Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 493

Search results for: Yuen Hong Tsang

493 Broadband Platinum Disulfide Based Saturable Absorber Used for Optical Fiber Mode Locking Lasers

Authors: Hui Long, Chun Yin Tang, Ping Kwong Cheng, Xin Yu Wang, Wayesh Qarony, Yuen Hong Tsang

Abstract:

Two dimensional (2D) materials have recently attained substantial research interest since the discovery of graphene. However, the zero-bandgap feature of the graphene limits its nonlinear optical applications, e.g., saturable absorption for these applications require strong light-matter interaction. Nevertheless, the excellent optoelectronic properties, such as broad tunable bandgap energy and high carrier mobility of Group 10 transition metal dichalcogenides 2D materials, e.g., PtS2 introduce new degree of freedoms in the optoelectronic applications. This work reports our recent research findings regarding the saturable absorption property of PtS2 layered 2D material and its possibility to be used as saturable absorber (SA) for ultrafast mode locking fiber laser. The demonstration of mode locking operation by using the fabricated PtS2 as SA will be discussed. The PtS2/PVA SA used in this experiment is made up of some few layered PtS2 nanosheets fabricated via a simple ultrasonic liquid exfoliation. The operational wavelength located at ~1 micron is demonstrated from Yb-doped mode locking fiber laser ring cavity by using the PtS2 SA. The fabricated PtS2 saturable absorber offers strong nonlinear properties, and it is capable of producing regular mode locking laser pulses with pulse to pulse duration matched with the round-trip cavity time. The results confirm successful mode locking operation achieved by the fabricated PtS2 material. This work opens some new opportunities for these PtS2 materials for the ultrafast laser generation. Acknowledgments: This work is financially supported by Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission (JCYJ20170303160136888) and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, China (GRF 152109/16E, PolyU code: B-Q52T).

Keywords: saturable absorption, platinum disulfide, PtS2, saturable absorber, mode locking laser

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492 The Development and Future of Hong Kong Typography

Authors: Amic G. Ho

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Language usage and typography in Hong Kong are unique, as can be seen clearly on the streets of the city. In contrast to many other parts of the world, where there is only one language, in Hong Kong many signs and billboards display two languages: Chinese and English. The language usage on signage, fonts and types used, and the designs in magazines and advertisements all demonstrate the unique features of Hong Kong typographic design, which reflect the multicultural nature of Hong Kong society. This study is the first step in investigating the nature and development of Hong Kong typography. The preliminary research explored how the historical development of Hong Kong is reflected in its unique typography. Following a review of historical development, a quantitative study was designed: Local Hong Kong participants were invited to provide input on what makes the Hong Kong typographic style unique. Their input was collected and analyzed. This provided us with information about the characteristic criteria and features of Hong Kong typography, as recognized by the local people. The most significant typographic designs in Hong Kong were then investigated and the influence of Chinese and other cultures on Hong Kong typography was assessed. The research results provide an indication to local designers on how they can strengthen local design outcomes and promote the values and culture of their mother town.

Keywords: Historical Developments, Typography, Hong Kong, multiple cultures

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491 Implementing of Indoor Air Quality Index in Hong Kong

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Tsz W. Tsang

Abstract:

Many Hong Kong people nowadays spend most of their lifetime working indoor. Since poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) potentially leads to discomfort, ill health, low productivity and even absenteeism in workplaces, a call for establishing statutory IAQ control to safeguard the well-being of residents is urgently required. Although policies, strategies, and guidelines for workplace IAQ diagnosis have been developed elsewhere and followed with remedial works, some of those workplaces or buildings have relatively late stage of the IAQ problems when the investigation or remedial work started. Screening for IAQ problems should be initiated as it will provide information as a minimum provision of IAQ baseline requisite to the resolution of the problems. It is not practical to sample all air pollutants that exit. Nevertheless, as a statutory control, reliable, rapid screening is essential in accordance with a compromise strategy, which balances costs against detection of key pollutants. This study investigates the feasibility of using an IAQ index as a parameter of IAQ control in Hong Kong. The index is a screening parameter to identify the unsatisfactory workplace IAQ and will highlight where a fully effective IAQ monitoring and assessment is needed for an intensive diagnosis. There already exist a number of representative common indoor pollutants based on some extensive IAQ assessments. The selection of pollutants is surrogate to IAQ control consists of dilution, mitigation, and emission control. The IAQ Index and assessment will look at high fractional quantities of these common measurement parameters. With the support of the existing comprehensive regional IAQ database and the IAQ Index by the research team as the pre-assessment probability, and the unsatisfactory IAQ prevalence as the post-assessment probability from this study, thresholds of maintaining the current measures and performing a further IAQ test or IAQ remedial measures will be proposed. With justified resources, the proposed IAQ Index and assessment protocol might be a useful tool for setting up a practical public IAQ surveillance programme and policy in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Assessment, Indoor Air Quality, index, surveillance programme

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490 Transformation in Palliative Care Delivery in Surgery

Authors: W. L. Tsang, H. Y. Li, S. L. Wong, T. Y. Kwok, S. C. Yuen, S. S. Kwok, P. S. Ko, S. Y. Lau

Abstract:

Introduction: Palliative care is no doubt necessary in surgery. When one looks at studies of what patients with life-threatening illness want and compares to what they experience in surgical units, the gap is huge. Surgical nurses, being patient advocates, should engage with patients and families sooner rather than later in their illness trajectories to consider how to manage the illness, not just their capacity to survive. Objective: This clinical practice guide aims to fill the service gap of palliative care in surgery by producing a quality-driven, evidence-based yet straightforward clinical practice guide based on a focus strategy. Methodology: In line with Guide to Good Nursing Practice: End-of-Life Care recommended by Nursing Council of Hong Kong and the strategic goal of improving quality of palliative care proposed in HA Strategic Plan 2017-2022, multiple phases of work were undertaken from July 2015 to December 2017. A pragmatic clinical practice guide for surgical patients facing life-threatening conditions was developed based on assessments on knowledge of and attitudes towards end-of-life care of surgical nurses. Key domains, including preparation for bereavement, nursing care for imminently dying patients and at the dying scene were crystallized according to the results of the assessments and the palliative care checklist formulated by UCH Palliative Care Team. After a year of rollout, its content was refined through analyses of implementation in routine practice and consensus opinions from frontline nurses. Results and Outcomes: This clinical practice guide inspires surgical nurses with the art of care to provide for patients’ comfort, function, and longevity. It provides practical directions and assists nurses to master the skills on advance care planning and learn how to be clear with patients, families and themselves about the realities of the disease pictures. Through the implementation, patients and families are included in the decision process, and their wishes are honored. The delivery of explicit and high-quality palliative care maintains good nurse-to-patient relations and enhances satisfaction of hospital care of patients and families. Conclusion: Surgical nursing has always been up to the unique challenges of the era. This clinical practice guide has become an island of credibility for our nurses as they traverse the often stormy waters of life-limiting illness.

Keywords: End-of-life care, hospice care, palliative care delivery, palliative care in surgery

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489 Building in Language Support in a Hong Kong Chemistry Classroom with English as a Medium of Instruction: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Kai Yip Michael Tsang

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Science writing has played a crucial part in science assessments. This paper reports a study in an area that has received little research attention – how Language across the Curriculum (LAC, i.e. science language and literacy) learning activities in science lessons can increase the science knowledge development of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in Hong Kong. The data comes from a school-based interventional study in chemistry classrooms, with written data from questionnaires, assessments and teachers’ logs and verbal data from interviews and classroom observations. The effectiveness of the LAC teaching and learning activities in various chemistry classrooms were compared and evaluated, with discussion of some implications. Students in the treatment group with lower achieving students received LAC learning and teaching activities while students in the control group with higher achieving students received conventional learning and teaching activities. After the study, they performed better in control group in formative assessments. Moreover, they had a better attitude to learning chemistry content with a richer language support. The paper concludes that LAC teaching and learning activities yielded positive learning outcomes among chemistry learners with low English ability.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, content and language integrated learning, science learning and teaching, language across the curriculum

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488 Preparedness of the Mae Hong Son Province for the Aging Society

Authors: Siwaporn Mahathamnuchock, Krit Phanpanya

Abstract:

This survey study aims 1) to investigate the preparation of Mae Hong Son people for entering into the aging society 2) to study awareness of public health preparedness for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization. The samples used in this study were people aged 55-60 years in Mae Hong Province. Located at Khun Yuam Sub district, Khun Yuam District, Pang Ma Pha Sub district, Pang Ma Pha District, Thung Yao Sub district, Pai District, Mae ka Tuan Sub district, Sob Moei District, Mae Sariang Sub district, Mae Sariang District, Mae Tho Sub district, Mae La Noi District. And Huai Pha Sub district, Muang Mae Hong District. The data were collected from 1,088 people by Stratified sampling Method. The instrument used in this study were 36 items of questionnaire that contains three parts: 1) Sample’s general information 2) The Interview of Mae Hong Son people’s preparation before entering aging society. 3) The Interview about preparedness of health for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization. Then analyzed the data by using percentage and standard deviation. The research found that Mae Hong Son people are preparing for an aging society as followed; psychological, residence, physical health, careers and leisure time on a large scale with an average of 3.81 (SD=0.88), 3.66 (SD=0.99), 3.53(SD=1.04) and 3.51(SD=0.89), respectively. However finances and saving were prepared on moderate scale with an average of 2.84(SD=0.89) and in the awareness of public health preparedness for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization were moderate with an average of 2.99 (SD=1.07).

Keywords: Perception, Preparedness, aging society, Mae Hong Son province

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487 State Rescaling of the Urban Development in Hong Kong after the Reunification: A Case Study of the Planning Process of the Hong Kong Section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link

Authors: Zhihua Xu

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In the era of globalization, the urban question is increasingly being posed in the form of a scale question. Scale theory provides a new perspective for analyzing various dynamics and their influences on urban development. After the reunification, how the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) interacts with the actors at various scales and carries out state rescaling are the keys to exploring the issue of urban development and governance in Hong Kong. This paper examines the entire planning process of the Hong Kong Section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, from project conception, design, to consultation, and fund application, to identify the actors at different scales involved in the process, and analyze the modes and consequences of their interaction. This study shows that after the reunification, the Hong Kong SAR Government takes the initiative to scale up to expand its hinterland. Intergovernmental institutional cooperation is an important mode of state rescaling for the Hong Kong SAR government. Meanwhile, the gradually growing civil society plays an important role in the rescaling of urban development. Local actors use scalar politics to construct discourses and take actions at multiple scales to challenge the government’s proposal and trigger a discussion on the project throughout the Hong Kong society. The case study of Hong Kong can deepen the understanding of state rescaling of territorial organizations in the context of institutional transformation and enrich the theoretical connotation of state rescaling. It also helps the Mainland government to better understand the case of Hong Kong and formulate appropriate.

