccumulation in environment and food, very specific, reduce resistance risk in insect pest, economically and sustainable method of major insect pest management method. Identified and reported as potential major common type of entomopathogenic bacteria include Bacillus thuringiensis, Photorhabdus sp., Xenorhabdus spp.Walbachiaspp, Actinomycetesspp.etc. These bacteria being enter into insect body through natural opening or by vector release toxin protein inside of insect and disrupt the cell’s content cause natural mortality under natural condition. As per reported by different scientists, insect orders like Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Dipterahave been successful controlled by entomopathogenic bacteria. As per coming across in different scientific research journals, much of the work was emphasised on Bacillus thuringiensisbsp. Therefore, for commercial production like Bacillus thuringiensi, detail research should be done on other bacteria species. The efficacy and practical application of EPB are restricted to some crops and greenhouse area, but their field application at farmers’ level very less. So still much work needs to be done to the practical application of the EPB at widely application. Their efficacy, pathogenicity, and host range test should be tested under environmental condition.

Keywords: insect pest, entomopathogenic bacteria, biological control, agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
368 Date Palm Insects and Mite Pests at Biskra Oasis, South Algeria

Authors: N. Tarai, S. Seighi, S. Doumandji

Abstract:

The date palm trees Phoenix dactylifera L. are subject to infestation with a variety of insect pests and mite associated, the Carob moth Ectomyelois ceatoniae (Zeller)(Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) is a key pest. Survey of the insect and mite pests associated with date palm trees in the seven stations at Biskra Oasis, throughout two successive years, from October 2011 until September 2012 revealed twelve insect pests belonging to ten families and six orders in addition to one mite belonging to one family from order Acari.

Keywords: date palm, insect, pests, infestation, mit, Biskra, Oasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
367 Insect Inducible Methanol Production in Plants for Insect Resistance

Authors: Gourav Jain, Sameer Dixit, Surjeet Kumar Arya, Praveen C. Verma

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Plant cell wall plays a major role in defence mechanism against biotic and abiotic stress as it constitutes the physical barrier between the microenvironment and internal component of the cell. It is a complex structure composed of mostly carbohydrates among which cellulose and hemicelluloses are most abundant that is embedded in a matrix of pectins and proteins. Multiple enzymes have been reported which plays a vital role in cell wall modification, Pectin Methylesterase (PME) is one of them which catalyses the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans component of pectin which releases acidic pectin and methanol. As emitted methanol is toxic to the insect pest, we use PME gene for the better methanol production. In the current study we showed overexpression of PME gene isolated from Withania somnifera under the insect inducible promoter causes enhancement of methanol production at the time of insect feeds to plants, and that provides better insect resistance property. We found that the 85-90% mortality causes by transgenic tobacco in both chewing (Spodoptera litura larvae and Helicoverpa armigera) and sap-sucking (Aphid, mealybug, and whitefly) pest. The methanol content and emission level were also enhanced by 10-15 folds at different inducible time point interval (15min, 30min, 45min, 60min) which would be analysed by Purpald/Alcohol Oxidase method.

Keywords: methanol, Pectin methylesterase, inducible promoters, Purpald/Alcohol oxidase

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
366 A Review on the Vulnerability of Rural-Small Scale Farmers to Insect Pest Attacks in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Nolitha L. Skenjana, Bongani P. Kubheka, Maxwell A. Poswal

Abstract:

The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is characterized by subsistence farming, which is mostly distributed in the rural areas of the province. It is estimated that cereal crops such as maize and sorghum, and vegetables such as cabbage are grown in more than 400.000 rural households, with maize being the most dominant crop. However, compared to commercial agriculture, small-scale farmers receive minimal support from research and development, limited technology transfer on the latest production practices and systems and have poor production infrastructure and equipment. Similarly, there is limited farmers' appreciation on best practices in insect pest management and control. The paper presents findings from the primary literature and personal observations on insect pest management practices of small-scale farmers in the province. Inferences from literature and personal experiences in the production areas have led to a number of deductions regarding the level of exposure and extent of vulnerability. Farmers' pest management practices, which included not controlling at all though there is a pest problem, resulted in their crop stands to be more vulnerable to pest attacks. This became more evident with the recent brown locust, African armyworm, and Fall armyworm outbreaks, and with the incidences of opportunistic phytophagous insects previously collected on wild hosts only, found causing serious damages on crops. In most of these occurrences, damage to crops resulted in low or no yield. Improvements on farmers' reaction and response to pest problems were only observed in areas where focused awareness campaigns and trainings on specific pests and their management techniques were done. This then calls for a concerted effort from all role players in the sphere of small-scale crop production, to train and equip farmers with relevant skills, and provide them with information on affordable and climate-smart strategies and technologies in order to create a state of preparedness. This is necessary for the prevention of substantial crop losses that may exacerbate food insecurity in the province.

Keywords: Eastern Cape Province, small-scale farmers, insect pest management, vulnerability

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365 Effect Of Tephrosia purpurea (Family: Fabaceae) Formulations On Oviposition By The Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus chinensis Linn.