Keywords: Urban Governance, Hong Kong, state rescaling, scalar politics, Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong express rail link

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486 A Study on How Newlyweds Handle the Difference with Parents on Wedding Arrangements and Its Implication for Services in Hong Kong

Authors: K. M. Yuen

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This research examined the literature review of wedding preparation’s challenges and its developmental tasks of family transition under family life cycle. Five interviewees were invited to share their experiences on the differences with their parents in regard to wedding preparations and coping strategies. Some coping strategies and processes were highlighted for facilitating the family to achieve the developmental tasks during the wedding preparation. However, those coping strategies and processes may only act as the step and the behavior, while “concern towards parents” was found to be the essential element behind these behaviors. In addition to pre-marital counseling, a developmental group was suggested to develop under the framework of family life cycle and its related coping strategies on working with the newlyweds who encountered intergenerational differences in regard to their wedding preparations.

Keywords: Process, difference, Parents, coping strategies, wedding preparation, family life cycle, developmental tasks

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485 The Money Supply Effect on Hong Kong’s Post-1997 Asian Financial Crisis Property Market

Authors: Keith Dominic T. Li

Abstract:

The soaring prices of residential properties in Hong Kong has become a social problem that even the middle class is having dif?iculties in purchasing homes. In making policies to curb the prices, it is important to determine the factors that contribute to the property in?lation. Many researches attribute this in?lation to macroeconomic factors especially the interest rate. However, it is important to remember that Hong Kong is under a Currency Board system which makes its interest rate exogenously determined. This research aims to show the signi?icance of the money supply on Hong Kong residential property prices in post-1997 Asian Financial Crisis period. Using money supply data, macroeconomic fundamentals, and demographic variables from 2000Q1 to 2013Q2, the factors contributed to residential property price in?lation are estimated to calculate the share of each explanatory variable in disparity. It is found that the Hong Kong property market is mainly driven by investment and that the in?lation on Hong Kong residential property prices can explained by the increase in the Hang Seng Index and in the money supply M2.

Keywords: Real Estate, Monetary Economics, Monetary Policy, Hong Kong, property market

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484 Use of Telephone Counselling in Employee Assistance Program

Authors: Andy S.K. Cheng, Samuel Leung, Cindy Kwok, Hector Tsang

Abstract:

Background: Telephone counselling is one of the essential interventions that can be found in most of the Employee Assistance Programs (EAP). The purposes of this study were to (1) explore the trend of the telephone counselling from 2003-2016 in Hong Kong; (2) explore which EAP issue requires more follow-up; and 3) examine the relationship between the EAP issues and demographic data such as gender and job ranking. Method: Date of EAP services usage was collected from EAP providers in Hong Kong during 2003-2016. EAP issues were categorized into two domains, namely workplace issues and personal issues. Each domain has 12 sub-categories. Two hypotheses were formulated in this study (1) there was a gender difference in EAP issues and the follow-up hours; and (2) there was a significant difference between job ranking, EAP issues and follow-up hours. Results: A total of eight hundred and ninety-three valid cases were identified for analysis. Of them, three hundred and forty-three cases sought for follow-up. The duration of follow-up by hours was calculated for each of the follow-up cases. The results of the study shows that the top three workplace issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) workload, (2) supervisor-subordinate relationship; and (3) team member’s relationship. On the other hand, the top three personal issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) parenting/parent-child relationship, (2) family care, and (3) marital relationship. Two-way ANOVA was performed to compare the total follow-up hours (excluding first intake) between gender and EAP issues. There was no statistical significance for gender (p =.891), but a statistically significant main effect for EAP issues (p <.001) was found. Post-hoc analysis (Tukey’s test) showed that total follow-up hour in personal issues was statistically significant higher than that in handling workplace issues (p <.001). However, there was no statistically significant interaction effect between gender and EAP issues (p=.879) and between job ranking and EAP issues (p=.843). Conclusion: Telephone counselling is a very common intervention in addressing EAP issues arising from workplace and personal level in Hong Kong. It was frequently used to handle interpersonal relationships and the service usage was independent of gender and job ranking.

Keywords: interpersonal relationships, employee assistance program, follow-up time, telephone counselling

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483 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation in Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

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Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Petrography, Triassic, Sukhothai zone, Hong Hoi formation, Lampang

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482 Genres as Time Machines: Hong Kong Cinema's Ways of Historicizing

Authors: Chin Pang Lei

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Colonized by the UK, handed over to China, and now as a global financial city, Hong Kong’s history is never easy to write under the dominant discourses of colonialism, nationalism and globalization. In this plight, cinema, regarded as Hong Kong’s most representative cultural form, is used for writing, exploring and questioning the local history of the city. In their writing of the past, Hong Kong directors such as Wong Kar-wai, Stanley Kwan and Tsui Hark have demonstrated alternative ways of historicizing Hong Kong. Despite their interests in different periods of time (Wong is obsessed with the 1960s; Kwan is attracted to the 1930s; Tsui often goes back to the early 20th century), all these directors use genres as their time machines to revisit the past. As a popular cultural form, genres always come with a series of ideologies which define our lives and explain the society. Hence, in a changing society, genres change and complicate themselves with different packages of meanings. Genres function as open-ended and corrigible schemata which can contain multiple themes and various meanings. In Hong Kong, genres, often seen as highly commercial and overly market-oriented, are opportunities for alternative history writing and the exploration of local identities. This paper examines how these Hong Kong directors use the popular forms of genres, such as melodrama, martial art and gangster films, to present the past, and how the stories of the fictional characters, such as prostitutes, martial artists and jobless hooligans mobilize imagination of history. These texts show that genre is a crucial platform for Hong Kong’s post-colonial self-writing. Via genres, history in these films is against official and canonical history as well as grand narrative. Genres as time machines articulate a voice for Hong Kong.

Keywords: Genre, Hong Kong cinema, historicizing, local history, Wong Kar-Wai

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481 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

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Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture

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480 Gendering the Political Crisis in Hong Kong: A Cultural Analysis of Spectatorship on Marvel Superhero Movies in Hong Kong

Authors: Chi S. Lee

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Marvel superhero movies have obtained its unprecedented popularity around the globe. It is a dominant narrative in current scholarship on superhero studies that the political trauma of America, such as attack of September 11, and the masculinity represented in superhero genre are symbolically connected in a way of remasculinization, a standardized plot that before becoming a superhero, a man has to overcome its trauma in his life. Through this standardized plot, American audience finds their pleasure in the spectatorship of equating this plot of remasculinization with the situation of America, rewriting their traumatic memory and resolving around the economic, social, political, and psychological instability of precarity in their own context. Shifting the context to Hong Kong, where Marvel superhero movies have been reaching its dominant status in the local film market, this analysis finds its limitation in explaining the connection between text and context. This article aims to retain this connection through investigation of the Hong Kong audience’s spectatorship. It is argued that the masculinity represented in Marvel superhero movies no longer fits into the stereotypical image of superhero, but presents itself in crisis. This crisis is resolved by the technological excess of the superpower, namely, technological remasculinization. The technological remasculinization offers a sense of futurity through which it is felt that this remasculinization can be achieved in the foreseeable future instead of remaining imaginary and fictional. In this way, the political crisis of Hong Kong is gendered as masculinity in crisis which is worth being remasculinized in the future. This gendering process is a historical product as the symbolic equation between politics and masculinity has for long been encoded in the colonial history of Hong Kong. In short, Marvel superhero’s masculinity offers a sense of masculine hope for the Hong Kong audiences to overcome the political crisis they confront in reality through a postponed identification with the superhero’s masculinity. After the discussion of the Hong Kong audience’s spectatorship on Marvel superhero movies with the insights casted by spectatorship theory, above idea is generated.

Keywords: spectatorship, political crisis in Hong Kong, Marvel superhero movies, technological remasculinization

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479 The Comparison Study of Methanol and Water Extract of Chuanxiong Rhizoma: A Fingerprint Analysis

Authors: Min Xu, Li Chun Zhao, Zhi Chao Hu, Xi Qiang Liu, Man Lai Lee, Chak Shing Yeung, Man Fei Xu, Yuen Yee Kwan, Alan H. M. Ho, Nickie W. K. Chan, Bin Deng, Zhong Zhen Zhao

Abstract:

Background: Chuangxiong Rhizoma (Chuangxion, CX) is one of the most frequently used herbs in Chinese medicine because of its wide therapeutic effects such as vasorelaxation and anti-inflammation. Aim: The purposes of this study are (1) to perform non-targeted / targeted analyses of CX methanol extract and water extract, and compare the present data with previously LC-MS or GC-MS fingerprints; (2) to examine the difference between CX methanol extract and water extract for preliminarily evaluating whether current compound markers of methanol extract from crude CX materials could be suitable for quality control of CX water extract. Method: CX methanol extract was prepared according to the Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards. DG water extract was prepared by boiling with pure water for three times (one hour each). UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS fingerprint analysis was performed by C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) with Agilent 1290 Infinity system. Experimental data were analyzed by Agilent MassHunter Software. A database was established based on 13 published LC-MS and GC-MS CX fingerprint analyses. Total 18 targeted compounds in database were selected as markers to compare present data with previous data, and these markers also used to compare CX methanol extract and water extract. Result: (1) Non-targeted analysis indicated that there were 133 compounds identified in CX methanol extract, while 325 compounds in CX water extract that was more than double of CX methanol extract. (2) Targeted analysis further indicated that 9 in 18 targeted compounds were identified in CX methanol extract, while 12 in 18 targeted compounds in CX water extract that showed a lower lose-rate of water extract when compared with methanol extract. (3) By comparing CX methanol extract and water extract, Senkyunolide A (+1578%), Ferulic acid (+529%) and Senkyunolide H (+169%) were significantly higher in water extract when compared with methanol extract. (4) Other bioactive compounds such as Tetramethylpyrazine were only found in CX water extract. Conclusion: Many new compounds in both CX methanol and water extracts were found by using UHPLC Q-TOF MS/MS analysis when compared with previous published reports. A new standard reference including non-targeted compound profiling and targeted markers functioned especially for quality control of CX water extract (herbal decoction) should be established in future. (This project was supported by Hong Kong Baptist University (FRG2/14-15/109) & Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2014A030313414)).