Authors: Priyanka Jain, Meera Srivastava

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Among important insect pests of stored grains, the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is one such pest causing considerable damage to stored pulses. An effort was made to screen plant Tephrosia purpurea (Family: Fabaceae) for its efficacy against the said pest. The pulse beetle C. chinensis was raised on green gram Vigna radiata in incubators maintained at 28 ± 2°C and 70% RH. Different formulations using plant parts (root, stem, leaf and fruit) were employed in the form of aqueous suspension, aqueous extract and ether extract and the treatments were made using different dose concentrations, namely 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%, besides normal and control. Specific number of adult insects were released in muslin cloth covered beakers containing weighed green gram grains and treated with different dose concentrations (w/v). Observations for the number of eggs laid by the pest insect C. chinensis was recorded after three days of treatment and it was observed that in general all the treatments of the plant resulted in significant decrease in the eggs laid (no/pair) by the insect, suggesting that the selected plant has a potential to be used against C. chinensis.

Keywords: Callosobruchus chinensis, egg laying, Tephrosia purpurea, Fabaceae, plant formulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
364 Bio-Efficacy of Vermiwash and Leaf Extracts against Mealy Bug, Paracoccus marginatus Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

Authors: Radha Rajamma, Susheela Palanisamy

Abstract:

The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has posed a serious threat to the environment, cause disturbance to the soil ecosystem, pollute the water causing serious health problems. The indigenous practices such as herbal spray, phyto-alternatives, etc. offer harmless alternatives in integrated pest management. The use of plant materials has become an integral part of insect pest management because of their cheap and non-toxic nature. Hence an investigation has been made to determine the bio-efficacy of vermiwash and two leaf extracts, Azadirachta indica and Vitex negundo against mealy bug, Paracoccus marginatus. The results on the effect of vermitechnologies on the activity of mealy bug indicated the effectiveness of vermiwash foliar application in suppressing the pest activity. Accumulative mortality of mealy bug increased gradually with the increase of exposure intervals. The combined treatment of vermiwash with Azadirachta indica reported the highest mortality percentage of 96% followed by the individual treatment of leaf extracts. Hence vermiwash was proved to be the most effective in enhancing the potency of mealy bug and decreased LC50 of the target insect.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Paracoccus marginatus, vermiwash, Vitex negundo

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
363 Insect Diversity Assessment of Maize Crop (Zea mays L.) by Using Sweep Net, Pitfall Trap and Plant Inspection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Muhammad Arshad, Shahid Majeed

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Maize is known as queen of cereals because of its highest genetic yield potential and multipurpose characteristics in human being and animal diet. Maize crop visited by many major, minor, visitors and sporadic insect pests. This study was conducted during 2014 to evaluate the richness and evenness of these insect pests and their interaction with metrological conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In this experiment, two localities were selected; one was treated with pesticide and second was untreated. Maize field visited by many insect pests. Those insect pests were collected by using three collection method: sweep net, pitfall trap and plant inspection. The data was collected weekly interval from August to October and statistically analyzed by using Shannon Index which showed the results of insect pest richness and evenness. The value of Shannon Index was higher with the increase in number of species and abundance of insects. Camponotus nearcticus was most abundant in sweep net and pitfall trap method while Rhopalosiphum maidis was abundant in plant inspection method. Temperature was negatively co-relate with the insect population in all three collection methods while the relative humidity and rainfall had varying results.

Keywords: abundance, evenness, maize, richness

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
362 Insects and Meteorological Inventories in a Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin, Shakura Namni, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Giashuddin Miah, Mohammad Zakaria, Sang Jae Suh, Yong Jung Kwon

Abstract:

Insect species abundance and diversity associated with meteorological factors during January to June 2013 at a mango-based agroforestry research field in Bangladesh, and the effects of pests and pollinator species on mango are presented in this study. Among the collected and identified insects, nine species belong to 3 orders were found as pollinator, 11 species in 5 orders as pest, and 13 species in 6 orders as predator. The mango hopper, fruit fly and stone weevil appeared as major pest because of their high levels of abundance and infestation. The hoppers caused 100% inflorescence damage followed by fruit fly (51.7% fruit) and stone weevil (31.0% mature fruit). The major pests exerted significantly higher abundance compared to pollinator, predator and minor pests. Hemipteroid insects were most abundant (60%) followed by Diptera (21%), Hymenoptera (10%), Lepidoptera (5%), and Coleoptera (4%). Insect population increased with increasing trend of temperature and humidity, and revealed peak abundance during April-May. The flower visiting insects differed in their landing duration and showed preference to forage with time of a day. Their foraging activity was found to be peaked between 11.00 am to 01.00 pm. The activity of the pollinators led to higher level of fruit set. This study provides baseline information about the phenological patterns of insect abundance in an agroforestry research field which could be an indication to incorporate some aspects of pest management.

Keywords: agroforestry, abundance, abiotic factors, insects, mango

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
361 Records of Lepidopteron Borers (Lepidoptera) on Stored Seeds of Indian Himalayan Conifers

Authors: Pawan Kumar, Pitamber Singh Negi

Abstract:

Many of the regeneration failures in conifers are often being attributed to heavy insect attack and pathogens during the period of seed formation and under storage conditions. Conifer berries and seed insects occur throughout the known range of the hosts and also limit the production of seed for nursery stock. On occasion, even entire seed crops are lost due to insect attacks. The berry and seeds of both the species have been found to be infected with insects. Recently, heavy damage to the berry and seeds of Juniper and Chilgoza Pine was observed in the field as well as in stored conditions, leading to reduction in the viability of seeds to germinate. Both the species are under great threat and regeneration of the species is very low. Due to lack of adequate literature, the study on the damage potential of seed insects was urgently required to know the exact status of the insect-pests attacking seeds/berries of both the pine species so as to develop pest management practices against the insect pests attack. As both the species are also under threat and are fighting for survival, so the study is important to develop management practices for the insect-pests of seeds/berries of Juniper and Chilgoza pine so as to evaluate in the nursery, as these species form major vegetation of their distribution zones. A six-year study on the management of insect pests of seeds of Chilgoza revealed that seeds of this species are prone to insect pests mainly borers. During present investigations, it was recorded that cones of are heavily attacked only by Dioryctria abietella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in natural conditions, but seeds which are economically important are heavily infected, (sometimes up to 100% damage was also recorded) by insect borer, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and is recorded for the first time ‘to author’s best knowledge’ infesting the stored Chilgoza seeds. Similarly, Juniper berries and seeds were heavily attacked only by a single borer, Homaloxestis cholopis (Lepidoptera: Lecithoceridae) recorded as a new report in natural habitat as well as in stored conditions. During the present investigation details of insect pest attack on Juniper and Chilgoza pine seeds and berries was observed and suitable management practices were also developed to contain the insect-pests attack.

Keywords: borer, chilgozapine, cones, conifer, Lepidoptera, juniper, management, seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
360 Effect of Biopesticide to Control Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Eryngium foetidum L.

Authors: Udomporn Pangnakorn, Sombat Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

Effect of the biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was carried out for reduction infestation of the major insects pest (whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at farmers’ farm in Tumbol Takhian Luean, Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (lately November to May). The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect net and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied. The results showed that bacteria ISR was the highest effectiveness for control whitefly infestation on culantro, the whitefly numbers on insect net were 12.5, 10.0, and 7.5 after spraying in 1hr, 2hr, and 3hr, respectively. While the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0, and 10.0 after spraying in 1hr, 2hr, and 3hr, respectively. Furthermore, overall the experiments showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect net and sticky tap respectively, followed by treatment of nematode found the average whitefly with 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect net and sticky tap, respectively. Therefore, the application of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematodes, bacteria ISR, organic substances from plants and wood vinegar combined with natural enemies is the alternative method of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for against infestation of whitefly.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar, fermented organic substances

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
359 Prevelance of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistran

Authors: Kamal Khan Abro, Nasreen Memon, Attaullah Ansari, Mahpara Pirzada, Saima Pathan

Abstract:

Jacobabad district has a hot desert climate with very hot summers and insignificant winters. The highest recorded temperature is 53.8 °C (127.0 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is −4.9 °C (25.0 °F). Rainfall is short and mostly occurs in the monsoon season (July–September). Agriculture point of view Jacobabad district is very important district of Sindh Pakistan in which many types of crop and vegetables are cultivated annually such as Wheat, Rice, and Brassica, Cabbage, Spinach, Chili etc. which are badly attacked by many crops pest. Insects are very tiny, sensitive and most attractive mortal and most important collection of animal wildlife they play important role in biological control agent, biodiversity & agroecosystem. The brassica crop extremely infested by many different types of pest such as Aphids, Whitefly, Jassids, Thrips, Mealybug, scale insect pink worm, bollworm and borers Mealy bug, scale insect etc. These pests destroy many crops. The present study was carried out from Jacobabad district from January 2017 to April 2017.

Keywords: prevelance, green peach aphid, Jacobabad, Sindh Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
358 Severe Infestation of Laspeyresia Koenigana Fab. and Alternaria Leaf Spot on Azadirachta Indica (Neem)

Authors: Shiwani Bhatnagar, K. K. Srivastava, Sangeeta Singh, Ameen Ullah Khan, Bundesh Kumar, Lokendra Singh Rathore

Abstract:

From the instigation of the world medicinal plants are treated as part and parcel of human society to fight against diseases. Azadirachta indica (Neem) a herbal plant has been used as an Indian traditional medicine since ages and its products are acknowledged to solve agricultural, forestry and public health related problems, owing to its beneficial medicinal properties. Each part of the neem tree is known for its medicinal property. Bark & leaf extracts of neem have been used to control leprosy, respiratory disorders, constipation and also as blood purifier and a general health tonic. Neem is still regarded as ' rural community dispensary' in India or a tree for solving medical problems. Use of Neem as pesticides for the management of insect pest of agriculture crops and forestry has been seen as a shift in the use of synthetic pesticides to ecofriendly botanicals. Neem oil and seed extracts possess germicidal and anti-bacterial properties which when sprayed on the plant helps in protecting them from foliage pests. Azadirachtin, the main active ingredient found in neem tree, acts as an insect repellent and antifeedant. However the young plants are susceptible to many insect pest and foliar diseases. Recently, in the avenue plantation, planted by Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur, around the premises of IIT Jodhpur, two years old neem plants were found to be severely infested with tip borer Laspeyresia koenigana (Family: Eucosmidae). The adult moth of L. koenigana lays eggs on the tender shoots and the young larvae tunnel into the shoot and feed inside. A small pinhole can be seen at the entrance point, from where the larva enters in to the stem. The severely attached apical shoots exhibit profuse gum exudation resulting in development of a callus structure. The internal feeding causes the stem to wilt and the leaves to dry up from the tips resulting in growth retardation. Alternaria Leaf spot and blight symptoms were also recorded on these neem plants. For the management of tip borer and Alternaria Leaf spot, foliar spray of monocrotophos @0.05% and Dithane M-45 @ 0.15% and powermin @ 2ml/lit were found efficient in managing the insect pest and foliar disease problem. No Further incidence of pest/diseases was noticed.