Keywords: Quality Control, Fingerprint analysis, targeted analysis, Chuanxiong rhizoma

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478 Quick Response Codes in Physio: A Simple Click to Long-Term Oxygen Therapy Education

Authors: K. W. Lee, C. M. Choi, H. C. Tsang, W. K. Fong, Y. K. Cheng, L. Y. Chan, C. K. Yuen, P. W. Lau, Y. L. To, K. C. Chow

Abstract:

QR (Quick Response) Code is a matrix barcode. It enables users to open websites, photos and other information with mobile devices by just snapping the code. In usual Long Term Oxygen Therapy arrangement, piles of LTOT related information like leaflets from different oxygen service providers are given to patients to choose an appropriate plan according to their needs. If these printed materials are transformed into electronic format (QR Code), it would be more environmentally-friendly. More importantly, electronic materials including LTOT equipment operation and dyspnoea relieving techniques also empower patients in long-term disease management. The objective to this study is to investigate the effect of QR code in patient education on new LTOT users. This study was carried out in medical wards of North District Hospital. Adult patients and relatives who followed commands, were able to use smartphones with internet services and required LTOT arrangement on hospital discharge were recruited. In LTOT arrangement, apart from the usual LTOT education booklets which included patients’ personal information (e.g. oxygen titration and six-minute walk test results etc.), extra leaflets consisted of 1. QR codes of LTOT plans from different oxygen service providers, 2. Education materials of dyspnoea management and 3. Instructions on LTOT equipment operation were given. Upon completion of LTOT arrangement, a questionnaire about the use of QR code on patient education was filled in by patients or relatives. A total of 10 new LTOT users were recruited from November 2017 to January 2018. Initially, 70% of them did not know anything about the QR code, but all of them understood its operation after a simple demonstration. 70% of them agreed that it was convenient to use (20% strongly agree, 40% agree, 10% somewhat agree). 80% of them agreed that QR code could facilitate the retrieval of more LTOT related information (10% strongly agree, 70% agree) while 90% agreed that we should continue delivering QR code leaflets to new LTOT users in the future (30% strongly agree, 40% agree, 20% somewhat agree). It is proven that QR code is a convenient and environmentally-friendly tool to deliver information. It is also relatively easy to be introduced to new users. It has received welcoming feedbacks from current users.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Patient Education, QR code, long-term oxygen therapy

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477 Electronic Six-Minute Walk Test (E-6MWT): Less Manpower, Higher Efficiency, and Better Data Management

Authors: K. W. Lee, C. M. Choi, H. C. Tsang, W. K. Fong, Y. K. Cheng, L. Y. Chan, C. K. Yuen, P. W. Lau, Y. L. To, K. C. Chow, T. K. Chui

Abstract:

Six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a sub-maximal exercise test to assess aerobic capacity and exercise tolerance of patients with chronic respiratory disease and heart failure. This has been proven to be a reliable and valid tool and commonly used in clinical situations. Traditional 6MWT is labour-intensive and time-consuming especially for patients who require assistance in ambulation and oxygen use. When performing the test with these patients, one staff will assist the patient in walking (with or without aids) while another staff will need to manually record patient’s oxygen saturation, heart rate and walking distance at every minute and/or carry oxygen cylinder at the same time. Physiotherapist will then have to document the test results in bed notes in details. With the use of electronic 6MWT (E-6MWT), patients wear a wireless oximeter that transfers data to a tablet PC via Bluetooth. Real-time recording of oxygen saturation, heart rate, and distance are displayed. No manual work on recording is needed. The tablet will generate a comprehensive report which can be directly attached to the patient’s bed notes for documentation. Data can also be saved for later patient follow up. This study was carried out in North District Hospital. Patients who followed commands and required 6MWT assessment were included. Patients were assigned to study or control groups. In the study group, patients adopted the E-6MWT while those in control group adopted the traditional 6MWT. Manpower and time consumed were recorded. Physiotherapists also completed a questionnaire about the use of E-6MWT. Total 12 subjects (Study=6; Control=6) were recruited during 11-12/2017. An average number of staff required and time consumed in traditional 6MWT were 1.67 and 949.33 seconds respectively; while in E-6MWT, the figures were 1.00 and 630.00 seconds respectively. Compared to traditional 6MWT, E-6MWT required 67.00% less manpower and 50.10% less in time spent. Physiotherapists (n=7) found E-6MWT is convenient to use (mean=5.14; satisfied to very satisfied), requires less manpower and time to complete the test (mean=4.71; rather satisfied to satisfied), has better data management (mean=5.86; satisfied to very satisfied) and is recommended to be used clinically (mean=5.29; satisfied to very satisfied). It is proven that E-6MWT requires less manpower input with higher efficiency and better data management. It is welcomed by the clinical frontline staff.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Electronic, six-minute walk test

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476 Analysis on Urban Form and Evolution Mechanism of High-Density City: Case Study of Hong Kong

Authors: Yuan Zhang

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Along with large population and great demands for urban development, Hong Kong serves as a typical high-density city with multiple altitudes, advanced three-dimensional traffic system, rich city open space, etc. This paper contributes to analyzing its complex urban form and evolution mechanism from three aspects of view, separately as time, space and buildings. Taking both horizontal and vertical dimension into consideration, this paper provides a perspective to explore the fascinating process of growing and space folding in the urban form of high-density city, also as a research reference for related high-density urban design.

Keywords: Urban Form, Hong Kong, evolution mechanism, high-density city

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475 Conformation Prediction of Human Plasmin and Docking on Gold Nanoparticle

Authors: Wen-Shyong Tzou, Chih-Ching Huang, Chin-Hwa Hu, Ying-Tsang Lo, Tun-Wen Pai, Chia-Yin Chiang, Chung-Hao Li, Hong-Jyuan Jian

Abstract:

Plasmin plays an important role in the human circulatory system owing to its catalytic ability of fibrinolysis. The immediate injection of plasmin in patients of strokes has intrigued many scientists to design vectors that can transport plasmin to the desired location in human body. Here we predict the structure of human plasmin and investigate the interaction of plasmin with the gold-nanoparticle. Because the crystal structure of plasminogen has been solved, we deleted N-terminal domain (Pan-apple domain) of plasminogen and generate a mimic of the active form of this enzyme (plasmin). We conducted a simulated annealing process on plasmin and discovered a very large conformation occurs. Kringle domains 1, 4 and 5 had been observed to leave its original location relative to the main body of the enzyme and the original doughnut shape of this enzyme has been transformed to a V-shaped by opening its two arms. This observation of conformational change is consistent with the experimental results of neutron scattering and centrifugation. We subsequently docked the plasmin on the simulated gold surface to predict their interaction. The V-shaped plasmin could utilize its Kringle domain and catalytic domain to contact the gold surface. Our findings not only reveal the flexibility of plasmin structure but also provide a guide for the design of a plasmin-gold nanoparticle.

Keywords: Molecular Simulation, docking, gold nanoparticle, plasmin

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474 A Comparison of Short- and Long-Haul Vacation Tourists on Evaluation of Attractiveness: The Case of Hong Kong

Authors: Zhaoyu Chen

Abstract:

In this study, an attempt was made to find reasons why tourists go to particular attractions. Tourists may be either motivated by the attractions or simply make the choice to satisfy their needs and desires. Based on the attractions in Hong Kong, this research was conducted to explore the attraction-related concepts to discuss how the attraction system works. Due to the limited studies on exploring the attractiveness of attractions through tourist movement patterns, the study aims to evaluate such indicators to determine whether tourists are motivated by attractiveness or their own needs. The investigation is conducted through the comparison of different source markets - Mainland China, short haul markets (excluding Mainland China) and long haul markets. The latest finding of Departing Visitor Survey (DVS) implemented by the Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) is employed for the analysis. Various tourist movement patterns are drawn from the practical data. The managerial implication to destination management organizations (DMOs) is suggested to better allocate attractions according to the needs of tourists.

Keywords: Hong Kong, attractions, attraction system, tourist movement patterns

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473 Reform of the Law Relating to Personal Property Security

Authors: Ji Lian Yap

Abstract:

This paper will critically consider developments in 2014 in relation to the law relating to security over personal property in Hong Kong. The rules governing the registration of charges under the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance will be examined. Case law relating to personal property security will also be discussed. The transplantation of the floating charge into China’s Property Law will also be considered.

Keywords: Law, Security Law, personal property, reform of the law

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472 The Experiences of Hong Kong Chinese Divorced Wives in Facing the Cancer Death of Their Ex-Husbands

Authors: M. L. Yeung

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With the surge of divorce rate and male cancer onset/death rates, the phenomenon of divorced wives in the facing cancer death of their ex-husbands is not uncommon in Hong Kong. Yet, there is a dearth of study on the experiences of bereaved-divorced wives in the Hong Kong cultural context. This project fills the knowledge gap by conducting a qualitative study for having interviewed four bereaved ex-wives, who returned to ex-husbands’ end-of-life caregiving and eventually grieved for the ex-spousal’s death. From the perspectives of attachment theory and disenfranchised grief in the Hong Kong cultural context, a ‘double-loss’ experience is found in which interviewees suffer from the first loss of divorce and the second loss of ex-husbands’ death. Traumatic childhood experiences, attachment needs, role ambiguity, unresolved emotions and unrecognized grief are found significant in their lived experiences which alert the ‘double-loss’ is worthy of attention. Extending a family-centered end-of-life and bereavement care services to divorced couples is called for, in which validation on the attachment needs, ex-couple reconciliation, and acknowledgement on the disenfranchised grief are essential for social work practice on this group of clienteles specifically in Hong Kong cultural context.

Keywords: marriage, divorce, changing family, disenfranchised grief, ex-spousal death

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471 The Planning Criteria of Block-Unit Redevelopment to Improve Residential Environment: Focused on Redevelopment Project in Seoul

Authors: Hong-Kyu Kim, Hong-Nam Choi, Hyeong-Wook Song, Sungwan Hong

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In Korea, elements that decide the quality of residential environment are not only diverse, but show deviation as well. However, people do not consider these elements and instead, they try to settle the uniformed style of residential environment, which focuses on the construction development of apartment housing and business based plans. Recently, block-unit redevelopment is becoming the standout alternative plan of standardize redevelopment projects, but constructions become inefficient because of indefinite planning criteria. In conclusion, the following research is about analyzing and categorizing the development method and legal ground of redevelopment project district, plan determinant and applicable standard. The purpose of this study is to become a basis in compatible analysis of planning standards that will happen in the future.