Keywords: azadirachta indica, alternaria leaf spot, laspeyresia koenigana, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
357 Investigating Potential Pest Management Strategies for Citrus Gall Wasp in Australia

Authors: M. Yazdani, J. F. Carragher

Abstract:

Citrus gall wasp (CGW), Bruchophagus fellis (Hym: Eurytomidae), is an Australian native insect pest. CGW has now become a problem of national concern, threatening the viability of the entire Australian citrus industry. However, CGW appears to exhibit a preference for certain citrus species; growers report that grapefruit and lemons are most severely infested, with oranges and mandarins affected to a lesser extent. Given the specificity of the host plant-insect interactions, it is speculated that plant volatiles may play a significant role in host recognition. To address whether plant volatiles is involved in host plant preference by CGW we tested the behavioral response of CGW to plants in a wind tunnel. The result showed that CGW had significantly higher preference to grapefruit and lemon than other cultivars and the least preference was recorded to mandarin (Chi-square test, P<0.001). Because CGW exhibited a detectable choice further studies were undertaken to identify the components of the volatiles from each species. We trapped the volatile chemicals emitted by a 30 cm tip of each plant onto a solid Porapak matrix. Eluted extracts were then analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and the presumptive identity of the major compounds from each species inferred from the MS library. Although the same major compounds existed in all of the cultivars, the relative ratios of them differed between species. Next, we will validate the identity of the key volatiles using authentic standards and establish their ability to elicit olfactory responses in CGW in wind tunnel and field experiments. Identification of semiochemicals involved in host location by CGW is of interest not only from an ecological perspective but also for the development of novel pest control strategies.

Keywords: Citrus gall wasp, Bruchophagus fellis, volatiles, semiochemicals, IPM

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356 Sublethal Effect of Tebufenozide, an Ecdysteroid Agonist, on the Reproduction of German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

Authors: Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Amina Badi, Nadia Aribi

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German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is known to be an important pest due to its high reproductive potential and its ability to build up large infectious populations. The infestations were generally controlled by neurotoxic insecticides including organophosphates (OP), carbamate and pyrethroids. An alternative cockroach’s control approach is the use insect growth regulators (IGRs). The relative fewer effects of these chemicals on non-target insects and animals, and their favourable environmental fate, make them attractive insecticides for inclusion in integrated pest management programmes. The juvenoids and chitin synthesis inhibitors are two classes of IGRs that have received the most attention for useful chemicals to manage German cockroaches while ecdysone agonists were mostly used to control Lepidopteran species. In the present study, the sublethal effects of the non-sreroidal ecdysone agonist tebufenozide were evaluated topically on adults of the B. germanica. The effects on reproduction were observed in adults females of cockroaches that survived exposure to LD25 (146 µg/g of insect) of tebufenozide. Dissection of treated females showed a clear reduction in both the number of oocytes per paired ovaries and the size of basal oocytes, as compared to controls. In addition, tebufenozide significantly reduced the mating success of pairs and altered the fertility as shown through the reduction of ootheca development and total absence of viable nymph. Tebufenozide disrupted the German cockroach reproduction by interfering with homeostasis of the insect hormones. In conclusion, the overall results suggested that tebufenozide can be used as a biorational insecticide for controlling cockroaches.

Keywords: B. germanica, ecdysteroid agonist, tebufenozide, reproduction

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355 Lethal and Sub-Lethal Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Demography of Convergent Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Goeze) (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera)

Authors: Ayesha Iftikhar, Faisal Hafeez, Muhammad Jawad Saleem, Afifa Naeem, Muhammad Sohaib

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To further develop integrated pest management (IPM) tactics against insect pests, demographic toxicology is considered important and efficient to evaluate the long-term effects of pesticides on biological control agents. In this study, lethal and sub-lethal effects of Pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulator) two concentrations of LC10 and LC30 were tested on second instar larvae of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Goeze) in order to evaluate the effect of insecticide on demographic parameters of the predator under laboratory conditions. The life table parameters were analysed statistically by using age-stage, two sex life table procedure. The results of this study show that developmental time for immature was prolonged in treated population (LC30 and LC10) rather than in control. Similarly, male and female longevity was also longer in the control group as compared to the treated population. Adult pre-oviposition period and fecundity were also greater in control as compared to the treated population. In addition, population parameters such as net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were also greater in control group rather than treated population. However, mean generation time (T) was greater in the treated group. The results revealed that pyriproxyfen, even at low concentrations, has potential to greatly affect the population growth of predatory lady beetle, therefore care should be taken when insect growth regulators are used within an IPM framework.