Keywords: shape restrictions, improvement of regulation, diversity of residential environment, classification of redevelopment project, planning criteria of redevelopment, special architectural district (SAD)

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470 Client Importance and Audit Quality under Civil Law versus Common Law Societies

Authors: Kelly Grani Yuen

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Accounting scandals and auditing frauds are perceived to be driven by aggressive companies and misrepresentation of audit reports. However, local legal systems and law enforcements may affect the services auditors provide to their ‘important’ clients. Under the civil law and common law jurisdictions, the standard setters, the government, and the regulatory bodies treat cases differently. As such, whether or not different forms of legal systems and extent of law enforcement plays an important role in auditor’s Audit Quality is a question this paper attempts to explore. The paper focuses on the investigation in Asia, where Hong Kong represents the common-law jurisdiction, while Taiwan and China represent the civil law jurisdiction. Only the ten reputable accounting firms are used in this study due to the differences in rankings and establishments of some of the small local audit firms. This will also contribute to the data collected between the years 2007-2013. By focusing on the use of multiple regression based on the dependent (Audit Quality) and independent variables (Client Importance, Law Enforcement, and Press Freedom), six different models are established. Results demonstrate that since different jurisdictions have different legal systems and market regulations, auditor’s treatment on ‘important’ clients will vary. However, with the moderators in place (law enforcement and press freedom), the relationship between client importance and audit quality may be smoothed out. With that in mind, this study contributes to local governments and standard setters’ consideration on legal reform and proper law enforcement in the market. Perhaps, with such modifications on the economic systems, collusion between companies and auditors can finally be put to a halt.

Keywords: Jurisdiction, audit quality, client importance, modified audit opinions

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469 Changing Employment Relations Practices in Hong Kong: Cases of Two Multinational Retail Banks since 1997

Authors: Teresa Shuk-Ching Poon

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This paper sets out to examine the changing employment relations practices in Hong Kong’s retail banking sector over a period of more than 10 years. The major objective of the research is to examine whether and to what extent local institutional influences have overshadowed global market forces in shaping strategic management decisions and employment relations practices in Hong Kong, with a view to drawing implications to comparative employment relations studies. Examining the changing pattern of employment relations, this paper finds the industrial relations strategic choice model (Kochan, McKersie and Cappelli, 1984) appropriate to use as a framework for the study. Four broad aspects of employment relations are examined, including work organisation and job design; staffing and labour adjustment; performance appraisal, compensation and employee development; and labour unions and employment relations. Changes in the employment relations practices in two multinational retail banks operated in Hong Kong are examined in detail. The retail banking sector in Hong Kong is chosen as a case to examine as it is a highly competitive segment in the financial service industry very much susceptible to global market influences. This is well illustrated by the fact that Hong Kong was hit hard by both the Asian and the Global Financial Crises. This sector is also subject to increasing institutional influences, especially after the return of Hong Kong’s sovereignty to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) since 1997. The case study method is used as it is a suitable research design able to capture the complex institutional and environmental context which is the subject-matter to be examined in the paper. The paper concludes that operation of the retail banks in Hong Kong has been subject to both institutional and global market changes at different points in time. Information obtained from the two cases examined tends to support the conclusion that the relative significance of institutional as against global market factors in influencing retail banks’ operation and their employment relations practices is depended very much on the time in which these influences emerged and the scale and intensity of these influences. This case study highlights the importance of placing comparative employment relations studies within a context where employment relations practices in different countries or different regions/cities within the same country could be examined and compared over a longer period of time to make the comparison more meaningful.

Keywords: employment relations, Hong Kong, institutional influences, global market forces, strategic management decisions, retail banks

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468 Examining the Influences of Exchange Programmes on Youths' National Identity: A Hong Kong Case Study

Authors: Annie Y. N. Cheng

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Since the handover of Hong Kong to China, 'National Identity' has become a vital focus promoted by the HKSAR government. According to the poll by the University of Hong Kong’s Public Opinion Programme (2010 – 2015), young people aged between 18 and 29 have the least and decreasing recognition, an average 5.5%, of their Chinese identity. Past research has shown that student participation in exchange programmes and study tours provides the possibility of new formulations of national identity. Since the Policy Address 2008, the HKSAR government has been actively expanding and exploring the feasibility of Mainland exchange programmes to enhance our youths’ understanding of Chineseness and to strengthen their national identity. Schools have been sponsored or subsidized with the costs of Mainland exchange activities through various grants and channels. Considering the significantly increasing number of Hong Kong youths who have participated in these Mainland exchange programmes and study tours, however, the effectiveness of these activities is understudied. At present, there is the lack of systematic research on the impacts of these activities and the ways in which they influence our students’ perceptions of national identity. Using case study approach, this study aims to examine students’ perceptions of their national identity; and evaluate whether the Mainland exchange programmes or study tours have influences on students’ perceptions of national identity. Results show that the influences on national identity varied which were dependent on the objectives and destinations of the programmes. The findings of this study can provide significant feedback for schools to organize meaningful Mainland exchange activities or study tours and inform policy makers how to formulate effective strategies for promoting such exchange activities.

Keywords: National Identity, Hong Kong youth, mainland exchange programme, study tours

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467 A Comparative and Doctrinal Analysis towards the Investigation of a Right to Be Forgotten in Hong Kong