Keywords: ladybird beetle, IGR, integrated pest management, population inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
354 Acute and Chronic Effect of Biopesticide on Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Cultivation

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

Acute and chronic effects of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was investigated for infestation reduction of the major insect pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at a farm in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (late November to May). Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of acute and chronic effect. The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect nets and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied for the acute effect. The results showed that bacteria ISR had the highest effectiveness for controlling whitefly infestation on culantro; the whitefly numbers on insect nets were 12.5, 10.0 and 7.5 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively while the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0 and 10.0 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively. For chronic effect, the whitefly was continuously collected and recorded at weekly intervals; the result showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect nets and sticky traps respectively, followed by treatment of nematode where the average whitefly was 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect nets and sticky traps, respectively. In addition, the minor insect pests were also observed and collected. The biopesticide influenced the reduction number of minor insect pests (red spider mites, beet armyworm, short-horned grasshopper, pygmy locusts, etc.) with only a few found on the culantro cultivation.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), acute and chronic effect, entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens)

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353 A Review on Silicon Based Induced Resistance in Plants against Insect Pests

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad Kamran, Iqra

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Development of resistance in insect pests against various groups of insecticides has prompted the use of alternative integrated pest management approaches. Among these induced host plant resistance represents an important strategy as it offers a practical, cheap and long lasting solution to keep pests populations below economic threshold level (ETL). Silicon (Si) has a major role in regulating plant eco-relationship by providing strength to the plant in the form of anti-stress mechanism which was utilized in coping with the environmental extremes to get a better yield and quality end produce. Among biotic stresses, insect herbivore signifies one class against which Si provide defense. Silicon in its neutral form (H₄SiO₄) is absorbed by the plants via roots through an active process accompanied by the help of different transporters which were located in the plasma membrane of root cells or by a passive process mostly regulated by transpiration stream, which occurs via the xylem cells along with the water. Plants tissues mainly the epidermal cell walls are the sinks of absorbed silicon where it polymerizes in the form of amorphous silica or monosilicic acid. The noteworthy function of this absorbed silicon is to provide structural rigidity to the tissues and strength to the cell walls. Silicon has both direct and indirect effects on insect herbivores. Increased abrasiveness and hardness of epidermal plant tissues and reduced digestibility as a result of deposition of Si primarily as phytoliths within cuticle layer is now the most authenticated mechanisms of Si in enhancing plant resistance to insect herbivores. Moreover, increased Si content in the diet also impedes the efficiency by which insects transformed consumed food into the body mass. The palatability of food material has also been changed by Si application, and it also deters herbivore feeding for food. The production of defensive compounds of plants like silica and phenols have also been amplified by the exogenous application of silicon sources which results in reduction of the probing time of certain insects. Some studies also highlighted the role of silicon at the third trophic level as it also attracts natural enemies of insects attacking the crop. Hence, the inclusion of Si in pest management approaches can be a healthy and eco-friendly tool in future.

Keywords: defensive, phytoliths, resistance, stresses

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
352 Management of Jebusaea hammerschmidtii and Batrachedra amydraula on Date Palm Trees in UAE

Authors: Mohammad Ali Al-Deeb, Hamda Ateeq Al Dhaheri

Abstract:

Insects cause major damage to crops and fruit trees worldwide. In the United Arab Emirates, the date palm tree is the most economically important tree which is used for date production as well as an ornamental tree. In 2002, the number of date palm trees in UAE was 40,700,000 and it is increasing over time. The longhorn stem borer (Jebusaea hammerschmidtii) and the lesser date month (Batrachedra amydraula) are important insect pests causing damage to date palm trees in UAE. Population dynamics of the Jebusaea hammerschmidtii and Batrachedra amydraula were studied by using light and pheromons traps, respectively in Al-Ain, UAE. The first trap catch of B. amydraula adults occurred on 19 April and the insect population peaked up on 26 April 2014. The first trap catch of J. hammerschmidtii occurred in April 2014. The numbers increased over time and the population peak occurred in June. The trapping was also done in 2015. The changes in insect numbers in relation to weather parameters are discussed. Also, the importance of the results on the management of these two pests is highlighted.

Keywords: date palm, integrated pest management, UAE, light trap, pheromone trap

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351 Alkaloid Levels in Experimental Lines of Ryegrass in Southtern Chile

Authors: Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz

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One of the most important factors in beef and dairy production in the world as well as also in Chile, is related to the correct choice of cultivars or mixtures of forage grasses and legumes to ensure high yields and quality of grassland. However, a great problem is the persistence of the grasses as a result of the action of different hypogeous as epigean pests. The complex insect pests associated with grassland include white grubs (Hylamorpha elegans, Phytoloema herrmanni), blackworm (Dalaca pallens) and Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). In Chile, the principal strategy utilized for controlling this pest is chemical control, through the use of synthetic insecticides, however, underground feeding habits of larval and flight activity of adults makes this uneconomic method. Furthermore, due to problems including environmental degradation, development of resistance and chemical residues, there is a worldwide interest in the use of alternative environmentally friendly pest control methods. In this sense, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in determining the role of endophyte fungi in controlling epigean and hypogeous pest. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces a “cocktail of alkaloids” where peramine is the main toxic substance present in endophyte of ryegrass and responsible for damage reduction of L. bonariensis. In the last decade, few studies have been developed on the effectiveness of new ryegrass cultivars carriers of endophyte in controlling insect pests. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide knowledge concerning to evaluate the alkaloid content, such as peramine and Lolitrem B, present in new experimental lines of ryegrass and feasible to be used in grasslands of southern Chile. For this, during 2016, ryegrass plants of six experimental lines and two commercial cultivars sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carrillanca (Vilcún, Chile) were collected and subjected to a process of chemical extraction to identify and quantify the presence of peramine and lolitrem B by the technique of liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results indicated that the experimental lines EL-1 and EL-3 had high content of peramine (0.25 and 0.43 ppm, respectively) than with lolitrem B (0.061 and 0.19 ppm, respectively). Furthermore, the higher contents of lolitrem B were detected in the EL-4 and commercial cultivar Alto (positive control) with 0.08 and 0.17 ppm, respectively. Peramine and lolitrem B were not detected in the cultivar Jumbo (negative control). These results suggest that EL-3 would have potential as future cultivate because it has high content of peramine, alkaloid responsible for controlling insect pest. However, their current role on the complex insects attacking ryegrass grasslands should be evaluated. The information obtained in this research could be used to improve control strategies against hypogeous and epigean pests of grassland in southern Chile and also to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides.

Keywords: HPLC, Lolitrem B, peramine, pest

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
350 Molecular Characterization and Identification of C-Type Lectin in Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

Authors: Hafiza Javaria Ashraf, Xinghong Wang, Zhanghong Shi, Youming Hou

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Insect’s innate immunity depends on a variety of defense responses for the recognition of invading pathogens. Pathogen recognition involves particular proteins known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRRs interact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens to distinguish between self and non-self. C-type lectins (CTLs) belong to a superfamily of PPRs which involved in insect immunity and defense mechanism. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier is a devastating pest of Palm cultivations in China. Although studies on R. ferrugineus immune mechanism and host defense have conducted, however, the role of CTL in immune responses of R. ferrugineus remains elusive. Here, we report RfCTL, which is a secreted protein containing a single-CRD domain. The open reading frame (ORF) of CTL is 226 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 168 amino acids. Transcript expression analysis revealed that RfCTL highly expressed in immune-related tissues, i.e., hemolymph and fat body. The abundance of RfCTL in the gut and fat body dramatically increased upon Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial challenges, suggesting a role in defense against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infection. Taken together, we inferred that RfCTL might be involved in the immune defense of R. ferrugineus and established a solid foundation for future studies on R. ferrugineus CTL domain proteins for better understanding of insect immunity.

Keywords: biological invasion, c-type lectin, insect immunity, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
349 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

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The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: Liriomyza cicerina, chickpea, essential oils, insecticidal activity, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
348 Solomon 300 OD (Betacyfluthrin+Imidacloprid): A Combi-Product for the Management of Insect-Pests of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.)

Authors: R. S. Giraddi, B. Thirupam Reddy, D. N. Kambrekar

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Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) an important commercial vegetable crop is ravaged by a number of insect-pests during both vegetative and reproductive phase resulting into significant crop loss.Thrips, Scirtothripsdorsalis, mite, Polyphagotarsonemuslatus and whitefly, Bemisiatabaci are the key sap feeding insects, their infestation leads to leaf curl, stunted growth and yield loss.During flowering and fruit formation stage, gall midge fly, Asphondyliacapparis (Rubsaaman) infesting flower buds and young fruits andHelicoverpaarmigera (Hubner) feeding on matured green fruits are the important insect pests causing significant crop loss.The pest is known to infest both flower buds and young fruits resulting into malformation of flower buds and twisting of fruits.In order to manage these insect-pests a combi product consisting of imidacloprid and betacyfluthrin (Soloman 300 OD) was evaluated for its bio-efficacy, phytotoxicity and effect on predator activity.Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide belonging to neo-nicotinoid group, is effective against insect pests such as aphids, whiteflies (sap feeders) and other insectsviz., termites and soil insects.Beta-Cyfluthrin is an insecticide of synthetic pyrethroid group which acts by contact action and ingestion. It acts on the insects' nervous system as sodium channel blocker consequently a disorder of the nervous system occurs leading finally to the death. The field experiments were taken up during 2015 and 2016 at the Main Agricultural Research Station of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.The trials were laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications using popular land race of Byadagi crop variety.Results indicated that the product at 21.6 + 50.4% gai/ha (240 ml/ha) and 27.9 + 65% gai/ha (310 ml/ha) was found quite effective in controlling thrips (0.00 to 0.66 thrips per six leaves) as against the standard check insecticide recommended for thrips by the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad wherein the density of thrips recorded was significantly higher (1.00 to 2.00 Nos./6 leaves). Similarly, the test insecticide was quite effective against other target insects, whiteflies, fruit borer and gall midge fly as indicated by lower insect population observed in the treatments as compared to standard insecticidal control. The predatory beetle activity was found to be normal in all experimental plots. Highest green fruit yield of 5100-5500 kg/ha was recorded in Soloman 300 OD applied crop at 310 ml/ha rate as compared to 4750 to 5050 kg/ha recorded in check. At present 6-8 sprays of insecticides are recommended for management of these insect-pests on the crop. If combi-products are used in pest management programmes, it is possible to reduce insecticide usages in crop ecosystem.