Authors: Jojo Y. C. Mo

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Memories are good. They remind us of people, places and experiences that we cherish. But memories cannot be changed and there may well be memories that we do not want to remember. This is particularly true in relation to information which causes us embarrassment and humiliation or simply because it is private – we all want to erase or delete such information. This desire to delete is recently recognised by the Court of Justice of the European Union in the 2014 case of Google Spain SL, Google Inc. v Agencia Española de Protección de Datos, Mario Costeja González in which the court ordered Google to remove links to some information about the complainant which he wished to be removed. This so-called ‘right to be forgotten’ received serious attention and significantly, the European Council and the European Parliament enacted the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to provide a more structured and normative framework for implementation of right to be forgotten across the EU. This development in data protection laws will, undoubtedly, have significant impact on companies and co-operations not just within the EU but outside as well. Hong Kong, being one of the world’s leading financial and commercial center as well as one of the first jurisdictions in Asia to implement a comprehensive piece of data protection legislation, is therefore a jurisdiction that is worth looking into. This article/project aims to investigate the following: a) whether there is a right to be forgotten under the existing Hong Kong data protection legislation b) if not, whether such a provision is necessary and why. This article utilises a comparative methodology based on a study of primary and secondary resources, including scholarly articles, government and law commission reports and working papers and relevant international treaties, constitutional documents, case law and legislation. The author will primarily engage literature and case-law review as well as comparative and doctrinal analyses. The completion of this article will provide privacy researchers with more concrete principles and data to conduct further research on privacy and data protection in Hong Kong and internationally and will provide a basis for policy makers in assessing the rationale and need for a right to be forgotten in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Privacy, Data protection, Hong Kong, right to be forgotten

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466 Effects of Political, Economic and Educational Considerations on Medium of Instruction (MOI) Policy in Asia: A Hong Kong Example

Authors: Edward Y. W. Chu

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This paper exemplifies how the political and educational considerations have shaped the heavy-handed MOI policy in Hong Kong after its handover to China in 1997. Its result, a significant degeneration of English standard among the non-elite students, will be reported based on a detailed analysis of the public exam statistics available and other empirical studies. The remedial action taken by the Education Bureau out of the economic and educational considerations will be reported with reference to the official documents. The political, economic and educational considerations exemplified in different stages of Mother-tongue MOI policy in Hong Kong are found to be influential in the MOI policy in other Asian countries as well. For example, out of rapid internationalization and marketization, there has been increasing adoption of English as the MOI in post-secondary institutions in China, Japan & South Korea. On the other hand, while colonial languages were firmly made as the MOI in former colonies such as Vietnam and India, they were greatly retrieved upon independence for political and educational reasons. Malaysia also followed the same pattern upon independence but re-introduced partial English MOI policy in late 90s hoping to capitalize favourable globalization benefits. The short-lived policy was abandoned in 2009 because of the perceived political threat of national identity as well as the lack of educational effectiveness. Based on the great majority of Asian countries studied, this paper argues that MOI policy in Asia is much more than an educational issue, and that there is a clear pattern of how decisions of MOI matters are made. Studying the history and development of MOI in Hong Kong and other Asian countries provides a unique angle to view of how Asian countries prepare for the political, economic and educational challenges nowadays.

Keywords: Economics, Politics, medium of instruction, Hong Kong

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465 Teachers' Views on Mother Tongue Language Curriculum Development

Authors: Wai Ha Leung

Abstract:

Mother tongue language (MTL) curriculum is core to school education in most countries/regions' school curriculum. Through mother tongue language learning, students are expected to enhance their understanding of the nation's culture and foster the sense of cultural and ethnic identity. However, MTL education in Hong Kong is complicated by the colonial history. This study examines Hong Kong Chinese language teachers' perceptions of MTL education, and the implication on MTL curriculum development. The questionnaire was administrated to 97 teachers, and interviews were carried out on 17 teachers. Usually, MTL is both the tool with which knowledge and skills are taught and learned and the vehicle for students to learn about the traditions of the countries' literature and culture. In Hong Kong, 95% of the population is of Chinese descent. Traditionally, education in China was a mixture of philosophy, history, politics and literacy. Chinese as an MTL subject in pre-colonial Hong Kong has always been assigned the mission of developing students' cultural identity in addition to the development of linguistic proficiency. During the colonial period, the Chinese Language curriculum shifted to be more language skills based with less emphasis on Chinese culture and moral education. After the sovereignty of Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997, although a new curriculum was implemented in 2002, teaching and learning in school as well as public examinations seem to be remaining language skills oriented instead of culturally based. This deviation from the trend of both Chinese traditional education and global mother tongue language education makes some Chinese language teachers feel confused. In addition, there is comment that in general Hong Kong students' Chinese language proficiency is becoming weaker and weaker in recent years. Thus, effectiveness of the skills oriented language curriculum has come under question. How a language teacher views the aims and objectives of the language subject he or she is teaching has a direct effect on the curriculum delivery and pedagogies used. It is, therefore, important to investigate what is the language teachers' perception of MTL education, and whether the current school curriculum can meet the teachers' expectation as well as achieve the aims of MTL education. Given this context, this study explored the views of Hong Kong Chinese language teachers on MTL education. The data indicate that teachers showed a strong resentment towards the current curriculum. Results may have implications on mother tongue language curriculum development.

Keywords: Curriculum Development, Chinese language education, mother tongue language education, teachers' perception

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464 The Antitumor Activity of Eu (III) and Er (III) Complexes of 3 - (1H-Benzimidazol-2-Yl) - 6 - Methyl - 2 (1H) - Quinolinone

Authors: Xing Lu, Yi-ming Wu, Yan-hong Zhu, Zhen-feng Chen, Hong Liang, Yan Peng

Abstract:

[Eu(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (1),and [Er(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (2),were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a certain extent cytotoxicity against Hep G2, Hela 229, MGC80-3 and BEL-7404 cell lines invitro, with IC50 values in the14.51±1.41μM to 52.49±4.01μM range. Compound 1 exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against MGC80-3 cell line, comparing with free 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-2(1H)- quinolinone. The binding abilities of 1 to DNA were stronger than that of 2. Intercalation is the most probable binding mode for both the complexes.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, quinolinone, Eu(II) complex, Er(III) complex

Procedia PDF Downloads 328