Keywords: Imidacloprid, Betacyfluthrin, gallmidge fly, thrips, chilli

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
347 Mass Rearing and Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Pupal Mortality and Reproduction of Citrus Leaf Miner Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Authors: Shiva Osouli, Maryam Atapour, Mehrdad Ahmadi, Shima Shokri

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Citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) is native to Asia and one of the most serious pests of Iran’s citrus nursery stocks. In the present study, the possibility of insect mass rearing on four various citrus hosts and the effects of gamma irradiation on the pupal mortality and reproduction of this pest were studied. Trifoliate orange and grapefruit showed less infection, while the number of pupae in Valencia oranges and sweet lemons cages was so high. There was not any significant difference between weight of male and female pupae among different citrus hosts, but generally the weight of male pupae was less than females. Use of Valencia orange or sweet lemons seedlings in especial dark emergence and oviposition cages could be recommended for mass rearing of this pest. In this study, the effects of gamma radiation at doses 100 to 450 Gy on biological and reproductive parameters of the pest has been determined. The results show that mean percent of pupal mortality increased with increasing doses and reached to 28.67% at 450 Gy for male pupae and 38.367% for female pupae. Also, the mean values of this parameter were higher for irradiated female, which indicated the higher sensitivity of this sex. The gamma ray irradiation from 200 and 300 Gy caused decrease in male and female adult moth longevity, respectively. The eggs were laid by emerged females, and their hatchability was decreased by increasing gamma doses. The fecundity of females in both combinations of crosses (irradiated male × normal female and irradiated female × normal male) did not differ, but fertility of laid eggs by irradiated female × normal male affected seriously and the mean values of this parameter reached to zero at 300 Gy. The hatchability percentage of produced eggs by normal female × irradiated male at 300 Gy was 23.29% and reached to less than 2 % at 450 Gy as the highest tested dose. The results of this test show that females have more radio-sensitivity in comparison to males.

Keywords: citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella, citrus hosts, mass rearing, Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
346 Entomological Study of Pests of Olive Trees in the Region of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Smail Chafaa, Abdelkrim Si Bachir

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Our work aims to study the insect diversity based on bioclimatic levels of pests in olive cultures (Olea europea L.) in the area of Batna (arid and semi arid north eastern Algeria) during the period from January 2011 to May 2011. Several sampling techniques were used, those of hunting on sight, visual inspection, hatches traps, colored traps, Japanese umbrella and sweep net. We have identified in total, 2311 individuals with results in inventory 206 species divided to 74 families and 11 orders, including Coleoptera order is quantitatively the most represented with 47.1%. The most dominant diet in our inventory is the phytophagous. Between the herbivorous insects that we have listed and which are the main olive pest of olive cultivation; we quote the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), cochineal purple olive (Parlatoria oleae) the psyllid olive (Euphyllura olivina) and olive Trips (Liothrips oleae). The distribution of species between stations shows that Boumia resort with the most number of species (113) compared to other resorts and beetles are also better represented in three groves. Total wealth is high in Boumia station compared with the others stations. The values of (H') exceeding 3.9 bits for all the stations studied indicate a specific wealth and diversity of ecological nests in insect species. The values of equitability are near the unit; that suggests a balance between the numbers of insect populations sampled in the various stations.

Keywords: entomology, olive, grove, batna, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
345 Insect Infestation of Two Varieties of Cowpea Seeds (Vigna Unguiculata L.Walp) Stored at Sokoto Central Market Grainaries

Authors: A. Jatau, H. M. Bandiya, Q. Majeed, M. A. Yahaya

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An investigation on the insect infestation of stored seeds of cowpea seeds varieties (Sokoto Loacal and Kanannado) was carried out in Sokoto central market, Sokoto. Two insects' species, Callosobrunchus maculatus and Callosobrunchus chinensis were found on the stored seeds with C. maculutus found to be the most prevalent. The rate of infestation of the cowpea seeds by the two insect species were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in Sokoto local than in Kanannado variety. The result shows that kanannado variety is more resistance to cowpea seeds weevils, hence should be used for long storage in Sokoto.

Keywords: insect, infestation, cowpea seeds, grainaries

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
344 Bionomics of Cryptophlebia Ombrodelta Lower (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Major Pest of Tamarind, Tamarindus Indica in Bastar Tribal Belt of Chhattisgarh, India

Authors: R. K. Patel

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The experiment entitled “Bionomics of Cryptophlebia ombrodelta Lower (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Major Pest of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica in Bastar tribal belt of Chhattisgarh” was conducted at S. G. College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagdalpur (Chhattisgarh) during 2014-15. The moth, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower) is very destructive pest to tamarind, Tamarindus indica. The mature larva is pinkish in colour whereas, the moth is generally grayish in colour and it lays pale yellowish - white, flat and round eggs near the peduncle joint of pod (fruit) or on the pod surface. The newly hatched larva enters into the fruit by making hole packed with excreta. It completes three to four generation in a year and can cause fourty two per cent loss to tamarind fruits. The morphological details of this pest were studied.

Keywords: bionomics, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta, loss, pest, Tamarind, Tamarindus indica

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
343 Comparative Study of the Abundance of Winter Nests of the Pine Processionary Caterpillar in Different Forests of Pinus Halepensis, pinus Pinaster, Pinus Pinea and Cedrus Atlantica, in Algeria

Authors: Boudjahem Ibtissem, Aouati Amel

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Thaumetopoea pityocampa is one of the major insect pests of pine forests in Algeria, the Mediterranean region, and central Europe. This pest is responsible for several natural and human damages these last years. The caterpillar can feed itself during the larval stage on several species of pine or cedar. The forests attack by the insect can reduce their resistance against other forest enemies, fires, or drought conditions. In this case, the tree becomes more vulnerable to other pests. To understand the eating behavior of the insect in its ecological conditions, and its nutritional preference, we realized a study of the abundance of winter nests of the pine processionary caterpillar in four different forests: Pinus halepensis; Pinus pinaster; Pinus pinea, and Cedrus atlantica. A count of the sites affected by the processionary caterpillar was carried out on a hundred trees from the forests in different regions in Algeria; Alkala region, Mila region, Annaba region, and Blida region; the total rate and average abundance are calculated for each forest. Ecological parameters are also estimated for each infestation. The results indicated a higher rate of infestation in Pinus halepensis trees (85%) followed by Cedrus atlantica (66%) and Pinus pinaster (50%) trees. The Pinus pinea forest is the least attacked region by the pine processionary caterpillar (23%). The abundance of the pine processionary caterpillar can be influenced by the height of the trees, the climate of the region, the age of the forest but also the quality of needles.

Keywords: Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Pinus halepensis, needles, winter nests

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
342 Implication to Environmental Education of Indigenous Knowledge and the Ecosystem of Upland Farmers in Aklan, Philippines

Authors: Emily Arangote

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This paper defined the association between the indigenous knowledge, cultural practices and the ecosystem its implication to the environmental education to the farmers. Farmers recognize the need for sustainability of the ecosystem they inhabit. The cultural practices of farmers on use of indigenous pest control, use of insect-repellant plants, soil management practices that suppress diseases and harmful pests and conserve soil moisture are deemed to be ecologically-friendly. Indigenous plant materials that were more drought- and pest-resistant were grown. Crop rotation was implemented with various crop seeds to increase their disease resistance. Multi-cropping, planting of perennial crops, categorization of soil and planting of appropriate crops, planting of appropriate and leguminous crops, alloting land as watershed, and preserving traditional palay seed varieties were found to be beneficial in preserving the environment. The study also found that indigenous knowledge about crops are still relevant and useful to the current generation. This ensured the sustainability of our environment and incumbent on policy makers and educators to support and preserve for generations yet to come.

Keywords: cultural practices, ecosystem, environmental education, indigenous knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
341 Spatio-Temporal Pest Risk Analysis with ‘BioClass’

Authors: Vladimir A. Todiras

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Spatio-temporal models provide new possibilities for real-time action in pest risk analysis. It should be noted that estimation of the possibility and probability of introduction of a pest and of its economic consequences involves many uncertainties. We present a new mapping technique that assesses pest invasion risk using online BioClass software. BioClass is a GIS tool designed to solve multiple-criteria classification and optimization problems based on fuzzy logic and level set methods. This research describes a method for predicting the potential establishment and spread of a plant pest into new areas using a case study: corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.), tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana). Our study demonstrated that in BioClass we can combine fuzzy logic and geographic information systems with knowledge of pest biology and environmental data to derive new information for decision making. Pests are sensitive to a warming climate, as temperature greatly affects their survival and reproductive rate and capacity. Changes have been observed in the distribution, frequency and severity of outbreaks of Helicoverpa armigera on tomato. BioClass has demonstrated to be a powerful tool for applying dynamic models and map the potential future distribution of a species, enable resource to make decisions about dangerous and invasive species management and control.

Keywords: classification, model, pest, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
340 Assessment of Germination Loss Due to Dusky Cotton Bug (Oxycarenus laetus) in Relation to Cotton Boll Stage and Bug Intensity

Authors: Ali Hassan, Mian Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Rafique Shahid, Farazia Hassan, Shumaila Rasool

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Dusky cotton bug (Oxycarenus laetus) has attained the status of major insect pest of cotton. It is also known as seed bug due to its property of feeding on seeds. It causes floral abscission at flowering stage and reduction in seed germination. Present study was carried out to assess germination loss caused by dusky bug with respect to crop stage and insect intensity. Treatments consisted of three stages immature boll, mature boll and opened boll as well three levels of dusky bug i.e., 50 bugs per boll, 40 bugs per boll along with zero level kept as control. Results showed that the germination percentage was highest in control treatment where no insect was released followed by treatment where 40 insects released and minimum germination showed by treatment in which 50 insects were released. The germination percentage of seeds surpassed after control treatment in the treatment where dusky bugs exposure was given at boll opening stage than on mature boll stage. Minimum germination was observed in immature boll stage. Interaction between crop stages and dusky bug levels showed that germination percentage of seeds was maximum in control treatment then boll opening stage followed by mature boll stage. Minimum seed germination was recorded in dusky bug treatment at immature boll stage which was 34% where 50 insects were released. From the results it is clear that dusky bug should be managed properly at all reproductive stages but immature stage is most critical.

Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum, Oxycarenus laetus, seed bug, seed germination

Procedia PDF Downloads 217